Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 4: THE UNION IN PERIL BEFORE, DURING AND AFTER THE CIVIL WAR 1850-1877."— Presentation transcript:
CHAPTER 4: THE UNION IN PERIL BEFORE, DURING AND AFTER THE CIVIL WAR
RECONSTRUCTION: SECTION 4 The Civil War had ended. Slavery and secession were no more. Now what? How does the Union integrate the South back into American society? How do 4 million newly freed African slaves integrate themselves into society?
The Problems Of Peace Reconstruction tries to answer the major questions facing the country How would the south rebuild its shattered society & economy? How would the liberated Blacks (4 million “freedmen”) be converted to free citizens? What was the role of the federal government in this process? Under what conditions would southern states be reintegrated into the Union? As states that never really left or conquered territory? Who would direct reconstruction, the southern states, the President or Congress? What to do with confederate leaders?
The Problems Of Peace Complications Conflicts that existed before and during the Civil War continued after the war. Regions, political parties, economic interests North wanted to continue economic progress South needed a cheap labor force Freedmen/women hoped to achieve independence and equal rights Traditional beliefs limited the actions of the federal government Limited government, states’ rights Ideas of equality of opportunity and personal responsibility Physical rebuilding was left to individuals & the states
Major Problems InThe South Social and economic system had collapsed. Key Southern cities were devastated. Banking system had collapsed under run-away inflation. Factories were destroyed Transportation system completely broken down Agriculture, major economic force of the south, totally collapsed. Southern rich were suddenly much poorer. Many Southerners were beaten but still defiant and were not yet emotionally prepared to reintegrate with the north. (“Lost Cause”)
I. A Reconstruction Timeline
A. Presidential Reconstruction ( ): Black Codes & Johnson’s Pardons
B. Congressional Reconstruction ( ): Reconstruction Act of 1867, 13 th, 14 th, 15 th Amendments, Force Acts, Civil Rights Acts Students at a Freedman’s Bureau School
C. Troops in the South ( )
THE POLITICS OF RECONSTRUCTION The politics of Reconstruction was complicated by the fact that Lincoln, his VP and successor Andrew Johnson, and the Congress all had different ideas of how Reconstruction should be handled ANDREW JOHNSON
A three way political battle Different goals and agendas Presidents (Lincoln & Andrew Johnson) Versus Congress (Moderates & Radicals) Versus Southern states
President Southern states Congress
Reconstruction Presidential version Focus on getting the CSA states back into the union as quickly as possible Congressional version Radical Republicans were focused on trying to change the culture and politics of the South
Reconstruction Politics – Who Makes the Rules? Presidents’ propose policies States react in ways that upset Congress Congress reacts and passes different policies President vetoes laws Congress overrides vetoes States react in ways that upset Congress Repeat
LINCOLN’S PLAN Lincoln made it clear that he favored a lenient Reconstruction policy His Ten Percent Plan called for a pardon of all Confederates who would swear allegiance to Union (oath) When 10% of the voting population of a state took the oath, a state would be readmitted into the Union
Congress Reacts Congress disagreed with Lincoln’s approach. Congressional Republican theory? Who in charge of readmission?. Radical Republican Goals. Congress passes the Wade-Davis Bill in 1864 Much more demanding 50% required for loyalty oath Only non-Confederates could vote for a new state constitution Lincoln reacts: “pocket veto” Lincoln assassinated
Congress v. President Johnson: What should be done for former slaves? A. Andrew Johnson: Emancipation Only
B. Congress: Emancipation (13 th amendment) Education & land (Freedman’s Bureau?) Equality under the law (14 th Amendment) Vote (15 th Amendment) Enforcement (Reconstruction Act of 1867, Force Acts)
Freedmen Define Freedom Immediately after war, freedom for Blacks depended on where the army was Many in South rejected validity of Emancipation Proclamation Reaction of Blacks Blacks hit the road Exodusters Black schools Black churches
FREEMEN’S BUREAU Congress also passed the Freemen’s Bureau Act which provided much needed aid to African Americans Included in the Act was money for education, hospitals, social services, churches, and help with labor contracts and discrimination cases EDUCATION WAS AN IMPORTANT PART OF THE BUREAU
The Freedmen’s Bureau Greatest success? Education Failed to provide land, as authorized
Plenty to eat and nothing to do. Southern View of Freedmen’s Bur. Southerners resented the Bureau as northern intrusion. Pres. Johnson didn’t support it. It died in One of many failures of reconstruction.
Johnson: The Tailor President He had started from very humble beginnings. Never attended school. Enters politics in Tenn. Champion of poor whites and mountain whites. As Tenn. Democratic Congressman he refused to secede with Tenn. Forced to flee Tenn.
Johnson: The Tailor President Appointed War Governor after Tenn. partially redeemed by Union Army. Appointed VP when Lincoln needs to cement the Union Party and keep the vote of border states and Union democrats. Dogmatic believer in State’s Right and the Constitution.
JOHNSON’S PLAN After Lincoln’s death, his VP & successor Andrew Johnson announced his own plan It differed only slightly from Lincolns: He excluded high ranking Confederates and wealthy planters from the oath, but did pardon 13,000 while contending that, “White men alone must manage the South”
Johnson’s Plan for Reconstruction Johnson agreed with Lincoln’s 10% plan. Recognized several 10% governments. Introduced his plan 8/1865. Disenfranchised southerners with property over $20,000. They could petition him for a pardon called for special state conventions to repeal declarations of secession, repudiating confederate debts and ratifying 13th Amendment prohibiting slavery
The Southern States react All 11 of the ex-Confederate states qualified under Johnson’s plan None of the new constitutions extended voting rights to Freedmen Former leaders of the Confederacy were elected to Congress
The Southern States react Southern states adopted “black codes” Restricted the rights and movements of the newly freed Blacks Prohibited blacks from either renting land or borrowing money to buy land Placed freedmen into a form of semi-slavery by forcing them, as “vagrants” and “apprentices” to sign work contracts Prohibited blacks from testifying against whites in court
Congress reacts “Who won the war?” Northern republicans challenged the results of southern elections – refused to seat new Congressmen Based on Articles I & IV of Constitution “Each house shall be the judge of the elections … and qualifications of its own members …” (I) “The US shall guarantee to every state … a republican form of government” (IV) Also a political motive No more “3/5s rule” so the south would gain seats in the House of Representatives Southern population, for purposes of allocating House seats, goes up by 2.4 million
CONGRESS PLAN Congress worked hard to shift the focus of Reconstruction from the President to the Congress In 1866, Congress overrode President Johnson’s veto and passed the Civil Rights Act, the Freedmen’s Bureau Act, the 14 th Amendment and the Reconstruction Act Congress overrode Johnson’s veto of Freedmen’s Bureau
CIVIL RIGHTS ACT One of the important acts passed by Congress was the Civil Rights Act This law gave African Americans citizenship and forbade states from passing laws discriminating against former slaves (Black Codes) FROM HARPER’S MAGAZINE 1866 – BLACKS CELEBRATE
Johnson Clashes With Congress Johnson reacts strongly to Congress Johnson announces that South had satisfied his conditions and Union was restored. Vetoed extension of Freedman’s Bureau. Civil Rights Act. Pronounced that all African Americans were US citizens (override Dred Scott decision) Vetoed by Johnson; Congress overrides Congress passed 14 th Amendment
14 TH AMENDMENT In 1866, Congress passed the 14 th Amendment which provided legal backing to the Civil Rights Act It prevented states from denying rights to people based on race This nullified the Dred Scott decision
Fourteenth Amendment What does it say? All persons born or naturalized in US are citizens and no state can take away “ the privileges and immunities” of citizens No state “shall deprive any person of life, liberty or property without due process of law, nor deny to any person … the equal protection of the law.” Conferred Civil Rights except the vote on Freedmen. Reduced representation in Congress of states that did not give the freedmen the vote. Disqualified from federal and state office former confederates who had previously sworn oath to Const. of the US and, thus, had violated it. Repudiated the confederate debt. Ratified in 1868
RECONSTRUCTION ACT OF 1867 Congressional Republicans again joined forces to pass the Reconstruction Act This act voided the state governments formed in the South under the Presidential plans and instead divided the south into 5 military districts The states were required to grant black men the right to vote and to ratify the 14 th Amendment This image depicts an artisan, a businessman and a soldier standing in line to cast their first ballot “First Vote”
Republican’s In Charge Republicans now in the driver’s seat, but split between the radicals and the moderates. Radicals led by Charles Sumner in the Senate and Thaddeus Stevens in the house. Moderates had the upper hand Eventual policies showed influences of both Both recognize that federal power necessary to ensure enfranchisement of blacks.
Military Reconstruction Reconstruction Act (March 1867) What did it do? Divided the South into 5 military districts Military occupation of the South – “conquered territory”? Temporarily disenfranchised many southerners— 10,000 Stringent conditions for the readmission of the seceded states States required to ratify Fourteenth Amendment to come back in State constitutions must guarantee vote for former slaves Stopped short of giving blacks land or requiring education. Johnson vehemently opposes.
Military Reconstruction Act
Military Reconstruction 15th Amendment passed 1869 (ratified in 1870). Military reconstruction questionable constitutionally. By 1870 all states readmitted under terms of Reconstruction Act. Last federal troops leave in 1877.
Radical Reconstruction In The South Evolution of attitude toward black enfranchisement. Blacks voting, but many whites weren’t. Union Leagues 14 Black Congressmen; 2 Black Senators. Height of black political power until mid 20 th Century. Carpetbaggers and Scalawags. Assessment of reconstruction governments in the South
JOHNSON IMPEACHED Radical Republicans felt Johnson was blocking Reconstruction efforts Thus, they looked for grounds to impeach him They found grounds when he fired a cabinet member in violation of the “Tenure of Office Act” He was impeached, but not convicted and served out his term GALLERY TICKET FOR JOHNSON IMPEACHMENT HEARING
Congress Impeaches Johnson The vote to throw Johnson out of office: 35 Yes 19 No 1 Vote Short of 2/3 – So Stays in office
The Purchase Of Alaska One of Johnson’s few successes was the purchase of Alaska. Why were Russians looking to unload Alaska? Sec. of State Seward agrees to purchase for 7.2 Mil in Dubbed Seward’s Folly. Why was US willing to purchase?
1868 ELECTION Civil War hero U.S. Grant ran as a Republican against Democratic nominee Horatio Seymour Grant won by a margin of 300,000 in the popular vote 500,000 African Americans voted – 90% for Grant
15 th AMENDMENT Soon after Grant’s election, Congress passed the 15 th Amendment This amendment stated that no one could be kept from voting because of “race, color, or previous servitude” The 15 th Amendment was ratified in 1870
RECONSTRUCTING SOCIETY The South went through significant changes after the war The economy was in ruins and they lost hundreds of thousands of young men Republicans now dominated politically, but often with conflicting goals MANY SOUTHERN CITIES SUFFERED EXTENSIVE DAMAGE
SOUTHERN REPUBLICANS 3 groups made up the bulk of Southern Republicans 1) Scalawags: White farmers (small farms) 2) Carpetbaggers: Northerners who came south in search of opportunity after the war 3) African Americans: Former slaves- 90% of whom were Republican CARPETBAGGERS SCALAWAGS
AFRICAN AMERICANS African Americans took an active role in the political process in the South They voted in record numbers and many ran for office Hiram Revels was the first black Senator HIRAM REVELS – FIRST BLACK SENATOR
40 ACRES AND A MULE Despite Sherman’s promise of “40 acres and a mule” few former slaves received anything Republicans considered property to be a sacred American right Therefore, most plantation owners kept their land SPIKE LEE’S PRODUCTION COMPANY IS CALLED “40 ACRES AND A MULE”
SHARECROPPING AND TENANT FARMING Without land of their own, Southern African Americans could not grow their own crops Thus, many became sharecroppers– a system be which families were given a small plot of land to work in exchange for some of the crops ARKANSAS SHARECROPPERS
SHARECROPPING IN THE SOUTH
THE COLLAPSE OF RECONSTRUCTION While some Southern whites participated in the new governments, voted in elections, and reluctantly accepted African Americans--- others were very resentful and formed hate groups Most famous vigilante group was the Ku Klux Klan, or the KKK
Election of 1876 Democrats won the popular vote Votes in 3 southern states were contested South Carolina, Florida, Louisiana Tilden (Democrat) needed one more electoral vote Special commission appointed (8 GOP, 7 Democrats) All disputed electoral votes were awarded to Hayes (GOP) by 8-7 vote
Election of 1876 Democrats threatened to take election to House of Representatives which they controlled Constitution says that the House can decide who should be president in case of a tie in Electoral College Compromise of 1877 Haynes becomes president He agrees to pull all troops from South and end support for GOP in South He agrees to support a southern trans continental RR
II. Growing Resistance to Reconstruction A. The Racism of White Southerners: KKK, Black Codes….. A. Goal was to re-establish white supremacy B. The Racism and Indifference of White Northerners
KU KLUX KLAN The Klan was formed by disgruntled Confederate soldiers whose goals included destroying the Republican Party, aiding the planter class, and preventing blacks from integrating into society Estimates range as high as 20,000 murders attributed to the Klan whose membership peaked at almost 4 million in the 1920s
Ku Klux Klan KKK (Invisible Empire of the South) Used intimidation, fear and force to get upstart Blacks and carpetbaggers to get back in their place. Founded by Nathan Bedford Forrest. Undermined the civil rights given to blacks. Force Act Effective?
CONGRESS SUPPORT FADES When Congress passed the Amnesty Act returning voting rights to 150,000 Confederates and allowed the Freedmen’s Bureau to expire—it became clear that Southern Democrats were back in political control
DEMOCRATS “REDEEM SOUTH” Lack of Republican unity in the South and an economic downturn that diverted attention from Southern issues, caused Democrats to regain control of the South Called “Redeemers” these politicians were out to reclaim Southern culture, pride and tradition The Reconstruction Era was over by 1877
Negative Legacy of Reconstruction Social Inequality: Jim Crow Laws & Plessy v. Ferguson Political Inequality: Grandfather Clauses, Literacy Tests, etc. Economic Inequality: Limited Land Leads to Sharecropping and Debt Lynching and Racial Violence
Sample Jim Crow Laws Textbooks: Books shall not be interchangeable between the white and colored schools, but shall continue to be used by the race first using them. (North Carolina) Baseball: It shall be unlawful for any amateur colored baseball team to play baseball in any vacant lot or baseball diamond within two blocks of any playground devoted to the white race. (Georgia)
Another Jim Crow Law Restaurants. It shall be unlawful to conduct a restaurant in the city, at which white and colored people are served in the same room, unless such white and colored persons are separated by a solid partition extending from the floor upward to a distance of seven feet or higher, and unless a separate entrance from the street is provided for each compartment. (Alabama)
B. Positive Example and Legal Framework for Civil Rights Movement Black Institutions and Black Leaders
Was Reconstruction A Failure? A failure! (Initial reaction – early 20 th century) Illiterate blacks & corrupt northern carpetbaggers abused the rights of southern whites and stole vast sums from the state governments A success! Many positive achievements by the Reconstruction governments and by black leaders Importance (then & later) of the civil rights legislation & Reconstruction-era amendments (13, 14 & 15) Humanitarian work performed by northern reformers Especially in education
Was Reconstruction A Failure? A failure! (1980s) Radical Republicans were not radical enough Land not provided to ensure economic independence for blacks Military occupation should have lasted longer to protect political rights (voting, etc.) of freedmen. A success! (late 80s, early 90s) The freedmen established many of the institutions in the black community that would lead reform in the 20 th century. (churches, colleges, etc.) Basis for the Civil Rights Movement of the 50s, 60s & 70s