Presentation on theme: "CALL TO FREEDOM to the Present"— Presentation transcript:
1CALL TO FREEDOM--1865 to the Present 4/11/2017Chapter 17THE COLD WAR ( )Section 1: The World After WarSection 2: The Roots of the Cold WarSection 3: The Truman YearsSection 4: The Korean WarSection 5: Cold War FearsChapter 17
6Answer in your notebook: Should the United States spend billions of dollars to rebuild the economies of war-torn countries? (Even if the country was our enemy during the war?)
7OBJECTIVES Section 2: The Roots of the Cold War What was the purpose of the Marshall Plan, and what was the result of the plan for Europe?What were the major events of the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union from ?What U.S. foreign policy changes arose from the threat of communism in the postwar world?
8The Marshall Plan Section 2: The Roots of the Cold War Purpose to create postwar economic recovery and to rebuild the nations of Europeto prevent communism from spreading to Western European nationsBetween l948 and 1951 Congress approved $13 billion for Marshall Plan aid.
9Major Events of the Cold War Between the U.S. and the Soviet Union Section 2: The Roots of the Cold WarMajor Events of the Cold War Between the U.S. and the Soviet UnionJune 28, 1948, the Soviets blocked all rail and highway traffic between western Germany and Berlin in an attempted takeover.The same month the U.S. and British began the Berlin Airlift to supply the people with food and supplies.In May 1949 the Soviets lifted the blockade and Germany was divided into two nations.
10Changes in U.S. Foreign Policy Due to the Threat of Communism Section 2: The Roots of the Cold WarChanges in U.S. Foreign Policy Due to the Threat of CommunismU.S. adopted a new foreign policy, known as containment, to stop the spread of communism.April 1949 the U.S. and nine Western European nations formed the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and pledged to defend one another. Canada and Iceland joined later.
11THE UN HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION UN human rights efforts were captured in three major statements:Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948). The Declaration established a series of universal human rights that were to be binding on all nations.
12UN Human RightsConvention against Genocide (1948). This convention, passed unanimously by the General Assembly, was aimed at preventing the atrocities like those carried out by the Nazis in World War II.Geneva Conventions (1949). The purpose of these conventions was to “civilize” war, especially with respect to the treatment of prisoners and enemy combatants.
13State control was enforced in two ways SpiesSoviet spies infiltrated western countries to learn their secrets as well as learn if anyone from their communist countries had switched sides.Secret PoliceThe secret police arrested people who spoke out against the government or were otherwise considered a threat.
14This was not just in the U.S.S.R While there are some differences between communist countries, for the most part they were and still are very restrictive about Human Rights and stick to the main economic principles of communism.While there are some differences between communist countries, for the most part they were and still are very restrictive about Human Rights and stick to the main economic principles of communism.
17Berlin Wall: 1961In a masterfully-planned operation, spanning just 24 hours, the streets of Berlin were torn up, barricades of paving stones were erected, tanks were gathered at crucial places and subways and local railway services were interrupted, so that within a day the West of Berlin was completely sealed off from the East.As of that same day inhabitants of East Berlin and East Germany were no longer allowed to enter the West of the city (including the 60,000 who had been commuters).
18Berlin Wall built to stop East Germans from fleeing to the west!
19The wall was built to split East and West Berlin in 1961 and stood until 1989. About people were killed trying to cross over, under, or through this wall to join their families and friends on the other side.It eventually extended for over 100 miles.
31Changes in U.S. Foreign Policy Due to the Threat of Communism Section 2: The Roots of the Cold War(continued)Changes in U.S. Foreign Policy Due to the Threat of CommunismU.S. quadrupled its defense spending and Truman approved the development of more powerful nuclear weapons.U.S. began to move away from isolationism and strengthen its alliances.
32OBJECTIVES Section 3: The Truman Years What steps did the U.S. government take to help returning veterans?What problems did the U.S. economy face in the postwar period?What problems did Truman face in the 1948 presidential election, and why did he win?
33Helping Returning Veterans Section 3: The Truman YearsHelping Returning VeteransMost of the 15 million returning veterans needed jobs and the government encouraged women to stop working.The GI Bill of Rights (1944) offered veterans generous benefits such as affordable home and business loans.The same law provided financial aid for millions of vets to attend colleges and technical schools.
34Problems of the U.S. Economy in the Postwar Years Section 3: The Truman YearsProblems of the U.S. Economy in the Postwar YearsIn 1946 the inflation rate was more than 18 percent.In April 1946 United Mine Workers went on strike and Truman placed them under government control when a settlement could not be reached.In 1947 Ohio senator Robert Taft led the drive to pass the Taft-Hartley Act, which made closed shops illegal.
35Truman’s Problems in the 1948 Election Section 3: The Truman YearsTruman’s Problems in the 1948 ElectionLabor unrest caused many Americans to question Truman’s ability as president.Republicans had gained control of Congress for the first time in 18 years.Some Democrats joined a “dump Truman” movement and others formed the new Dixiecrat party and a new Progressive Party thus splitting their votes.
36Truman’s Victory in the 1948 Election Section 3: The Truman YearsTruman’s Victory in the 1948 ElectionTruman won union support by vetoing the Taft-Hartley Act.He won the African American vote with his support for civil rights.Many Progressives switched to Truman when it looked as if the Republicans would win.The recovering economy was also important.
37Truman Decides Not to Run for Re-election Answer the following questions as you watch the videos…
381. Who would their audience be 1. Who would their audience be? Would it be a general audience, or would they want to target a specific group? 2. What would they want viewers to think about the candidate? 3. What arguments would they want to make? How would they support those arguments? 4. How would they want viewers to feel about the candidate? 5. How would they want viewers to think and feel about the candidate’s opponent?
39OBJECTIVES Section 4: The Korean War Why did the relationship between the United States and China grow worse?What were the major events of the Korean War?How did the Korean War affect U.S. politics?
40Relations Between the U.S. and China Grow Worse Section 4: The Korean WarRelations Between the U.S. and China Grow WorseSuspicious of any communist government, the U.S. backed the Nationalists during the Chinese civil war.Once Mao Zedong, the communist leader took power, the U.S. refused to recognize his government and kept diplomatic relations with the Nationalists in Taiwan.
41Relations Between the U.S. and China Grow Worse Section 4: The Korean War(continued)Relations Between the U.S. and China Grow WorseMany Americans feared that the People’s Republic of China would join the Soviet Union to threaten the free world.Relations grew worse when the Chinese sent aid to N. Korea during the Korean War.
42Major Events of the Korean War Section 4: The Korean WarMajor Events of the Korean WarFollowing WWII, Korea had been temporarily divided between the U.S. and Soviet Union.A communist, Soviet backed government took power in North Korea and in June 1950 invaded South Korea.In June 27, 1950, the UN Security Council called on UN members to support South Korea and General Douglas MacArthur becomes commander of UN troops.
43Major Events of the Korean War Section 4: The Korean WarMajor Events of the Korean War(continued)In Early 1951, UN forces drove the North Koreans back across the 38th parallel and the fighting came to a standstill.On July 27, 1953, the two sides signed a cease-fire that effectively ended the war.
44The Korean War and American Politics Section 4: The Korean WarThe Korean War and American PoliticsThe Korean War became a major issue in the presidential election of 1952.Truman decided not to seek re-election knowing many voters blamed him for the Korean War.The Democrats nominated Adlai E. Stevenson.
45The Korean War and American Politics Section 4: The Korean War(continued)The Korean War and American PoliticsThe Republicans nominated General Dwight D. Eisenhower, a respected war hero who had helped end the Korean War and took a firm stand against the spread of communism.Eisenhower’s policies won him the office of the presidency.
46Tensions During the 1940’s, political tensions were building in Korea Japan had ruled Korea from , but had been driven out by the United States and the Soviet Union.1945-the Allies had divided Korea into two zones, the Soviets occupied the northern zone and U.S. troops occupied the southern zone.
48Divided Korea North Korea was led by communist leader Kim Il Sung South Korea was led by Syngman Rhee and called itself the Republic of KoreaSyngman RheeKim Il Sung
49U.S. Involvement South Korea was unstable economically The United States feared that South Korea would fall to communismU.S. government helped to build up the South Korean militaryBoth the U.S. and the Soviets removed their troops from Korea in 1949.
50Fighting Begins North Korea invaded South Korea on June 25, 1950. The UN became involved and asked for an immediate cease fireThe Soviets were boycotting the U.N. due to the denial of admittance of China to the world governing body
51Support for South Korea June 27th-The U.N. Security Council labeled North Korea as an aggressor and offered support to South KoreaThe U.S. sponsored this resolutionU.S. forces entered South Korea under the direction General MacArthur15 other countries gave military and monetary support, however no other country gave the same support that the United States did.
52Split PowerBy September the North Koreans had pushed the U.S. and South Korean forces into a retreatSeptember 15, 1950, General MacArthur led a counterattack and recaptured Seoul, which is South Korea’s capitalThe UN and U.S. forces were hit with a counterattack from the North Koreans and eventually had to settle with a defensive line at the 38th parallel
54China’s Involvement China aided North Korea in late November. Due to China’s involvement, General MacArthur called for a major expansion of the war. His proposal included:Blockading China’s coastInvading the interior of China
55Conflict Regarding the Plan Supporters of MacArthur’s plan said it would overthrow the Communist regime in ChinaOpponents argued that blockading China could entice the Soviets to become involved
56Truman’s Response President Truman opposed MacArthur’s plan Truman removed MacArthur from his position in April 1951The war had reached a stalemate by the summer of 1951.The war became a hot button issue in election of 1952
57Election of 1952 Republican candidate Dwight D. Eisenhower Democrat candidate Adlai StevensonEisenhower promised to end the Korean war yet still resist the spread of CommunismEisenhower won the electoral collegePresident Eisenhower\
58Answer the following questions as you watch the video: 1. Who would their audience be? Would it be a general audience, or would they want to target a specific group?2. What would they want viewers to think about the candidate?3. What arguments would they want to make? How would they support those arguments?4. How would they want viewers to feel about the candidate?5. How would they want viewers to think and feel about the candidate’s opponent?
59The War Ends Eisenhower stayed true to his word to end the war Bombing raids increased by the U.S. in North Korea in May of 1953July 27th, 1953 an armistice was agreed upon.The outcome of the war was the same dividing line that was present before the start of the war, approximately around the 38th parallel
61OBJECTIVES Section 5: Cold War Fears What caused the new Red Scare? How did the government respond to the perceived threat of communism in the United States?What role did Senator Joseph McCarthy play in the new Red Scare?
63U.S. Government’s Response to the New Red Scare Section 5: Cold War Fears(continued)U.S. Government’s Response to the New Red ScareIn 1951 the spy trial of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg drew national attention.
64U.S. Government’s Response to the New Red Scare Section 5: Cold War Fears(continued)U.S. Government’s Response to the New Red ScarePresident Truman created the Loyalty Review Board in March 1947 to look into the background of thousands of federal workers.In 1950 Congress passed the Internal Security Act – law requiring registration of suspected communist groups and granting the federal government power to arrest anyone suspected of disloyalty during national emergencies.
65Causes of the New Red Scare Section 5: Cold War FearsCauses of the New Red ScareThe Cold War created strong fears of communists and communism in the U.S.The Soviet Union’s expanded control over Eastern Europe worried Americans.Communist successes in China and involvement in the Korean War increased anticommunist feeling in the U.S.
66U.S. Government’s Response to the New Red Scare Section 5: Cold War FearsU.S. Government’s Response to the New Red ScareIn May 1938 Congress created the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) to look into disloyalty and harmful foreign influences in the U.S.In 1947 HUAC began a series of widely publicized hearings examining suspected communists in the movie industry.
67Nothing new A. Mitchell Palmer Mass Hysteria Terrorist attacks (Wall St.)Deportations
70-June 1949-What is the Washington Post cartoonist portraying in his drawing?
71-April 1949-"You read books, eh?"During the postwar anti-communist campaign hundreds of elementary and high school teachers were investigated and lost their jobs, sometimes as a result of being named by proliferating "anti-subversive" groups and individuals. Some individuals compiled and circulated their own blacklists, which were accepted by frightened employers and casting directors who feared being blacklisted themselves if they sought facts and fair play. The motives of some self-serving or vindictive accusers were summed up by Herb Block in a phrase: "If you can't crush the commies, you can nail a neighbor."
72MisconceptionsNameLengthSoviets painting the world red with blood
74Senator Joseph McCarthy and the New Red Scare Section 5: Cold War FearsSenator Joseph McCarthy and the New Red ScareRepublican Joseph McCarthy, a senator from Wisconsin, helped stir up Cold War fears by blaming the spread of communism on the presence of traitors within the U.S. government.In late 1953 McCarthy declared that there were Communists in the U.S. military.McCarthy was ridiculed for having no real proof.
76Senator Joseph McCarthy and the New Red Scare Section 5: Cold War Fears(continued)Senator Joseph McCarthy and the New Red ScareU.S. senators decided to hold the Army-McCarthy hearings – a series of televised hearings to investigate his charges.The hearings show that McCarthy was a bully and in 1954 the Senate decided to condemn McCarthy.
77McCarthyism and the Second Red Scare American Cold War Culture and Law
78Entertainment Industry Hollywood Ten-Even W. Disney had to appear before HUAC.-The ten men were convicted of contempt. Their appeals of course were denied, all served prison terms of up to one year.
79World viewPolitical chill in AmericaJoseph McCarthy
80Senator Joseph McCarthy Wisconsin Republican facing defeat in election of 1950Turns to a platform of anti-Communism
81The List“I have here a list of 205 names that were made known to the Secretary of State as being members of the Communist Party and who nevertheless are still working and shaping policy in the State Department.”
82Definition of McCarthyism The fear, suspicion, and scapegoating that surrounded McCarthy, his accusations and the general curtailment of civil rights during the Cold War era. It was a witch-hunt style campaign to silence critics of the Cold War.
83House UnAmerican Activities Committee (HUAC) Subcommittee of the House of RepresentativesPurpose: To root out “subversion” of the American systemThe Question: “Are you now orhave you ever been a member ofthe Communist Party?”
84The McCarran Act Formal name: The Internal Security Act Requires communist organizations to register with the Subversive Activities Control BoardAuthorizes the arrest of suspect persons during national emergencySix concentration campsbuilt for this purpose
85The Immigration and Nationality Act Another McCarran-authored lawBarred people who were deemed either “subversive” or “homosexual” from becoming citizens or even visiting the U.S.Power to deport immigrants who were members of the Communist Party, even if they were citizensIn effect until 1973
86Examples of McCarthyism In NYC, citizens must take loyalty oath to receive a fishing licenseFDR’s New Deal is re-evaluated as “a socialist conspiracy” and “20 years of treason”Jonas Salk invents vaccine for Polio; a congressman suggests that it be distributed to all school-age children for free. Eisenhower’s Secretary of Health rejects the idea as an attempt to “socialize medicine through the backdoor.”
87President Truman Expands the federal bureaucracy. National Security Act of 1947NSCDoDCIA
88President Truman Expands fed govt size and power Executive Order 9835 Barred members of the Communist Party from federal employment.Fascists tooStates started to do this tooLoyalty oaths