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CALL TO FREEDOM to the Present

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1 CALL TO FREEDOM--1865 to the Present
4/11/2017 Chapter 17 THE COLD WAR ( ) Section 1: The World After War Section 2: The Roots of the Cold War Section 3: The Truman Years Section 4: The Korean War Section 5: Cold War Fears Chapter 17

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6 Answer in your notebook:
Should the United States spend billions of dollars to rebuild the economies of war-torn countries? (Even if the country was our enemy during the war?)

7 OBJECTIVES Section 2: The Roots of the Cold War
What was the purpose of the Marshall Plan, and what was the result of the plan for Europe? What were the major events of the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union from ? What U.S. foreign policy changes arose from the threat of communism in the postwar world?

8 The Marshall Plan Section 2: The Roots of the Cold War Purpose
to create postwar economic recovery and to rebuild the nations of Europe to prevent communism from spreading to Western European nations Between l948 and 1951 Congress approved $13 billion for Marshall Plan aid.

9 Major Events of the Cold War Between the U.S. and the Soviet Union
Section 2: The Roots of the Cold War Major Events of the Cold War Between the U.S. and the Soviet Union June 28, 1948, the Soviets blocked all rail and highway traffic between western Germany and Berlin in an attempted takeover. The same month the U.S. and British began the Berlin Airlift to supply the people with food and supplies. In May 1949 the Soviets lifted the blockade and Germany was divided into two nations.

10 Changes in U.S. Foreign Policy Due to the Threat of Communism
Section 2: The Roots of the Cold War Changes in U.S. Foreign Policy Due to the Threat of Communism U.S. adopted a new foreign policy, known as containment, to stop the spread of communism. April 1949 the U.S. and nine Western European nations formed the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and pledged to defend one another. Canada and Iceland joined later.

11 THE UN HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION
UN human rights efforts were captured in three major statements: Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948). The Declaration established a series of universal human rights that were to be binding on all nations.

12 UN Human Rights Convention against Genocide (1948). This convention, passed unanimously by the General Assembly, was aimed at preventing the atrocities like those carried out by the Nazis in World War II. Geneva Conventions (1949). The purpose of these conventions was to “civilize” war, especially with respect to the treatment of prisoners and enemy combatants.

13 State control was enforced in two ways
Spies Soviet spies infiltrated western countries to learn their secrets as well as learn if anyone from their communist countries had switched sides. Secret Police The secret police arrested people who spoke out against the government or were otherwise considered a threat.

14 This was not just in the U.S.S.R
While there are some differences between communist countries, for the most part they were and still are very restrictive about Human Rights and stick to the main economic principles of communism. While there are some differences between communist countries, for the most part they were and still are very restrictive about Human Rights and stick to the main economic principles of communism.

15 Cold War Alignments: 1953

16 Cold War Alignments: 1980

17 Berlin Wall: 1961 In a masterfully-planned operation, spanning just 24 hours, the streets of Berlin were torn up, barricades of paving stones were erected, tanks were gathered at crucial places and subways and local railway services were interrupted, so that within a day the West of Berlin was completely sealed off from the East. As of that same day inhabitants of East Berlin and East Germany were no longer allowed to enter the West of the city (including the 60,000 who had been commuters).

18 Berlin Wall built to stop East Germans from fleeing to the west!

19 The wall was built to split East and West Berlin in 1961 and stood until 1989.
About people were killed trying to cross over, under, or through this wall to join their families and friends on the other side. It eventually extended for over 100 miles.

20 Berlin Wall in the 1980’s

21 Political Cartoons The Cold War

22 What makes a good political cartoon?
A recognizable issue Symbols Exaggeration Humor & Irony Captions Point of View Caricatures (funny portraits)

23 Analyze this political cartoon:

24 Analyze:

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30 Analyze:

31 Changes in U.S. Foreign Policy Due to the Threat of Communism
Section 2: The Roots of the Cold War (continued) Changes in U.S. Foreign Policy Due to the Threat of Communism U.S. quadrupled its defense spending and Truman approved the development of more powerful nuclear weapons. U.S. began to move away from isolationism and strengthen its alliances.

32 OBJECTIVES Section 3: The Truman Years
What steps did the U.S. government take to help returning veterans? What problems did the U.S. economy face in the postwar period? What problems did Truman face in the 1948 presidential election, and why did he win?

33 Helping Returning Veterans
Section 3: The Truman Years Helping Returning Veterans Most of the 15 million returning veterans needed jobs and the government encouraged women to stop working. The GI Bill of Rights (1944) offered veterans generous benefits such as affordable home and business loans. The same law provided financial aid for millions of vets to attend colleges and technical schools.

34 Problems of the U.S. Economy in the Postwar Years
Section 3: The Truman Years Problems of the U.S. Economy in the Postwar Years In 1946 the inflation rate was more than 18 percent. In April 1946 United Mine Workers went on strike and Truman placed them under government control when a settlement could not be reached. In 1947 Ohio senator Robert Taft led the drive to pass the Taft-Hartley Act, which made closed shops illegal.

35 Truman’s Problems in the 1948 Election
Section 3: The Truman Years Truman’s Problems in the 1948 Election Labor unrest caused many Americans to question Truman’s ability as president. Republicans had gained control of Congress for the first time in 18 years. Some Democrats joined a “dump Truman” movement and others formed the new Dixiecrat party and a new Progressive Party thus splitting their votes.

36 Truman’s Victory in the 1948 Election
Section 3: The Truman Years Truman’s Victory in the 1948 Election Truman won union support by vetoing the Taft-Hartley Act. He won the African American vote with his support for civil rights. Many Progressives switched to Truman when it looked as if the Republicans would win. The recovering economy was also important.

37 Truman Decides Not to Run for Re-election
Answer the following questions as you watch the videos…

38 1. Who would their audience be
1. Who would their audience be? Would it be a general audience, or would they want to target a specific group? 2. What would they want viewers to think about the candidate? 3. What arguments would they want to make? How would they support those arguments? 4. How would they want viewers to feel about the candidate? 5. How would they want viewers to think and feel about the candidate’s opponent?

39 OBJECTIVES Section 4: The Korean War
Why did the relationship between the United States and China grow worse? What were the major events of the Korean War? How did the Korean War affect U.S. politics?

40 Relations Between the U.S. and China Grow Worse
Section 4: The Korean War Relations Between the U.S. and China Grow Worse Suspicious of any communist government, the U.S. backed the Nationalists during the Chinese civil war. Once Mao Zedong, the communist leader took power, the U.S. refused to recognize his government and kept diplomatic relations with the Nationalists in Taiwan.

41 Relations Between the U.S. and China Grow Worse
Section 4: The Korean War (continued) Relations Between the U.S. and China Grow Worse Many Americans feared that the People’s Republic of China would join the Soviet Union to threaten the free world. Relations grew worse when the Chinese sent aid to N. Korea during the Korean War.

42 Major Events of the Korean War
Section 4: The Korean War Major Events of the Korean War Following WWII, Korea had been temporarily divided between the U.S. and Soviet Union. A communist, Soviet backed government took power in North Korea and in June 1950 invaded South Korea. In June 27, 1950, the UN Security Council called on UN members to support South Korea and General Douglas MacArthur becomes commander of UN troops.

43 Major Events of the Korean War
Section 4: The Korean War Major Events of the Korean War (continued) In Early 1951, UN forces drove the North Koreans back across the 38th parallel and the fighting came to a standstill. On July 27, 1953, the two sides signed a cease-fire that effectively ended the war.

44 The Korean War and American Politics
Section 4: The Korean War The Korean War and American Politics The Korean War became a major issue in the presidential election of 1952. Truman decided not to seek re-election knowing many voters blamed him for the Korean War. The Democrats nominated Adlai E. Stevenson.

45 The Korean War and American Politics
Section 4: The Korean War (continued) The Korean War and American Politics The Republicans nominated General Dwight D. Eisenhower, a respected war hero who had helped end the Korean War and took a firm stand against the spread of communism. Eisenhower’s policies won him the office of the presidency.

46 Tensions During the 1940’s, political tensions were building in Korea
Japan had ruled Korea from , but had been driven out by the United States and the Soviet Union. 1945-the Allies had divided Korea into two zones, the Soviets occupied the northern zone and U.S. troops occupied the southern zone.

47 North and South Korea https://www.cia.gov/

48 Divided Korea North Korea was led by communist leader Kim Il Sung
South Korea was led by Syngman Rhee and called itself the Republic of Korea Syngman Rhee Kim Il Sung

49 U.S. Involvement South Korea was unstable economically
The United States feared that South Korea would fall to communism U.S. government helped to build up the South Korean military Both the U.S. and the Soviets removed their troops from Korea in 1949.

50 Fighting Begins North Korea invaded South Korea on June 25, 1950.
The UN became involved and asked for an immediate cease fire The Soviets were boycotting the U.N. due to the denial of admittance of China to the world governing body

51 Support for South Korea
June 27th-The U.N. Security Council labeled North Korea as an aggressor and offered support to South Korea The U.S. sponsored this resolution U.S. forces entered South Korea under the direction General MacArthur 15 other countries gave military and monetary support, however no other country gave the same support that the United States did.

52 Split Power By September the North Koreans had pushed the U.S. and South Korean forces into a retreat September 15, 1950, General MacArthur led a counterattack and recaptured Seoul, which is South Korea’s capital The UN and U.S. forces were hit with a counterattack from the North Koreans and eventually had to settle with a defensive line at the 38th parallel

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54 China’s Involvement China aided North Korea in late November.
Due to China’s involvement, General MacArthur called for a major expansion of the war. His proposal included: Blockading China’s coast Invading the interior of China

55 Conflict Regarding the Plan
Supporters of MacArthur’s plan said it would overthrow the Communist regime in China Opponents argued that blockading China could entice the Soviets to become involved

56 Truman’s Response President Truman opposed MacArthur’s plan
Truman removed MacArthur from his position in April 1951 The war had reached a stalemate by the summer of 1951. The war became a hot button issue in election of 1952

57 Election of 1952 Republican candidate Dwight D. Eisenhower
Democrat candidate Adlai Stevenson Eisenhower promised to end the Korean war yet still resist the spread of Communism Eisenhower won the electoral college President Eisenhower \

58 Answer the following questions as you watch the video:
1. Who would their audience be? Would it be a general audience, or would they want to target a specific group? 2. What would they want viewers to think about the candidate? 3. What arguments would they want to make? How would they support those arguments? 4. How would they want viewers to feel about the candidate? 5. How would they want viewers to think and feel about the candidate’s opponent?

59 The War Ends Eisenhower stayed true to his word to end the war
Bombing raids increased by the U.S. in North Korea in May of 1953 July 27th, 1953 an armistice was agreed upon. The outcome of the war was the same dividing line that was present before the start of the war, approximately around the 38th parallel

60 Final Outcome

61 OBJECTIVES Section 5: Cold War Fears What caused the new Red Scare?
How did the government respond to the perceived threat of communism in the United States? What role did Senator Joseph McCarthy play in the new Red Scare?

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63 U.S. Government’s Response to the New Red Scare
Section 5: Cold War Fears (continued) U.S. Government’s Response to the New Red Scare In 1951 the spy trial of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg drew national attention.

64 U.S. Government’s Response to the New Red Scare
Section 5: Cold War Fears (continued) U.S. Government’s Response to the New Red Scare President Truman created the Loyalty Review Board in March 1947 to look into the background of thousands of federal workers. In 1950 Congress passed the Internal Security Act – law requiring registration of suspected communist groups and granting the federal government power to arrest anyone suspected of disloyalty during national emergencies.

65 Causes of the New Red Scare
Section 5: Cold War Fears Causes of the New Red Scare The Cold War created strong fears of communists and communism in the U.S. The Soviet Union’s expanded control over Eastern Europe worried Americans. Communist successes in China and involvement in the Korean War increased anticommunist feeling in the U.S.

66 U.S. Government’s Response to the New Red Scare
Section 5: Cold War Fears U.S. Government’s Response to the New Red Scare In May 1938 Congress created the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) to look into disloyalty and harmful foreign influences in the U.S. In 1947 HUAC began a series of widely publicized hearings examining suspected communists in the movie industry.

67 Nothing new A. Mitchell Palmer Mass Hysteria
Terrorist attacks (Wall St.) Deportations

68 Sen. Joseph McCarthy

69 HUAC Questions asked 5th Amendment

70 -June 1949- What is the Washington Post cartoonist portraying in his drawing?

71 -April 1949- "You read books, eh?" During the postwar anti-communist campaign hundreds of elementary and high school teachers were investigated and lost their jobs, sometimes as a result of being named by proliferating "anti-subversive" groups and individuals. Some individuals compiled and circulated their own blacklists, which were accepted by frightened employers and casting directors who feared being blacklisted themselves if they sought facts and fair play. The motives of some self-serving or vindictive accusers were summed up by Herb Block in a phrase: "If you can't crush the commies, you can nail a neighbor."

72 Misconceptions Name Length Soviets painting the world red with blood

73 Too Far

74 Senator Joseph McCarthy and the New Red Scare
Section 5: Cold War Fears Senator Joseph McCarthy and the New Red Scare Republican Joseph McCarthy, a senator from Wisconsin, helped stir up Cold War fears by blaming the spread of communism on the presence of traitors within the U.S. government. In late 1953 McCarthy declared that there were Communists in the U.S. military. McCarthy was ridiculed for having no real proof.

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76 Senator Joseph McCarthy and the New Red Scare
Section 5: Cold War Fears (continued) Senator Joseph McCarthy and the New Red Scare U.S. senators decided to hold the Army-McCarthy hearings – a series of televised hearings to investigate his charges. The hearings show that McCarthy was a bully and in 1954 the Senate decided to condemn McCarthy.

77 McCarthyism and the Second Red Scare
American Cold War Culture and Law

78 Entertainment Industry
Hollywood Ten -Even W. Disney had to appear before HUAC. -The ten men were convicted of contempt. Their appeals of course were denied, all served prison terms of up to one year.

79 World view Political chill in America Joseph McCarthy

80 Senator Joseph McCarthy
Wisconsin Republican facing defeat in election of 1950 Turns to a platform of anti-Communism

81 The List “I have here a list of 205 names that were made known to the Secretary of State as being members of the Communist Party and who nevertheless are still working and shaping policy in the State Department.”

82 Definition of McCarthyism
The fear, suspicion, and scapegoating that surrounded McCarthy, his accusations and the general curtailment of civil rights during the Cold War era. It was a witch-hunt style campaign to silence critics of the Cold War.

83 House UnAmerican Activities Committee (HUAC)
Subcommittee of the House of Representatives Purpose: To root out “subversion” of the American system The Question: “Are you now or have you ever been a member of the Communist Party?”

84 The McCarran Act Formal name: The Internal Security Act
Requires communist organizations to register with the Subversive Activities Control Board Authorizes the arrest of suspect persons during national emergency Six concentration camps built for this purpose

85 The Immigration and Nationality Act
Another McCarran-authored law Barred people who were deemed either “subversive” or “homosexual” from becoming citizens or even visiting the U.S. Power to deport immigrants who were members of the Communist Party, even if they were citizens In effect until 1973

86 Examples of McCarthyism
In NYC, citizens must take loyalty oath to receive a fishing license FDR’s New Deal is re-evaluated as “a socialist conspiracy” and “20 years of treason” Jonas Salk invents vaccine for Polio; a congressman suggests that it be distributed to all school-age children for free. Eisenhower’s Secretary of Health rejects the idea as an attempt to “socialize medicine through the backdoor.”

87 President Truman Expands the federal bureaucracy.
National Security Act of 1947 NSC DoD CIA

88 President Truman Expands fed govt size and power Executive Order 9835
Barred members of the Communist Party from federal employment. Fascists too States started to do this too Loyalty oaths

89 Success Alger Hiss Julius Rosenberg

90 Failure Ethel Rosenberg Ayn Rand


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