The “Jacques” “ Jacques” was a code name used by the revolutionaries to identify other revolutionaries Common name representing the common citizen Provided anonymity Possibly based on real-life: o Jacquerie-peasant revolt in 1300s o Jacobins-the actual revolutionaries
Estates of the Realm First Estate o Clergy o 0.5% of population Second Estate o Nobility o 2% of population Third Estate o Everyone else (peasants, laborers, shop keepers, etc.) o 97% of population
Leading to Revolution Third Estate o Heavily taxed (only estate that was taxed) o Politically under-represented o The poorest were devastated by food shortages The Third Estate’s growing discontent with the lavish lifestyle of aristocracy, despite France’s economic turmoil.
Storming the Bastille - July The Bastille was a prison in the center of Paris Symbol of royal authority and abuses of monarchy A mob of citizens stormed the Bastille Only 7 prisoners, but a lot of gunpowder (15 tons)
Storming of the Bastille “Work, Jacques One, Jacques Two, Jacques One Thousand, Jacques Two Thousand, Jacques Five-and-Twenty Thousand; in the name of all the Angels or the Devils--which you prefer--work!” "To me, women!" cried madame. "What! We can kill as well as the men when the place is taken!”
After the Bastille The king was informed of the storming the next morning by one of his dukes. "Is it a revolt?" asked Louis XVI. The duke replied: "No sire, it is a revolution.”
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen - August Fundamental document of the Revolution First step toward writing constitution Defines individual human rights Collective rights of all estates of the realm as universal Adopted by the National Assembly (political leaders of Third Realm) after the Tennis Court Oath
March on Versailles - Oct Women in a Paris marketplace were angered by the high price and scarcity of bread Grew into a mob of thousands Ransacked the city armory for weapons Marched to Versailles to confront the King
The Red Cap A Red Cap, also known as Liberty cap or Phrygian cap Brimless felt cap, conical with the tip pulled forward Alludes to Roman manumission of slaves o Freed slave receives the cap as symbol of liberty French revolutionaries wore it at the Bastille
The Red Cap Mounted patriots in red caps and tri-coloured cockades, armed with national muskets and sabres…” The red cap and tri-colour cockade were universal, both among men and women. “Houses, with the standard inscription Republic One and Indivisible. Liberty, Equality, Fraternity, or Death!” “Her dark hair looked rich under her coarse red cap.”
Reign of Terror The most violent period of the Revolution Lasted approx. one year, Sept 1793 to July 1794 Mass executions of “enemies of the revolution“ o 16,594 executed by guillotine o 2,639 by guillotine in Paris Another 25,000 executions across France
Madame Guillotine A symbol of the revolution Many nobles (émigrés) left France
Tumbril “Rude carts, bespattered with rustic mire…the Farmer, Death, had already set apart to be his tumbrils of the Revolution.” “The tumbrils now jolted heavily, filled with Condemned…all red wine for La Guillotine, all daily brought into light from the dark cellars of the loathsome prisons, and carried to her through the streets to slake her devouring thirst. Liberty, equality, fraternity, or death;—the last, much the easiest to bestow, O Guillotine!”
Tricoteuse French for “knitting women” Nickname for the women who regularly attended executions Sat beside the guillotine They were morbidly calm, knitting between executions.
“One woman who had stood conspicuous, knitting, still knitted on with the steadfastness of Fate.”