1Section 1: The Road to War ESSENTIAL QUESTION:What events led Louisiana to join the Confederacy?The essential question for this section of the chapter. It provides a purpose for reading and studying the chapter’s contents.
2The Road to Warstates’ rights: belief that states had the right to overrule federal government; they could leave the UnionLouisianans hoped the Missouri Compromise and Compromise of 1850 would preserve slavery and the Unionmost believed that a war would only last a few weeks
3The Election of 1860Northern and Southern Democrats could not agree on a candidate for president – four candidates in all ran in electionAbraham Lincoln, Republican, was the winnerSoutherners believed he was an abolitionist; he said he would not interfere with slavery where it existedLincoln did not get one vote in Louisianatalk of secession began to spreadmany Louisianans believed if slavery was ended their way of life would end
4Heading to War Lincoln swore to protect the Union many southerners believed that states had the right to leave the United StatesDec. 1860: South Carolina secededJan. 1861: Louisiana secededLeaving the Union would cause hardship in Louisiana:sugar plantations depended on sugar tariffports in Louisiana depended on trade with the northGovernor Moore sent state militia to take Ft. Jackson and Ft. St. Philip and federal arsenal in Baton Rouge
5SecessionJanuary 26, 1861: Secession Convention votes to leave the Unionfew leaders voted against the moveLouisianans Judah P. Benjamen and John Slidell were leaders in the new ConfederacyApril 12, 1861: war began in Charleston, SC at Ft. Sumter
6Building an Army5,000 Louisiana men volunteered (enlisted) in the new Confederate armymost believed the war would be shortCamp Moore was first training camp for Louisiana soldiersdisease and poor nutrition killed many before a battle was foughtbounty: money paid to get soldiers to enlistconscription: (draft) required men to enlistwealthy men could pay someone to serve in their place; slaveowners with 20+ slaves did not have to enlist
7Gathering Suppliesparishes, wealthy individuals and soldiers supplied weapons and equipmentLouisiana had few factoriessalt was used to preserve meat for soldierswomen’s groups sewed uniforms and cartridge bagsClick here to return to Main Menu.
8Section 2: The War in Louisiana ESSENTIAL QUESTION:Which Civil War battles were fought in Louisiana?
9The War in Louisianafirst Louisiana volunteers fought with General Lee in Virginia“Louisiana Tigers”: famous company of fighters from LAFew troops were left to defend LA; most were fighting in other parts of the South
10The Fall of New OrleansNew Orleans was important port for LA and confederacyConfederate leaders believed that US would not attack the citydefenders guarded the river at Ft. St. Philip and Ft. JacksonAdmiral David Farragut: US Navy leader; led 47 ships to take New Orleanscotton, sugar, tobacco, molasses set ablaze in their warehousesMay 1, 1862: New Orleans occupied by US troops
11Baton Rouge Falls May 7, 1862: Baton Rouge falls to Union forces Confederates were unable to retake the cityDecember 1862: state capitol burned resulting in the loss of many state records
12Battles Along the Bayous Fall 1862, Union General Butler ordered seizing of goods from rich plantations in Bayou Lafourche and Bayou Techemany supplies taken for use by the Union
13Taking the Mississippi River Anaconda Plan: designed to split Confederacy – if the Union could take the Mississippi River, Arkansas, Louisiana and Texas would be cut off from the rest of the ConfederacyVicksburg and Port Hudson were Confederate strongholds and would have to fall for the plan to work
14VicksburgLate 1862: Union Gen. Ulysses S. Grant led attack on VicksburgPlan was to surround the city and cut off its suppliesFell on July 4, 1863 to Union army
15Port Hudson Confederate fort south of Vicksburg controlled a large bend in the Mississippi Riversiege lasted 45 days led byheat, mosquitoes, lice and lack of food caused problems for soldiersJuly 9, 1863: Confederate troops surrender after they learned that Vicksburg had fallenUnion controlled the Mississippi River from that point on
16The Red River Campaign Final military plan of the Union in Louisiana Union wanted to take over Shreveport and cut off sale of cotton to Mexico and EuropeUnion Gen. Banks was pushed back by Confederate Gen. TaylorBailey’s dam: new invention to help move Union gunboats in shallow waterClick here to return to Main Menu.
17Section 3: Civilian Life ESSENTIAL QUESTION:What was life like for civilians during the Civil War?
18Civilian LifeUnion hoped to end the war sooner by making life miserable for civiliansUnion policy was to destroy anything of value to Confederatessome soldiers looted and vandalized against orders; some were told to destroy and pillageJayhawkers: usually poor white men who hid out in swamps; sometimes helped the Union, but some robbed neighborsNeedy Confederate soldiers often stole from nearby families
19Shortages and Sacrifices Union blockade stopped trade outside the Confederacyshortages of all materialsone newspaper printed his paper on the back of wallpaperproblems included short supply of goods, high prices, worthless moneywomen helped “make-do” by making acorn coffee and hand-weaving cloth
20Freeing the SlavesConfiscation Act: gave Union troops right to take any Confederate propertyformer slaves began to follow the Union armysome ex-slaves helped Union army or helped Union-run plantationsso freed slaves joined Union armyLouisiana Native Guard: regiments of African-Americans in Union armyEmancipation Proclamation: law which freed slaves and outlawed slavery
21Life in Occupied New Orleans New Orleans was occupied by Union troops for most of the warGeneral Benjamin Butler in chargeOrder No. 28: women who insulted Union troops would be dealt with harshlyseized property of citizens who did not sign oath of loyalty to the UnionButler replaced by Gen. Nathaniel Banks in late 1862 – he reopened closed churchesPage 332Click here to return to Main Menu.
22Section 4: Wartime Governments ESSENTIAL QUESTION:How was Louisiana governed during the Civil War?
23Two state governments: Confederate and Union-Occupied Wartime GovernmentsTwo state governments: Confederate and Union-OccupiedPage 338
24Government in Union-Occupied Louisiana President Lincoln wanted to show that Confederate areas could easily return to the UnionOnce 10% of population signed oath of loyalty, elections could be heldOnly those who signed the oath could voteFeb. 1864: Michael J. Hahn elected governor of Union occupied LA – replaced military governor
25Government in Confederate Louisiana capital was moved 7 times during the war to avoid captureraised funds by selling bonds, income tax, and tax-in-kind (10% of crops given to state government)Gov. Henry Watkins Allen known for making sure citizens and soldiers had basic food and water and lessened suffering of the people
26Confederate forces west of the Mississippi surrendered in June The War EndsApril 9, 1865: General Robert E. Lee surrendered the Confederate Army at Appomattox Courthouse, VirginiaConfederate forces west of the Mississippi surrendered in JuneClick here to return to Main Menu.