Section 1: The Road to War ESSENTIAL QUESTION: –What events led Louisiana to join the Confederacy?
The Road to War states’ rights: belief that states had the right to overrule federal government; they could leave the Union Louisianans hoped the Missouri Compromise and Compromise of 1850 would preserve slavery and the Union most believed that a war would only last a few weeks
The Election of 1860 Northern and Southern Democrats could not agree on a candidate for president – four candidates in all ran in election Abraham Lincoln, Republican, was the winnerAbraham Lincoln Southerners believed he was an abolitionist; he said he would not interfere with slavery where it existed Lincoln did not get one vote in Louisiana talk of secession began to spread many Louisianans believed if slavery was ended their way of life would end
Heading to War Lincoln swore to protect the Union many southerners believed that states had the right to leave the United States Dec. 1860: South Carolina seceded Jan. 1861: Louisiana seceded Leaving the Union would cause hardship in Louisiana: –sugar plantations depended on sugar tariff –ports in Louisiana depended on trade with the north Governor Moore sent state militia to take Ft. Jackson and Ft. St. Philip and federal arsenal in Baton Rouge Ft. Jackson and Ft. St. Philip
Secession January 26, 1861: Secession Convention votes to leave the Union few leaders voted against the move Louisianans Judah P. Benjamen and John Slidell were leaders in the new Confederacy April 12, 1861: war began in Charleston, SC at Ft. SumterFt. Sumter
Building an Army 5,000 Louisiana men volunteered (enlisted) in the new Confederate army most believed the war would be short Camp Moore was first training camp for Louisiana soldiersCamp Moore disease and poor nutrition killed many before a battle was fought bounty: money paid to get soldiers to enlist conscription: (draft) required men to enlist wealthy men could pay someone to serve in their place; slaveowners with 20+ slaves did not have to enlist
Gathering Supplies parishes, wealthy individuals and soldiers supplied weapons and equipment Louisiana had few factories salt was used to preserve meat for soldiers women’s groups sewed uniforms and cartridge bags Click here to return to Main Menu.
Section 2: The War in Louisiana ESSENTIAL QUESTION: –Which Civil War battles were fought in Louisiana?
The War in Louisiana first Louisiana volunteers fought with General Lee in Virginia “Louisiana Tigers”: famous company of fighters from LALouisiana Tigers Few troops were left to defend LA; most were fighting in other parts of the Southdefend LA
The Fall of New Orleans New Orleans was important port for LA and confederacyNew Orleans Confederate leaders believed that US would not attack the city defenders guarded the river at Ft. St. Philip and Ft. Jackson Admiral David Farragut: US Navy leader; led 47 ships to take New Orleans cotton, sugar, tobacco, molasses set ablaze in their warehouses May 1, 1862: New Orleans occupied by US troops
Baton Rouge Falls May 7, 1862: Baton Rouge falls to Union forces Confederates were unable to retake the city December 1862: state capitol burned resulting in the loss of many state records
Battles Along the Bayous Fall 1862, Union General Butler ordered seizing of goods from rich plantations in Bayou Lafourche and Bayou Teche many supplies taken for use by the Union
Taking the Mississippi River Anaconda Plan: designed to split Confederacy – if the Union could take the Mississippi River, Arkansas, Louisiana and Texas would be cut off from the rest of the ConfederacyAnaconda Plan Vicksburg and Port Hudson were Confederate strongholds and would have to fall for the plan to work
Vicksburg Late 1862: Union Gen. Ulysses S. Grant led attack on VicksburgVicksburg Plan was to surround the city and cut off its supplies Fell on July 4, 1863 to Union army
Port Hudson Confederate fort south of Vicksburgfort controlled a large bend in the Mississippi River siege lasted 45 days led by heat, mosquitoes, lice and lack of food caused problems for soldiers July 9, 1863: Confederate troops surrender after they learned that Vicksburg had fallen Union controlled the Mississippi River from that point on
The Red River Campaign Final military plan of the Union in Louisiana Union wanted to take over Shreveport and cut off sale of cotton to Mexico and Europe Union Gen. Banks was pushed back by Confederate Gen. Taylor Bailey’s dam: new invention to help move Union gunboats in shallow waterBailey’s dam Click here to return to Main Menu.
Section 3: Civilian Life ESSENTIAL QUESTION: –What was life like for civilians during the Civil War?
Civilian Life Union hoped to end the war sooner by making life miserable for civilians Union policy was to destroy anything of value to Confederates some soldiers looted and vandalized against orders; some were told to destroy and pillage Jayhawkers: usually poor white men who hid out in swamps; sometimes helped the Union, but some robbed neighbors Needy Confederate soldiers often stole from nearby families
Shortages and Sacrifices Union blockade stopped trade outside the Confederacy shortages of all materials one newspaper printed his paper on the back of wallpaper problems included short supply of goods, high prices, worthless money women helped “make-do” by making acorn coffee and hand-weaving cloth
Freeing the Slaves Confiscation Act: gave Union troops right to take any Confederate property former slaves began to follow the Union army some ex-slaves helped Union army or helped Union-run plantations so freed slaves joined Union army Louisiana Native Guard: regiments of African-Americans in Union army Emancipation Proclamation: law which freed slaves and outlawed slaveryEmancipation Proclamation
Life in Occupied New Orleans New Orleans was occupied by Union troops for most of the war General Benjamin Butler in charge Order No. 28: women who insulted Union troops would be dealt with harshly seized property of citizens who did not sign oath of loyalty to the Union Butler replaced by Gen. Nathaniel Banks in late 1862 – he reopened closed churches Click here to return to Main Menu.
Section 4: Wartime Governments ESSENTIAL QUESTION: –How was Louisiana governed during the Civil War?
Wartime Governments Two state governments: Confederate and Union-Occupied
Government in Union-Occupied Louisiana President Lincoln wanted to show that Confederate areas could easily return to the Union Once 10% of population signed oath of loyalty, elections could be held Only those who signed the oath could vote Feb. 1864: Michael J. Hahn elected governor of Union occupied LA – replaced military governor
Government in Confederate Louisiana capital was moved 7 times during the war to avoid capture raised funds by selling bonds, income tax, and tax-in-kind (10% of crops given to state government) Gov. Henry Watkins Allen known for making sure citizens and soldiers had basic food and water and lessened suffering of the people
The War Ends April 9, 1865: General Robert E. Lee surrendered the Confederate Army at Appomattox Courthouse, VirginiaAppomattox Courthouse Confederate forces west of the Mississippi surrendered in June Click here to return to Main Menu.