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1 Presented by: RIT Environmental Health & Safety Department Confined Space EntryPresented by:RIT Environmental Health & Safety Department
2 Confined Space Hazard History Training and proper planning are critical for safe confined space entryAverage of 67 fatalities in confined spaces annuallyUp to 60% of the fatalities are would be rescuers(why we will not be doing emergency rescue that requires entering the space)
3 Confined Space Hazard History Virginia Beach, VA –one worker killed and one FF killed in a ship hold. Worker died because of compressor failure, firefighter died during rescue attemptPhoenix, Arizona- one worker and one FF killed. Fourteen other FF injured during a rescue attempt from an above ground storage tankBoth in different locations, all different rescues, however all had the same results, death and injury occurred to would be rescuers. These all occurred while performing rescues from a silent and potentially deadly killer-confined spaces.
4 Confined Space Entry-Physiological and Psychological Considerations Entering confined spaces can be a dangerous and stressful situation. There may be physical constraints and in many cases hazards you can encounter. These can cause physical, physiological and psychological burdens on the person entering.Some common reactions-Anxiety, claustrophobia, panic
5 Confined Space Entry-Physiological and Psychological Considerations For some these conditions could escalate inside a confined space and result in injury or illness to the person in the space, and could lead to a scenario requiring the person to be rescued.If you know that you react with anxiety, have panic attacks, or experience claustrophobic tendencies, DON’T enter confined spaces.
6 Confined Space Entry General Industry Standard 1910.146 Best Practices for all Industries
7 Confined Space Definition A space that:Is large enough and configured so employee can bodily enter; ANDHas a limited/restricted means for entry or exit; ANDIs not designed for continuous occupancy.Is greater than 5 feet in depthNote: The space has to be all to be classified as a confined space.
8 Not Designed for Continuous Worker Occupancy Most confined spaces are not designed to enter and work in on a regular basis.Product storageEnclose materials or processesTransport products or substancesOccasional worker entry for inspection, repair, cleanup, maintenance, etc.
9 Limited and/or Restricted Access No clear definition in the regulationsFor RIT purposes, “limited or restricted means for entry or exit” corresponds to those entryways that have:a lip (threshold) of greater than six inches in height,a width of less than two feet, and/orthe total door height is less than five and one-half feet
10 Entering Non-Permit Required Confined Spaces RIT Employees may enter a non-permit required confined space without any prior EH&S authorization, however safety procedures outlined in this plan and for the individual space must be followed.
11 Entering Non-Permit Required Confined Spaces (cont.) Those procedures may include, but are not limited to:2 way communication via cell phone or radioNotification to FMS Call Center during normal business hours or your Group Leader after hoursNotification shall include time you are entering and when you expect to exitIf space is one that has been reclassified from a permit required space, a copy of the completed reclassification permit shall be faxed to EH&S x 2966 within 2 business days.
12 How to Identify “ Non-Permit-Required” Confined Spaces
13 Re-Classification of a “Permit-Required” Confined Space In order to avoid going through the formal “Permit-Required” confined space entry program and associated testing and monitoring, a “Permit-Required” confined space may be reclassified as “Non-Permit-Required” confined space.This only applies to “Permit-Required” confined spaces that pose no actual or potential atmospheric hazards and all other spaces where hazards can be eliminated from outside of the space without requiring entry into the space to eliminate those hazards.
14 Re-Classification of a “Permit-Required” Confined Space (cont.) In order to re-classify a permit required confined space, a Reclassification of a Permit-Required Confined Space-Hazard Elimination Certificate must be filled out and posted at the job site. (Forms found on EH&S website.)EH&S must be notified of all Permit-Required Confined Space Re-Classifications. If space is one that has been reclassified from a permit required space, a copy of the completed reclassification permit shall be faxed to EHS x 2966 within 2 business days.
18 Permit-Required Confined Space Definition Must fall under the definition of a confined space and has one or more of the following hazards:Electrical or Mechanical HazardUnfavorable Natural VentilationOxygen deficient atmosphere (<19.5%) or enriched atmosphere (>23.5%)
19 Permit-Required Confined Space Definition (cont.) Toxic atmosphere (Hydrogen Sulfide, Carbon Monoxide)Thermal: Temperature ExtremesFlammable or explosive atmosphere ( at or above 10% LEL)Engulfment potentialSloping or inwardly converging floors, Noise, Slick/Wet Surfaces, Falling Objects
21 How to Identify “Permit-Required” Confined Spaces RIT has identified confined spaces across campus. Each confined space that has been classified as a “Permit-required” confined space is posted with the following sign:Permit-RequiredConfined SpaceDO NOT ENTERFor Entry Contact Environmental Health & Safety atIn Case of an Emergency Contact Public Safety at V/TTY
22 Entering “Permit Required” Confined Spaces No entry without an RIT permit. (Permit forms will be available by contacting EH&S only)Permit must be written and posted at the job site.Permit is used to:prevent unauthorized entryidentify and evaluate the hazardsensure safe practices
23 Entering Permit Required Confined Spaces- that can NOT be reclassified If an employee needs to enter a confined space that is classified as “permit required”, they must first follow the procedures outlined in the Permit-Required Confined Space Entry Plan.This type of entry requires a minimum of 48 hour notification to EH&S, unless it is an emergency.
24 Confined Space Hazards – Electrical and/or Mechanical Hazards A confined space may include equipment or conditions that could lead to mechanical or physical hazardsThese conditions need to be properly controlled prior to entry into the space.MechanicalElectricalPaddlesNon-explosion proof lightingBladesBroken lighting or other equipmentShafts and AugersElectrical sensing devicesChain or Belt DrivesLimit switches and Level indicating devicesHydraulic or pneumanic energyHazards from equipment taken into the space
25 Confined Space Hazards - Unfavorable Natural Ventilation Lack of air movement in and out of the space can create an atmosphere much different than the outside atmosphere.Deadly gases can be trapped inside.Organic materials can decompose.Decreased oxygen levelPresence of other gasesChemical reactions such as rustingWorker(s) consumption rate of oxygen
26 Confined Space Hazards - Oxygen Deficient Atmospheres 19.5 % Minimum acceptable oxygen level.% Decreased ability to work strenuously. Impair coordination. Early symptoms.12-14% Respiration increases.10-12% Respiration increases. Lips blue.8-10% Mental failure. Fainting. Nausea Unconsciousness. Vomiting.6-8% 6 minutes - 50% fatality minutes - possible recovery.4-6% Coma in 40 seconds. Death.
27 Confined Space Hazards - Oxygen Enriched Atmospheres Oxygen level above 23.5%.Causes flammable and combustible materials to burn violently when ignited.Hair, clothing, materials, etc.Oil soaked clothing and materials.Never use pure oxygen to ventilate.Never store or place compressed tanks in a confined space.
28 Confined Space Hazards - Toxic Atmospheres Product stored in a confined space:Materials absorbed into walls of confined spaceDecomposition of materials in the confined spaceWork performed in a confined space:Gases released when cleaningWelding, cutting, brazing, solderingPainting, scraping, sanding, degreasingSealing, bonding, melting
29 Confined Space Hazards – Hydrogen Sulfide Decomposition of materials. Human waste.Rotten egg odor at low concentrations.Odor smell unreliable-sense of smell diminishes with time.PPM Effect Time50 ppm Permissible Exposure Level 8 Hours20 ppm Short-Term Exposure Level 10-minute peakMild Irritation - eyes, throat 1 HourSignificant Irritation 1 HourUnconsciousness, Death 1/2 - 1 Hour> Unconsciousness, Death Minutes
30 Confined Space Hazards - Carbon Monoxide PPM Effect Time50 PEL 8 HoursSlight headache,discomfort Hours600 Headache, 1 Hour discomfortConfusion, 2 Hoursnausea, headacheTendency to stagger Hours2000Slight heart 30 Min.2000 palpitationUnconsciousness Min.Odorless, Colorless Gas.Combustion By-Product.Quickly collapse at high concentrations.
31 Confined Space Hazard - Temperature Extremes Extremely hot or cold temperatures.Steam cleaning of confined spaces.Humidity factors.Extremely cold liquids.Work processes inside the confined space can increase temperature extremes.
32 Confined Space Hazards - Flammable Atmospheres 3 Critical Factors:Oxygen content in the airPresence of a flammable gas, or vaporPresence of dust (visibility of 5’ or less)Proper air/gas mixture can lead to explosionTypical Ignition Sources:Sparking or electric toolWelding / cutting operationsSmoking
33 Confined Space Hazard - Engulfment Engulfment is the entrapment of a person by the contents of a space. The contents surround the entrant(s) and holds them. The substance can be a liquid or flowable solid substance.Loose, granular materials stored in bins and hoppers - grain, sand, coal, etc.Flooding of confined spaceWater or sewage flow
34 Confined Space Hazards - Other Hazards NoiseAmplified due to acoustics within the spaceDamaged hearing, affect communicationSlick / Wet SurfacesSlips and fallsIncreased chance of electric shockFalling ObjectsTopside openings expose workers inside confined space to falling objects
35 RIT Confined Space Permits When RIT employees are required to enter permit-required confined spaces, specific precautions must be taken to ensure that the entry is performed in a safe way.Permits ensure all necessary precautions are undertaken.Permit-Required Confined Space Entry PermitReclassification of a Permit-Required Confined Space - Hazard Elimination Certificate
36 Permit-Required Confined Space Entry Permit An Entry Supervisor will be designated for each permit-required confined space entry.The Entry Supervisor will fill out the Entry Permit and post it at the entry to the confined space.The Permit verifies pre-entry precautions have been taken and the space is safe to enter.The Permit also specifies apparent hazards and corrective actions taken prior to entry.
37 Permit-Required Confined Space Entry Permit The Entry Supervisor may also serve as the attendant or as an authorized entrant for an entry operation, as long as they are properly trained and equipped for each role.The duties of Entry Supervisor may also be passed from one individual to another during the course of an entry operation, as long as the terms and requirements of the Entry Permit continue to be met. This transfer of duties should be noted on the entry permit for each transfer.
38 Permit-Required Confined Space Entry Permit The exception to this is when the confined space contains an immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) atmosphere. One employee or, when needed, more than one employee must be located outside the IDLH atmosphere per the OSHA Respirator Protection Standard (29 CFR (g) (3) ).Definition-Immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) means an atmosphere that poses an immediate threat to life, would cause irreversible adverse health effects, or would impair an individual's ability to escape from a dangerous atmosphere.One member of the team must be First Aid & CPR trained (outside the confined space).
39 Permit-Required Confined Space Entry Permit (Cont.) The Entry Permit will include:Purpose of entry and known hazardsDuration of entry permit timeAuthorized entrants, attendants, supervisorsAir testing results - signature of testerProtective measures to be takenName and phone numbers of rescue and emergency servicesCommunication proceduresSpecial equipment and proceduresPersonal protective equipmentAlarm proceduresRescue equipmentRespirators
41 Permit-Required Confined Space Entry Permit (cont.) The space will be isolated and ventilated.Atmospheric testing and monitoring will be performed to ensure a non-hazardous atmosphere in the space.Requires termination of permit when task is completed or when new conditions exist or personnel change in space
42 Isolation Locking and tagging out electrical sources. Blanking and bleeding pneumatic and hydraulic lines.Disconnecting mechanical drives and shafts.Securing mechanical parts.Blanking sewer and water flow.Locking and tagging out shutoff valves.
43 Ventilation First option to correct problems. Must be aware of hazards you are trying to correct in the confined space.Air intake in a safe location to draw fresh air only.Continuous ventilation whenever possible.Retest the confined space before entry.
44 Testing and Monitoring Must be conducted prior to any entry to verify the presence of safe work atmosphere.Overseen by Entry SupervisorMust test for (in order)OxygenFlammabilityToxicityCarbon Monoxide is the same weight as air.Hydrogen Sulfide is heavier than air.Methane is lighter than air.
45 Testing and Monitoring (cont.) Never trust your senses to determine if the air in a confined space is SAFE!You cannot see or smell many toxic gases and vapors, nor can you determine the level of oxygen present.
46 Personal Protective Equipment Each Confined Space Entry Permit will specify the PPE required for the job
47 Rescue Services Non-Entry Rescue Non-entry emergency rescue services may be provided by crewmembers designated as emergency personnel on the permit.Non-entry mechanical means for rescue (winch/tripod) must be in use.Each entrant shall use a chest/full body harness with a retrieval line attached to the winch/tripod.
48 Rescue Services (cont.) Entry RescueIf more than one entrant is needed, more than one mechanical means for rescue must be employed (i.e., one entrant attached to one tripod).Such personnel shall be trained in First Aid and CPR. If this is not the case, then outside rescue services must be called.At no time is an RIT employee or contractor approved to bodily enter a space to rescue an entrant.
49 Rescue Services (cont.) All entry rescues must be performed by emergency service personnel (Henrietta Fire Department).Calls placed for emergency services will be directed through the RIT Campus Safety Department at ExtensionThe person calling in the emergency will remain on the telephone with the RIT Campus Safety Department Dispatcher until the Dispatcher informs him/her that they have all the information they need.
50 What ifs - In case of illness or injury When communication is difficult due to noise or inability to use cell phones or radios, another communication method needs to be recognized and in place.O.A.T.H. (Ok, Advance, Take up, Help)A series of tugs on the tag line enables this method
51 OATH Signals (Inside and Outside) Ok 1 TugAdvance 2 Tugs ( more rope needed)Take up 3 Tugs ( turn around to come out)Help 4 Tugs (GET OUT or I need help immediately)
52 Confined Space Training Training – The following RIT employees must take this training and hands on use of confined space entry equipment training, prior to their initial confined space work assignment:All workers who must enter confined spaces must undergo training.All attendants and rescue team members.Other employees as necessary for awareness.
53 Confined Space Training (cont.) Retraining – RIT employees must be retrained when:Job duties change.Change in the confined space program (new or revised procedures).New hazards are present.Job performance indicates deficiencies.Any employees who performs or has the potential to perform non-entry rescues should undergo hands-on non-entry rescue training.
57 FMS Confined Space Process Equipment that requires Confined Space procedures are designated in ArchibusThe SOPs are referenced in the Preventive Maintenance work order. There will be a hard copy with each Foreman and a web site reference.If there is a repair or emergency the staff will have to access the C. Space inventory and SOPs from the EH&S web site.All paperwork will be signed and the hard copies will be collected by your Foreman.
58 What you will see accessing the CS table Archibus Equip IDSpacePermitProcedureNumberRequiredHC-001-CT-01309Y15310311HC-001-AHU-0631233133148
59 SOP 1 SOP 1=phone call only. Non-Permit Required Confined Spaces 1) An RIT employee may enter a Non-Permit Required Confined Space using the following procedure:1) Before entry into Non-Permit Required Space, employee calls FMS Call Center (7am-5pm M-Fr) or FMS Group Leader (after hours) and advises of the entry location and expected time of exit from space.2) Employee enters space with communication device (cell phone or two-way radio).3) Upon exit of space, employee calls FMS Call Center or FMS Group Leader and confirms employee has exited space.
60 How to Identify “ Non-Permit-Required” Confined Spaces
61 How to Identify “Permit-Required” Confined Spaces RIT has identified confined spaces across campus. Each confined space that has been classified as a “Permit-required” confined space is posted with the following sign:Permit-RequiredConfined SpaceDO NOT ENTERFor Entry Contact Environmental Health & Safety atIn Case of an Emergency Contact Public Safety at V/TTY
62 SOP 2-39Permit Required Confined Spaces that can be Reclassified as Non-Permit Spaces via ProcedureIndividual can mitigate.This is VERY similar to your current activities.
63 Re-Classification of a “Permit-Required” Confined Space (Cont.) CallFill in Mech/Physical Hazard Elimination CertificateProceed with workHand over signed tag to Foreman after completion of workForeman to EH&S within 2 business days
64 SOP SAMPLE FOR RECLASSIFICATION 3) Air Handlers - Fan Section (Supply or Return)1. Power down Supply Fan and Return Fan (if there is a Return Fan) at VSD.2. Lock out and Tag out Power Disconnect Switches for Supply and Return Fans.3. Notify FMS CC or FMS Group Leader (after regular business hours) of entry and approximate exit time.4. Notify FMS CC or Group Leader of exit.
65 SOP 40-69Permit Required Confined Spaces that can be Reclassified as Non-Permit Spaces via ProcedureTEST AIRFill out Atmospheric and Mechanical/Physical Hazard Elimination CertificateIf numbers fall within range- proceedIf not –STOPCall Foreman
66 SOP SAMPLE WITH RECERTIFICATION AND AIR TESTING 41) Air Intake/Exhaust Pits1. Test atmosphere with 4 gas meter.2. Notify FMS CC or FMS Group Leader of entry and approximate exit time.3. Notify FMS CC or FMS Group Leader of exit.42) Blg 76 Crawl Space2. Notify FMS CC or FMS Group Leader of entry and approximate exit time.
67 Call Progression for Entering Confined Spaces with Procedures 1-69
68 SOP’s 70-99Do not enter without correct teamFill out Confined Space PermitAvailable through EH&S, will not be on EH&S website. Call EH&S to obtain form.
69 SOP SAMPLE WITH CONFINED SPACE PERMIT REQUIRED 72) HTHW City Water Make Up Tank (Blg 01 & 50A) – Vertical Tank – Horizontal Rescue1. Close City Water valve to Make Up Tank.2. Lock out and Tag out City Water valve.3. Close valve between Make Up Tank and Make Up Pumps(s).4. Lock out and Tag out City Water valve.5. Vent and drain tank.6. Remove tank manhole cover.
70 SUMMARYAll equipment will be labeled either “CAUTION” OR CONFINED SPACESOP 1- call onlySOP fill out Mechanical/Physical Hazard Elimination Certificate and continue workSOP test air quality, if pass-continue work and fill out Atmospheric and Mechanical/Physical Hazard Elimination CertificateSOP fill out Confined Space Permit -cannot enter ALONE- a team is required that includes EH&S and someone who is properly certified (First Aid, CPR)
71 SCHEDULE Hands on training- May 12th week All equipment labeled by May 15, 2008Start process May 15, 2008Foreman will have lists of all equipment and SOPs by May 15, 2008EH&S website available by May 15, 2008