Presentation on theme: "B ELL R INGER #1: M ONDAY, 1/10/10 What does the word chivalry mean to you? Who comes to mind when you think of chivalry? Have ideals about chivalry changed."— Presentation transcript:
B ELL R INGER #1: M ONDAY, 1/10/10 What does the word chivalry mean to you? Who comes to mind when you think of chivalry? Have ideals about chivalry changed over time? Why?
E NGLISH M YTHOLOGY I NTRODUCTION Anglo-Saxon World Mythology 2010
R EVIEWING S CHOOL P OLICIES B1 New Lunch Schedule Emergency Procedures Dismissal Procedures B2 Cafeteria Procedures Defender Top 5 B3 Tardy Procedures Media Center Expectations
T ARDY P ROCEDURES You are expected to move quickly and quietly to class. Be in your seat working on your Bell Ringer when the last chime of the bell sounds. Bring all materials to class, prepared to work. If you are not in the appropriate classroom after the last chime of the bell, you must report immediately to SAFE in room 289. You will work there until the block ends. The SAFE teacher will contact your parents when you are tardy or skip class. If you do not report to SAFE, you will be marked as skipping and receive additional consequences.
M EDIA C ENTER E XPECTATIONS You may use the media center’s computers for general interest or homework assignments. Do not play video games on computers, download videos, or access any inappropriate web-sites such as MySpace or Facebook. You must use only your own computer account—do not share accounts with others. (Fill out an AUP form!) There will be a maximum of 130 students allowed in the media center before 8:20 a.m. All students must sign in before entering.
M EDIA C ENTER E XPECTATIONS ( CONTINUED ) You should speak with a quiet voice level that is appropriate for a library. Please push your chair back under the table when you leave. You should leave to go to your 1 st block class when the bell rings at 8:20 a.m. You need a pass to enter during lunch hours. Please remember: No food or drinks No headwear Defender Top 5
R EVIEWING THE C LASS S YLLABUS How can I reach Ms. Stokes? - - What do I need each class period? How will I be graded? What do I do if I’m absent or I turn my work in late? What happens if I’m late to class? What happens if I cheat?
R EVIEWING S CHOOL AND C LASS R ULES AND P ROCEDURES Remember the Defender Top 5! How should I enter the classroom? Where should I be in the classroom? When can I leave the classroom? How should I leave the classroom? What do the class rules mean?
T ODAY ’ S A GENDA : Bell Ringer Review Rules and Expectations Notes: Anglo-Saxons and Early English Mythology Introduction Cody of Chivalry Writing Assignment
A NGLO -S AXON M YTHOLOGY
It was a polytheistic tradition, focused around the worship of deities known as the ése. The most prominent of these deities appear to have been Woden and Thunor, leading the religion to having been called Wodenism during the 19th century. The religion largely revolved around animal sacrifice to these deities, particularly at certain religious festivals during the year.
A NGLO -S AXON M YTHOLOGY The religious beliefs were also hierarchical, with kings often claiming a direct ancestral lineage from a god, particularly Woden. Most of what is known about Anglo-Saxon paganism comes from the study of the few first hand written accounts that survive from this period, such as those found in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, through the study of literature from the later Christian period such as the Beowulf poem.
E NGLAND BEFORE THE E NGLISH When the Roman legions arrived, they found the land inhabited by “Britons.” Today, the Britons are known as the Celts Stonehenge no written language The Britons were absorbed into Roman society Latin is spoken Romans withdraw as the Empire crumbles, leaving the Britons behind
S TONEHENGE Stonehenge is one of Britain's greatest national icons, symbolizing mystery, power and endurance. Its original purpose is unclear to us, but some have speculated that it was a temple made for the worship of ancient earth deities. It has been called an astronomical observatory for marking significant events on the prehistoric calendar. Others claim that it was a sacred site for the burial of high-ranking citizens from the societies of long ago.
E NGLAND BEFORE THE E NGLISH group of pagan people from Northern Europe begin a series of invasions Anglo-Saxons (Angles, Saxons, Jutes) bring Germanic languages still have their language Wednesday…day of Woden, father of the gods Thursday…day of Thor, god of war Woden--father of the gods
By 600, Anglo-Saxons conquer the Britons language becomes more Germanic still retains some Latin The Anglo-Saxons’ two urgings--war and wandering become part of the oral tradition Beowulf is an example of an Anglo-Saxon hero tale Beowulf battles Grendel’s mother
By 700, Christian missionaries arrive to convert the pagans Latin (the language of the Church) returns King Alfred the Britons become organized first true king of the Britons period of prosperity King Alfred brings an age of prosperity
In 1066, the Normans (French speaking people from Normandy), led by William the Conqueror attack and defeat the Britains (a blend of the Britons and Anglo-Saxons) at the Battle of Hastings the 3rd language is introduced- -French French culture and French literature arrives
W ELCOME TO E NGLAND AND THE E NGLISH … AN ISLAND OF PEOPLES, LANGUAGES, AND DIVISIONS... Latin -- church, schools French -- court, castle English -- commoners The White Tower in London… part of William’s legacy Chartres Cathedral
W HAT WAS IT LIKE TO LIVE IN THE M IDDLE A GES ?
T HE 3 E STATES IN THE M IDDLE A GES The idea of estates, or orders, was encouraged during the Age, but this ordering was breaking down. Clergy Latin chiefly spoken, those who pray, purpose was to save everyone’s soul Nobles French chiefly spoken, those who fight, purpose was to protect— allow for all to work in peace—and provide justice Commoners English spoken, those who work, purpose was to feed and clothe all above them
FEUDALISM The economic system of much of the Middle Ages ( ) Commoners (peasants) lived on a feudal manor. The lord of the manor gave his vassals (the peasants) land to farm. In return, the vassals received protection from roving bandits. Yet they were taxed and had to surrender a portion of their crops to the lord. it was better to be a lord than a vassal! Feudalism is important as it created ties of obedience and fostered a sense of loyalty between the vassals and their lord. A tenant (vassal) renews his oath of fealty to his lord
C HIVALRY A product of feudalism, chivalry was an idealized system of manners and morals Restricted to nobility The Medieval knight was bound to the chivalric code to be loyal to… God his lord his lady Chivalric ideals include... benevolence brotherly love politeness Sir Gawain is an example
T HE C HURCH Provided guidance through well known precepts.. Seven Deadly Sins Pride Greed Wrath Envy Gluttony Sloth Lust
T HE W HEEL OF F ORTUNE The idea of Fortune and her wheel was one of the most pervasive ideas throughout the Middle Ages. On the wheel are depicted four figures: one at the top, one at the bottom, one rising, and one falling.
It served to remind of the temporality of earthly things. The Wheel helps understand the medieval mind, and it can help remind us that the important things in life come from within, that hard work has its own merits. An award, an office, a title--these are not the things that make for greatness.
W ITH THE C RUSADES COMES T HE B LACK D EATH spreads along trade routes kills much of the population the plague outbreaks occur through the Middle Ages and into the Renaissance Paradoxically, the Plague provides for continued growth in cities Afterwards, hundreds of new jobs available Many debts “died off” with creditors also contributed to society’s culture
L ITERATURE DURING THE MIDDLE AGES
L ANGUAGES Latin was the language of the Roman Catholic Church, which dominated Europe The Church was the only source of education Thus, Latin was a common language for Medieval writings.
A notable amount of medieval literature is anonymous. Medieval authors often tended to re-tell and embellish stories they heard or read rather than invent new stories.
W RITINGS Catholic clerics were the intellectual center of society in the Middle Ages, and it is their literature that was produced in the greatest quantity.
C HARACTERISTICS OF M EDIEVAL L ITERATURE Heroism from both Germanic and Christian traditions, sometimes mingled Beowulf Sir Gawain and the Green Knight Presentations of idealized behavior literature as moral lesson loyalty to king chivalry use of kennings (especially in Beowulf ) A figurative, usually compound expression used in place of a name or noun. Example, storm of swords is a kenning for battle.
U SE OF A LLEGORY An allegory is a figurative mode of representation conveying a meaning other than the literal. Much of medieval literature relied on allegory to convey the morals the author had in mind while writing--representations of abstract qualities, events, and institutions are thick in much of the literature of this time.
T HE I DEAL OF C OURTLY L OVE This relationship was modeled on the feudal relationship between a knight and his liege lord. The knight serves his courtly lady with the same obedience and loyalty which he owes to his liege lord. She is in complete control; he owes her obedience and submission
The knight's love for the lady inspires him to do great deeds, in order to be worthy of her love or to win her favor.
“Courtly love" was not between husband and wife because it was an idealized sort of relationship that could not exist within the context of "real life" medieval marriages. In the middle ages, marriages amongst the nobility were typically based on practical and dynastic concerns rather than on love.
“Courtly love" provided a model of behavior for a class of unmarried young men who might otherwise have threatened social stability. Knights were typically younger brothers without land of their own (hence unable to support a wife). They became members of the household of the feudal lords whom they served.
The lady is typically older, married, and of higher social status than the knight because she was modeled on the wife of the feudal lord, who might naturally become the focus of the young, unmarried knights' desire.
The literary model of courtly love may have been invented to provide young men with a model for appropriate behavior. It taught them to sublimate their desires and to channel their energy into socially useful behavior (love service rather than wandering around the countryside).
The "symptoms" of love were described as if it were a sickness. The "lovesick" knight’s typical symptoms: sighing, turning pale, turning red, fever, inability to sleep, eat or drink.
T HE Q UEST In addition to the theme of Courtly Love, the Quest was highly important: the code of conduct observed by a knight errant who is wandering in search of deeds of chivalry. This knight is bound by a code of behavior - a set of conventional principles and expectations
A quest is a hero’s journey towards a goal. The objects of quests require great exertion on the part of the hero, and the overcoming of many obstacles. The hero's must obtain something, or someone, by the quest and with this object return home.
Usually, an inner and outer problem for the character is set. The hero is introduced; audience identifies with them The hero lacks something, has a tragic flaw, or a deep wound The call often produces disorientation and discomfort for the hero The call is often in the form of a dire warning
Excuses are used to avoid the call This hesitation illustrates the formidability of the challenge ahead Resistance creates change and strength, allowing the hero to grow A physical or metaphorical crossing is made The crossing is an irrevocable leap of faith, from which there’s no turning back
The hero faces his greatest fear The hero “dies,” so he can be reborn The hero gains new perception This new perception may create a moment of clarity The moment may be of great self-realization for the hero It may also be an epiphany for the hero’s companions
T HE H ERO Is often of divine descent endowed with great strength and ability" or "a man admired for his achievements and noble qualities"
C ODE OF CHIVALRY
C ODE OF C HIVALRY A SSIGNMENT Chivalry was something of extreme importance in the day of the knights and the code was followed very closely according to the ideals of the time. Think back to today’s bell ringer: Does chivalry exist today? Who comes to mind when you think of chivalry? Create your own modern day Code of Chivalry: What does it take to be heroic, courageous… chivalrous? Your code should include at least ten items. Be sure to give a brief explanation of each.