Feelings of anger and betrayal towards the monarchy Problems within French government Poor weather and devastated crops leading to starvation Inspiration from American Revolution Age of Enlightenment
People felt that the King had too much power (sealed letters) French debt continued to grow due to costly wars and royal extravagance.
She was Austrian (a former enemy of France) She lavishly spent huge amounts of revenue
The third estate wanted to vote by head as they had double the representation in the assembly. The First estate wanted to vote by bloc. Third estate were locked out of the and gathered in the royal tennis Courts. They wanted all three estates to join together as one body, The National Assembly.
Even though peasants constituted 75% of France’s population, they had the least rights, the least privileges and paid the most taxes. The first estate owned 15% of the land, held tax-free.
People were starving. Freak weather: massive hailstorm, drought, cold winter, then floods all led to a poor harvest. Food became expensive, people lost jobs which led to starvation.
Once the nobles agreed to give up their feudal rights, the National Assembly reduced the power of the Church: - They took land and money away from the clergy - priests and bishops were to be elected and had to swear an oath to the constitution.
Many clergy refused, as the Pope forbade the giving of the oath. Church became divided: Some people thought the church had too much power, but others felt you couldn’t take power away from God and his representatives on earth.
The French people relied on symbolism and allegory to represent their pursuit of liberty. The “liberty cap” originally worn by freed Roman slaves, became a symbol of freedom.
In response to the high price of bread, Louis’ refusal to sign the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the citizen his gathering of soldiers in Paris, women marched to Versailles.
Passed by the National Assembly Sets out the basic human rights guaranteeing freedom of thought, speech, religion, security and property. It put limits on the power of the government.
violence spread throughout Paris, and then spilled over into the countryside, where gangs of homeless searched for food. Rumours of Foreign threat: Emperor Leopold II of Austria and King Frederick William II of Prussia invited other European monarchs to help put the King of France back in a position of power.
France declared war on Austria, on April 20 th, 1792. Many people wanted war: Louis hoped for defeat so he could be restored to power Republicans felt Louis would be forced to show what side he was on. The assembly took emergency measures, declaring “The Fatherland is in Danger”: They appealed to all citizens to volunteer for the army They expelled all foreigners who refused to take an oath of loyalty
Two Political Clubs developed within the Convention: Girondists and Jacobins Jacobins, the more radical of the two, took over the Convention, expelling the Girondins. Many lead members were guillotined.
Republicans who believed in equal rights. They were known for their use of violence in their demand for equality. They carried weapons to use against any who opposed them. They supported the political party, the Jacobins.
The Convention set up The Committee, led by 12 men who held the power to run France very strictly and harshly. They implemented war emergency measures. People were told to draw up lists of people suspected of opposing the government. Many people were imprisoned, deported or killed.
A Mas Levy was ordered where every citizen had to take part in the war effort, increasing the French army to 800 000 men. Cult of reason replaced that of Christianity (churches were closed and a new calendar was created). Around 50,000 people were executed during the reign of terror, most by the guillotine, others by cannon fire and grape shot.