Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 4: THE UNION IN PERIL"— Presentation transcript:
1 CHAPTER 4: THE UNION IN PERIL BEFORE, DURING AND AFTER THE CIVIL WAR
2 RECONSTRUCTION: SECTION 4 The Civil War had ended. Slavery and secession were no more Now what?How does the Union integrate the South back into American society?How do 4 million newly freed African slaves integrate themselves into society?
3 The Problems Of PeaceReconstruction tries to answer the major questions facing the countryHow would the south rebuild its shattered society & economy?How would the liberated Blacks (4 million “freedmen”) be converted to free citizens?What was the role of the federal government in this process?Under what conditions would southern states be reintegrated into the Union?As states that never really left or conquered territory?Who would direct reconstruction, the southern states, the President or Congress?What to do with confederate leaders?
4 The Problems Of Peace Complications Conflicts that existed before and during the Civil War continued after the war.Regions, political parties, economic interestsNorth wanted to continue economic progressSouth needed a cheap labor forceFreedmen/women hoped to achieve independence and equal rightsTraditional beliefs limited the actions of the federal governmentLimited government, states’ rightsIdeas of equality of opportunity and personal responsibilityPhysical rebuilding was left to individuals & the states
5 Major Problems InThe South Social and economic system had collapsed.Key Southern cities were devastated.Banking system had collapsed under run-away inflation.Factories were destroyedTransportation system completely broken downAgriculture, major economic force of the south, totally collapsed.Southern rich were suddenly much poorer.Many Southerners were beaten but still defiant and were not yet emotionally prepared to reintegrate with the north. (“Lost Cause”)
7 A. Presidential Reconstruction (1865-1866): Black Codes & Johnson’s Pardons
8 Students at a Freedman’s Bureau School B. Congressional Reconstruction ( ): Reconstruction Act of 1867, 13th, 14th, 15th Amendments, Force Acts, Civil Rights ActsStudents at a Freedman’s Bureau School
10 THE POLITICS OF RECONSTRUCTION The politics of Reconstruction was complicated by the fact that Lincoln, his VP and successor Andrew Johnson, and the Congress all had different ideas of how Reconstruction should be handledANDREW JOHNSON
11 Table 16.1 Contrasting Views of Reconstruction: President and Congress Link to MyHistoryLab asset: Watch the Video: The Promise and Failure of ReconstructionThis video discusses reconstruction and the rebuilding of the South. Students are asked to understand the process of Reconstruction and consider how successful it was and how it may have affected southern attitudes toward the North.
12 A three way political battle Different goals and agendasPresidents (Lincoln & Andrew Johnson)VersusCongress (Moderates & Radicals)Southern states
14 Reconstruction Presidential version Congressional version Focus on getting the CSA states back into the union as quickly as possibleCongressional versionRadical Republicans were focused on trying to change the culture and politics of the South
15 Reconstruction Politics – Who Makes the Rules? Presidents’ propose policiesStates react in ways that upset CongressCongress reacts and passes different policiesPresident vetoes lawsCongress overrides vetoesRepeat
16 LINCOLN’S PLANLincoln made it clear that he favored a lenient Reconstruction policyHis Ten Percent Plan called for a pardon of all Confederates who would swear allegiance to Union (oath)When 10% of the voting population of a state took the oath, a state would be readmitted into the Union
17 Congress Reacts Congress disagreed with Lincoln’s approach. Congressional Republican theory?Who in charge of readmission?.Radical Republican Goals.Congress passes the Wade-Davis Bill in 1864Much more demanding50% required for loyalty oathOnly non-Confederates could vote for a new state constitutionLincoln reacts: “pocket veto”Lincoln assassinated
18 Congress v. President Johnson: What should be done for former slaves? A. Andrew Johnson: Emancipation Only
19 B. Congress: Emancipation (13th amendment) Education & land (Freedman’s Bureau?)Equality under the law (14th Amendment)Vote (15th Amendment)Enforcement (Reconstruction Act of 1867, Force Acts)
20 Freedmen Define Freedom Immediately after war, freedom for Blacks depended on where the army wasMany in South rejected validity of Emancipation ProclamationReaction of BlacksBlacks hit the roadExodustersBlack schoolsBlack churches
21 EDUCATION WAS AN IMPORTANT PART OF THE BUREAU FREEMEN’S BUREAUCongress also passed the Freemen’s Bureau Act which provided much needed aid to African AmericansIncluded in the Act was money for education, hospitals, social services, churches, and help with labor contracts and discrimination casesEDUCATION WAS AN IMPORTANT PART OF THE BUREAU
22 The Freedmen’s Bureau Greatest success? Education Failed to provide land, as authorized
23 Southern View of Freedmen’s Bur. Southerners resented the Bureau as northern intrusion.Pres. Johnson didn’t support it.It died in 1872.One of many failures of reconstruction.Plenty to eat and nothing to do.
24 Johnson: The Tailor President He had started from very humble beginnings.Never attended school.Enters politics in Tenn.Champion of poor whites and mountain whites.As Tenn. Democratic Congressman he refused to secede with Tenn.Forced to flee Tenn.
25 Johnson: The Tailor President Appointed War Governor after Tenn. partially redeemed by Union Army.Appointed VP when Lincoln needs to cement the Union Party and keep the vote of border states and Union democrats.Dogmatic believer in State’s Right and the Constitution.
26 JOHNSON’S PLANAfter Lincoln’s death, his VP & successor Andrew Johnson announced his own planIt differed only slightly from Lincolns: He excluded high ranking Confederates and wealthy planters from the oath, but did pardon 13,000 while contending that, “White men alone must manage the South”
27 Johnson’s Plan for Reconstruction Johnson agreed with Lincoln’s 10% plan. Recognized several 10% governments.Introduced his plan 8/1865.Disenfranchised southerners with property over $20,000.They could petition him for a pardoncalled for special state conventionsto repeal declarations of secession,repudiating confederate debts andratifying 13th Amendment prohibiting slavery
28 The Southern States react All 11 of the ex-Confederate states qualified under Johnson’s planNone of the new constitutions extended voting rights to FreedmenFormer leaders of the Confederacy were elected to Congress
29 The Southern States react Southern states adopted “black codes”Restricted the rights and movements of the newly freed BlacksProhibited blacks from either renting land or borrowing money to buy landPlaced freedmen into a form of semi-slavery by forcing them, as “vagrants” and “apprentices” to sign work contractsProhibited blacks from testifying against whites in court
30 Congress reacts “Who won the war?” Northern republicans challenged the results of southern elections – refused to seat new CongressmenBased on Articles I & IV of Constitution“Each house shall be the judge of the elections … and qualifications of its own members …” (I)“The US shall guarantee to every state … a republican form of government” (IV)Also a political motiveNo more “3/5s rule” so the south would gain seats in the House of RepresentativesSouthern population, for purposes of allocating House seats, goes up by 2.4 million
31 Congress overrode Johnson’s veto of Freedmen’s Bureau CONGRESS PLANCongress worked hard to shift the focus of Reconstruction from the President to the CongressIn 1866, Congress overrode President Johnson’s veto and passed the Civil Rights Act, the Freedmen’s Bureau Act, the 14th Amendment and the Reconstruction ActCongress overrode Johnson’s veto of Freedmen’s Bureau
32 FROM HARPER’S MAGAZINE 1866 – BLACKS CELEBRATE CIVIL RIGHTS ACTOne of the important acts passed by Congress was the Civil Rights Act -1866This law gave African Americans citizenship and forbade states from passing laws discriminating against former slaves (Black Codes)FROM HARPER’S MAGAZINE 1866 – BLACKS CELEBRATE
33 Johnson Clashes With Congress Johnson reacts strongly to CongressJohnson announces that South had satisfied his conditions and Union was restored.Vetoed extension of Freedman’s Bureau.Civil Rights Act.Pronounced that all African Americans were US citizens (override Dred Scott decision)Vetoed by Johnson; Congress overridesCongress passed 14th Amendment
34 14TH AMENDMENTIn 1866, Congress passed the 14th Amendment which provided legal backing to the Civil Rights ActIt prevented states from denying rights to people based on raceThis nullified the Dred Scott decision
35 Fourteenth Amendment What does it say? Ratified in 1868 All persons born or naturalized in US are citizens and no state can take away “ the privileges and immunities” of citizensNo state “shall deprive any person of life, liberty or property without due process of law, nor deny to any person … the equal protection of the law.”Conferred Civil Rights except the vote on Freedmen.Reduced representation in Congress of states that did not give the freedmen the vote.Disqualified from federal and state office former confederates who had previously sworn oath to Const. of the US and, thus, had violated it.Repudiated the confederate debt.Ratified in 1868
36 RECONSTRUCTION ACT OF 1867Congressional Republicans again joined forces to pass the Reconstruction ActThis act voided the state governments formed in the South under the Presidential plans and instead divided the south into 5 military districtsThe states were required to grant black men the right to vote and to ratify the 14th Amendment“First Vote”This image depicts an artisan, a businessman and a soldier standing in line to cast their first ballot
37 Republican’s In Charge Republicans now in the driver’s seat, but split between the radicals and the moderates.Radicals led by Charles Sumner in the Senate and Thaddeus Stevens in the house.Moderates had the upper handEventual policies showed influences of bothBoth recognize that federal power necessary to ensure enfranchisement of blacks.
38 Military Reconstruction Reconstruction Act (March 1867)What did it do?Divided the South into 5 military districtsMilitary occupation of the South – “conquered territory”?Temporarily disenfranchised many southerners—10,000Stringent conditions for the readmission of the seceded statesStates required to ratify Fourteenth Amendment to come back inState constitutions must guarantee vote for former slavesStopped short of giving blacks land or requiring education.Johnson vehemently opposes.
40 Military Reconstruction 15th Amendment passed 1869 (ratified in 1870).Military reconstruction questionable constitutionally.By 1870 all states readmitted under terms of Reconstruction Act.Last federal troops leave in 1877.
41 Radical Reconstruction In The South Evolution of attitude toward black enfranchisement.Blacks voting, but many whites weren’t.Union Leagues14 Black Congressmen; 2 Black Senators. Height of black political power until mid 20th Century.Carpetbaggers and Scalawags.Assessment of reconstruction governments in the South
42 GALLERY TICKET FOR JOHNSON IMPEACHMENT HEARING JOHNSON IMPEACHEDRadical Republicans felt Johnson was blocking Reconstruction effortsThus, they looked for grounds to impeach himThey found grounds when he fired a cabinet member in violation of the “Tenure of Office Act”He was impeached, but not convicted and served out his termGALLERY TICKET FOR JOHNSON IMPEACHMENT HEARING
43 Congress Impeaches Johnson The vote to throw Johnson out of office:35 Yes19 No1 Vote Short of 2/3 – So Stays in office
44 The Purchase Of AlaskaOne of Johnson’s few successes was the purchase of Alaska.Why were Russians looking to unload Alaska?Sec. of State Seward agrees to purchase for 7.2 Mil in Dubbed Seward’s Folly.Why was US willing to purchase?
45 1868 ELECTIONCivil War hero U.S. Grant ran as a Republican against Democratic nominee Horatio SeymourGrant won by a margin of 300,000 in the popular vote500,000 African Americans voted – 90% for Grant
46 15th AMENDMENTSoon after Grant’s election, Congress passed the 15th AmendmentThis amendment stated that no one could be kept from voting because of “race, color, or previous servitude”The 15th Amendment was ratified in 1870
47 RECONSTRUCTING SOCIETY The South went through significant changes after the warThe economy was in ruins and they lost hundreds of thousands of young menRepublicans now dominated politically, but often with conflicting goalsMANY SOUTHERN CITIES SUFFERED EXTENSIVE DAMAGE
48 SOUTHERN REPUBLICANS 3 groups made up the bulk of Southern Republicans 1) Scalawags: White farmers (small farms)2) Carpetbaggers: Northerners who came south in search of opportunity after the war3) African Americans: Former slaves- 90% of whom were RepublicanCARPETBAGGERSSCALAWAGS
50 HIRAM REVELS – FIRST BLACK SENATOR AFRICAN AMERICANSAfrican Americans took an active role in the political process in the SouthThey voted in record numbers and many ran for officeHiram Revels was the first black SenatorHIRAM REVELS – FIRST BLACK SENATOR
51 SPIKE LEE’S PRODUCTION COMPANY IS CALLED “40 ACRES AND A MULE” Despite Sherman’s promise of “40 acres and a mule” few former slaves received anythingRepublicans considered property to be a sacred American rightTherefore, most plantation owners kept their landSPIKE LEE’S PRODUCTION COMPANY IS CALLED “40 ACRES AND A MULE”
52 SHARECROPPING AND TENANT FARMING Without land of their own, Southern African Americans could not grow their own cropsThus, many became sharecroppers– a system be which families were given a small plot of land to work in exchange for some of the cropsARKANSAS SHARECROPPERS
54 THE COLLAPSE OF RECONSTRUCTION While some Southern whites participated in the new governments, voted in elections, and reluctantly accepted African Americans---others were very resentful and formed hate groupsMost famous vigilante group was the Ku Klux Klan, or the KKK
55 Election of 1876 Democrats won the popular vote Votes in 3 southern states were contestedSouth Carolina, Florida, LouisianaTilden (Democrat) needed one more electoral voteSpecial commission appointed (8 GOP, 7 Democrats)All disputed electoral votes were awarded to Hayes (GOP) by 8-7 vote
56 Election of 1876Democrats threatened to take election to House of Representatives which they controlledConstitution says that the House can decide who should be president in case of a tie in Electoral CollegeCompromise of 1877Haynes becomes presidentHe agrees to pull all troops from South and end support for GOP in SouthHe agrees to support a southern trans continental RR
57 II. Growing Resistance to Reconstruction The Racism of White Southerners: KKK, Black Codes…..Goal was to re-establish white supremacyThe Racism and Indifference of White Northerners
58 KU KLUX KLANThe Klan was formed by disgruntled Confederate soldiers whose goals included destroying the Republican Party, aiding the planter class, and preventing blacks from integrating into societyEstimates range as high as 20,000 murders attributed to the Klan whose membership peaked at almost million in the 1920s
59 Ku Klux Klan KKK (Invisible Empire of the South) Used intimidation, fear and force to get upstart Blacks and carpetbaggers to get back in their place.Founded by Nathan Bedford Forrest.Undermined the civil rights given to blacks.Force ActEffective?
61 CONGRESS SUPPORT FADES When Congress passed the Amnesty Act returning voting rights to 150,000 Confederates and allowed the Freedmen’s Bureau to expire—it became clear that Southern Democrats were back in political control
62 DEMOCRATS “REDEEM SOUTH” Lack of Republican unity in the South and an economic downturn that diverted attention from Southern issues, caused Democrats to regain control of the SouthCalled “Redeemers” these politicians were out to reclaim Southern culture, pride and traditionThe Reconstruction Era was over by 1877
63 Negative Legacy of Reconstruction Social Inequality: Jim Crow Laws & Plessy v. FergusonPolitical Inequality: Grandfather Clauses, Literacy Tests, etc.Economic Inequality: Limited Land Leads to Sharecropping and DebtLynching and Racial Violence
64 Sample Jim Crow LawsTextbooks: Books shall not be interchangeable between the white and colored schools, but shall continue to be used by the race first using them. (North Carolina)Baseball: It shall be unlawful for any amateur colored baseball team to play baseball in any vacant lot or baseball diamond within two blocks of any playground devoted to the white race. (Georgia)
65 Another Jim Crow LawRestaurants. It shall be unlawful to conduct a restaurant in the city, at which white and colored people are served in the same room, unless such white and colored persons are separated by a solid partition extending from the floor upward to a distance of seven feet or higher, and unless a separate entrance from the street is provided for each compartment. (Alabama)
66 B. Positive Example and Legal Framework for Civil Rights Movement Black Institutions and Black Leaders
67 Was Reconstruction A Failure? A failure! (Initial reaction – early 20th century)Illiterate blacks & corrupt northern carpetbaggers abused the rights of southern whites and stole vast sums from the state governmentsA success!Many positive achievements by the Reconstruction governments and by black leadersImportance (then & later) of the civil rights legislation & Reconstruction-era amendments (13, 14 & 15)Humanitarian work performed by northern reformersEspecially in education
68 Was Reconstruction A Failure? A failure! (1980s)Radical Republicans were not radical enoughLand not provided to ensure economic independence for blacksMilitary occupation should have lasted longer to protect political rights (voting, etc.) of freedmen.A success! (late 80s, early 90s)The freedmen established many of the institutions in the black community that would lead reform in the 20th century. (churches, colleges, etc.)Basis for the Civil Rights Movement of the 50s, 60s & 70s
69 Table 16.2 Constitutional Amendments and Federal Legislation of the Reconstruction Era Link to MyHistoryLab asset: Read the Document: Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth AmendmentsDuring the Reconstruction era, the Constitution of the United States was amended three times. The Thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery; the Fourteenth Amendment extended citizenship and equality under the law to former slaves; and the Fifteenth Amendment expanded the voting franchise to African American men. Students are asked to understand how these amendments, designed to benefit former slaves, continue to affect all Americans today.
70 Table 16.2 (continued) Constitutional Amendments and Federal Legislation of the Reconstruction Era