3Inherent Powers of the Judge PatronagePrestigeJudicial Independence
4Public Perceptions of Judges The public believes thatthe judge is most responsible for ensuring that the system operates fairly and impartiallyand,the public believes that judges arethe principal decision makers in court.
5Judges and the Courtroom Workgroup Judges are “reactive” to the actions of other courtroom workgroup members.Informally, judges share powers with other courtroom workgroup members, i.e., judges accept bail, plea, and sentence recommendations from other courtroom workgroup members.Judge participation varies between and within jurisdictions, i.e., judge shopping by prosecutors and defense attorneys.Sanctions are a two-sided sword for the judge and the courtroom workgroup members.
6Legal Duties of the Judge Include the following: Appoints counsel if necessary.Signs search warrants if needed.Sets or revokes bail.Determines whether there is sufficient probable cause and informs defendant of charges.
7Legal Duties of the Judge Include the following: (cont’d) Rules on pretrial evidentiary motions.Accepts pleas.Preside over trials if necessary, i.e., rules on evidence and procedures and instructs jury.Sets punishment.
8The Role of the Judge in the Steps of Criminal Procedure
9Major Issues for Judges CaseloadsandCourt Administration
10(3 Selection Processes) Selection of JudgesFEDERAL(Article III Judges)Screening by the Deputy Attorney GeneralApproval by the Standing Committee on the Federal Judiciary and the American Bar Association (informal).Presidential or Executive appointmentConfirmation by the SenatePolitical InfluenceSTATE(3 Selection Processes)Gubernatorial or Legislative appointmentsJudicial elections, i.e., partisan and nonpartisan.Merit selections – a hybrid system which involves the governor, the public, the legal profession, and popular elections.All three are politically influenced.
11Selection of State Judges (Trial Courts of General Jurisdiction
12How can federal and state legislatures control the powerof the Judge?How does determinate or indeterminate sentencing affect judges and their decisions?
13What is a lenient sentence? When judges impose lenient sentences – is that a form of misconduct?
14Judicial Accountability versus Judicial Independence Questions How should we judge judges?What issues should be considered?
15Judicial misconduct is a form of ‘misbehavior’ which includes a wide range of behaviors such as making arbitrary decisions, lying under oath, disregarding the law, and corruption, i.e. bribes.Judicial misconduct should not be confused with those judges who become ‘unfit’ for duty due to impaired mental capacity or age. However these are factors in which a judge can become removed from office either forciblyor by law, i.e., age requirements.
16Formal Methods of Judicial Removal from Office FEDERALJudicial Councils Reform and Judicial Conduct and Disability Act.Judicial ConferenceImpeachment proceedings which may include the House of Representatives and the Senate.Sanctions include the imposition of nonpublic sanctions and removal from office.STATEElections/recall elections;Judicial Conduct CommissionsSanctions include: private admonishment, public censure, retirement, or removal from office.
17Judicial Diversity Question The major issue is that females and minorities aresignificantly underrepresented inboth federal and state courts.QuestionWhat are some reasons that might explainthe lack of diversity in our courts?