Presentation on theme: "Jennifer Gordon Wright, DVM, MPH, DACVPM"— Presentation transcript:
1 Jennifer Gordon Wright, DVM, MPH, DACVPM Veterinarians at CDCJennifer Gordon Wright, DVM, MPH, DACVPMAuburn University, 1998
2 Presentation Today Why veterinarians and public health? How I came to be where I amOpportunities for employmentVeterinarians at CDCHow can you start a career in the federal or state government?
3 Public Health“ is what we, as a society, do collectively to assure the conditions in which people can be healthy.”Institute of Medicine, The Future of Public Health, 1988
4 Serving the Nation in All Components of theVeterinary OathBeing admitted to the profession of veterinary medicine, I solemnly swear to use my scientific knowledge and skills for the benefit of society through the protection of animal health, the relief of animal suffering, the conservation of animal resources, the promotion of public health, and the advancement of medical knowledge.
5 Links Between Human and Animal Health AntibioticResistanceFoodborneDiseaseEmergingDiseasesBio- Agro-TerrorismMental HealthInjuriesOccupationalHealthEnvironmentalHealth
6 Emerging and Re-emerging Zoonoses, 1996–2005 Nipah VirusHendra virusMultidrug resistant SalmonellaLyme BorreliosisWest NileCryptosporidiosisReston virusVenezuelanEquine EncephalitisE.coli O157Lassa feverYellow feverEbolaMonkeypoxInfluenza A(H5N1)Rift valley FeverNV-CJDRoss River virusEquine morbillivirusNv-CJDE.coli non-O157West Nile VirusReston VirusBrucellosisHantavirus pulmonarysyndromeLeptospirosisRecent outbreaksInfluenza / MadagascarCCHF / Afghanistan, IranTularemia / USA, KosovoYellow fever / Ivory CoastBrucellosis / MongoliaE. coli 0157 / CanadaHantavirus / USBSE-vCJD/ UKNipah virus / MalaysiaAvian Influenza / Hong KongWest Nile / USA, CanadaEbola / Gabon, CongoBSE /CanadaMonkeypox / DRC/ USSARS / GlobalAvian Influenza H5N1
7 Veterinarians Preventing Zoonoses in Clinical Practice RabiesAscarids and HookwormsToxoplasmosisCat Scratch FeverSalmonellosisScabies, ringwormBrucellosis; Undulant feverPsittacosisTick-borne diseasesOtherVeterinarians in clinical practice are practicing public health every day that they step into an exam room and educate a client on the prevention of rabies, parasites, tick borne diseases and other infectious processes.
8 The long and winding road… Bachelor of Science in Microbiology, Auburn UniversityInterest in working at CDC, but in what capacity?DVM from Auburn University, 1998Planned a career in small animal practiceTurning point – a lecture in sophomore PH lecture about a human case of plagueWent into practice for a few yearsFound the EIS program while searching the web for jobsBegan MPH work in 2000, worked at CDCEntered EIS in July 2002Growing up, my parents were always watching the news and I can remember being concerned about Salmonella and “food poisoning” from an early age. When I went to college I knew I wanted to be a veterinarian, but I wasn’t sure what I wanted to major in, until my interest in infectious disease re-surfaced with a microbiology course. I majored in microbiology before going on to veterinary school. Once in vet school I assumed I would graduate and open a small animal, possibly even feline only, practice. It wasn’t until my sophomore year, in our public health course, when we covered a case study that really intrigued me. The case involved a lady who presented to the ER with a fever of unknown origin. In the end, she wound up dying with a diagnosis of plague. Upon investigation, it was determined that her cat had died recently and she had nursed him while he was sick – the cat also had plague and the owner contracted it while caring for her pet. My first thought was – that I didn’t realize plague still existed, and secondly what a cool career that would be, to investigate such cases. But I still didn’t realize that was really a career option, or how to get there.So when I graduated, I went into practice for a few years, first in a feline only practice, then one of the largest small animal practices in Atlanta. After about 6 months in my first job – I came home one night and started surfing the web looking for information on CDC – determined to find a better job and quality of life! I hit upon the EIS program, the Epidemic Intelligence Service, which we’ll talk about in just a few minutes, and quickly realized these were the people who investigated cases such as the one of the woman with plague. I knew this was what I had to do! Unfortunately, the educational requirements for veterinarians included either a public health degree, or public health experience. So I went back to school to get a master’s of public health, kept working in the clinic, and found a part-time job in the foodborne and diarrheal diseases branch at CDC.
9 The Department of Health and Human Services is the principal agency in the United States government for protecting the health and safety of all Americans and for providing essential human services.
10 History of CDCCommunicable Disease Center founded in Atlanta by Dr Joseph W Mountin400 employees, mostly engineers and entomologists working on malaria preventionOriginal focus on vectorborne and zoonosesGrowing awareness that expansion to all communicable diseases was necessary
12 History of CDC continued 1950 – Korean War –threat of biological warfare loomedDr Alexander Langmuir – emphasis on epidemiology and surveillance to guard against threats to public healthCreated CDC’s Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS)“Disease Detectives”
13 Key CDC Successes1955: Surveillance data used to trace polio and influenza epidemics, leading to national guidelines for use of vaccines1962 – 1977: Global smallpox eradicationMid 1970s – 1980s: Identified the cause of Legionnaires Disease and toxic-shock syndrome1981: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome first mentioned in MMWR
14 CDC today One of 13 components of DHHS >8000 employees Headquarters – Atlanta, Morgantown, Ft. Collins, Cincinnati, HyattsvilleState health departmentsInternational reputationApplies research and findings to improve daily livesRespond to health emergenciesNot just infectious diseasesChronic diseases, injuries, workplace hazards, disabilities, environmental health threats
15 CDC in 2006“ The function of developing and protecting health must rank evenabove that of restoring it when it is impaired. “ Hippocrates
16 How CDC operates Jurisdiction over: Cruise ships docking in US portsImportation of people/animals with communicable diseaseOtherwise, need invitation of the state or reservation to assist
17 Veterinarians at CDC As of December 2005 Just under 100 vets currently work at CDC, in multiple capacities
19 Epidemiologists EIS program Outbreak investigations Research and surveillancePolicy recommendations
20 What is the EIS Program?Epidemic Intelligence Service (aka “Disease Detectives”)Established in 1951Mission: To prevent & control communicable diseasesA 2 year training program in applied epidemiologyDomestic and International ServiceRespond to Requests for Epidemiologic AssistanceSo I’ve mentioned EIS several times, and you are probably wondering ‘what is EIS’? Entry into the EIS program would be the next step in a career as public health veterinarian and epidemiologist for many of you, so I’m going to take a few minutes to introduce you to the program. Many of the vets present during the lunch session are EIS “graduates” and will be happy to talk about their experiences with the program.The EIS program was established in 1951, following the start of the Korean war, as an early warning system against biological warfare and man-made epidemics. EIS officers are often referred to as ‘disease detectives”, and are ready to travel at a moment’s notice. EIS is a 2 year training program in applied epidemiology that teaches and reinforces quantitative skills, research design, epidemiologic judgment, communications skills, and surveillance skills. EIS officers respond to requests for domestic and international service. As an EIS officer you never know where you will be going next, so you should always keep your bag packed and your passport ready!
21 EIS continued55-75 officers, 6-9% are veterinariansApplications are due in October for the following year’s classAdditional training or experience in public health encouraged prior to application
22 Legionnaires' Disease/Norwalk virus Where do EIS Officers Train?TB in immigrantsLead screeningLegionnaires' Disease/Norwalk virusCopper in drinking waterCryptosporidiosisE. coliEIS officers train in either a state based position, or a CDC office in Cincinnati, OH; Ft. Collins, CO; Morgantown, WVA or Atlanta, GA. EIS officers have worked with hanta virus, hurricane reponses, norwalk virus outbreaks on cruise ships, the west nile outbreak which began in NYC in 1999, 9/11 and the resultant anthrax outbreaks, just to name a few.EIS Officers played a key role in the global eradication of smallpox; are currently working towards eradicating polio and guinea worm,and discovered how the AIDS virus was transmitted.West Nile Virus/AnthraxForestFiresBombingHurricane HugoCyclosporiasisHanta VirusHurricanesMalariaNorwalk Virus
37 Collecting swamp water for Leptospirosis testing, Florida, 2005
38 Laboratory Animal Veterinarians Care for CDC research animalsHorses, non-human primates, rabbits, ferrets, etcInstrumental during Monkeypox outbreak for arranging transport of potentially infected animals from the Midwest for testing purposesLaboratory animal medicine residency/board certification desirable, but not 100% necessary to work in the office
39 Laboratory researchInfluenza, Salmonella, E. coli, parasitic diseases, as a few examplesAdditional schooling – MS or PhD necessary to assist in most laboratoriesEmerging Infectious Diseases Fellowship
40 Health Educators Healthy Pets, Healthy People website Consultations to TV showsPublicize important health messages“House MD” – message on 3/7 episode regarding risks of eating unpastuerized cheesePrudent use of antimicrobials in veterinary curriculumDevelop educational activities around outbreak investigation/research findings
41 Student/Recent Graduate Opportunities State and local health departmentsOpportunities with USDA, FDAPublic Health Service co-step program*CDC - Summer student employmentCDC – Epidemiology electiveEmerging Infectious Diseases fellowshipSo as a student, the next step for many of you would be to explore electives in public health. You can always check with you state and local health departments for opportunities, as well as the agencies we discussed earlier today. In addition, I will have some flyers out during the lunch session from the University of maryland about some employment and elective opportunities. The PHS has a co-step program for summer opportunities, as well as a paid program for senior students.CDC has a summer student employment program and an epidemiology elective program. Announcements for the summer employment program usually appear on the CDC job openings website during the winter. The epidemiology elective is a mini-introduction to EIS, usually lasting 6-8 weeks with a defined project and a chance to assist with outbreak investigations. Deadlines are May 30th of your junior year and more information can be obtained from this website.*currently limited opportunities due to budget
42 Epidemiology Elective September through June6-8 weeksDefined project, often a chance to assist with outbreak investigationsDeadline: May 30th of your Junior yearNo financial support for living expenses, etc; support for investigation related travel
43 Emerging Infectious Diseases Fellowship 1 year programField of degree must in some way be applicable to research programUS Citizens onlyApplication deadline is mid-February each yearMust be graduating before start fellowship
44 Personnel Systems Civil Service Commissioned Corps of US Public Health ServiceMilitary Services (Air Force, Army)FellowsContractorsI’d like to take just a few minutes to introduce you to the Public Health service, since I’m sure you have been wondering why a navy officer is talking to you about CDC, or better yet, a Delta pilot….There are many personnel systems within the federal governmen and the majority of veterinarians at CDC are either civil servants or officers in the Public Health Service.
45 USPHS Com Corps Veterinarians Who are we and what do we do?How do you get a job with the Com Corps of the Public Health Service?The public health service is a uniformed service, not a branch of the military, although our roots are with the Navy. The public health service is rapidly deployable in the event of a national emergency, such as 9/11 or the hurricanes of recent years. Over 80% of PHS vets had the opportunity to work in Mississippi, Louisiana or Texas this fall following the hurricanes and many of us were on the road with less than 24 hours notice. The PHS also offers some opportunities for students, through a junior co-step program, and a paid program, usually with USDA, during your senior year. The Surgeon General is the top PHS officer.
46 What are our roles? Emergency Response Force for the Nation In addition to serving as the nation’s emergency response force to public health emergencies, PHS officers work in:Epidemiology and surveillance Laboratory animal medicine Pathology and other laboratory sciences Entomology Food safety and zoonoses control Bio/chem terrorism preparedness and security Quarantine and inspection Drug safety Environmental health and toxicology
48 Summary Exciting career opportunities at CDC exist for veterinarians About 35-40% of CDC veterinarians are PHS officersTraining programs are important entry pointsEIS class is a great entry pointEpidemiology elective – invaluable experienceAdditional education (MS, MPH, PhD) a plusIn summary, there are many varied and exciting career opportunities for you as a public health veterinarian. Many times training programs serve as important entry points for a career at a certain agency, such as the EIS program at CDC, or the Veterinary services career program at USDA. We often work in positions not exclusively designated for veterinarians.Veterinarians currently make up approximately half a percent of the US public health workforce and 2.8% of the federal workforce. As a large number of PH veterinarians are projected to retire in the coming years, the need for vets in PH is growing.
49 I hope I’ve been able to give you a quick over view of some of the opportunities available in the federal government, and especially here at CDC. My address is on the screen and I’m always happy to answer questions about EIS, the PHS, or CDC in general.
50 Acknowledgments Nina Marano, CDC Marguerite Pappaniou, U Minn Jennifer McQuiston, CDCDiane Gross, CDCMarta Guerra, CDCSteve McLaughlin, CDCKristy Murray, U Texas - HoustonPaul Arguin, CDCJoel Montgomery, CDCKathy Perdue, NIHLinda Demma, CDC