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Presented by: RIT Environmental Health & Safety Department

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1 Presented by: RIT Environmental Health & Safety Department
Confined Space Entry Presented by: RIT Environmental Health & Safety Department

2 Confined Space Hazard History
Training and proper planning are critical for safe confined space entry Average of 67 fatalities in confined spaces annually Up to 60% of the fatalities are would be rescuers (why we will not be doing emergency rescue that requires entering the space)

3 Confined Space Hazard History
Virginia Beach, VA –one worker killed and one FF killed in a ship hold. Worker died because of compressor failure, firefighter died during rescue attempt Phoenix, Arizona- one worker and one FF killed. Fourteen other FF injured during a rescue attempt from an above ground storage tank Both in different locations, all different rescues, however all had the same results, death and injury occurred to would be rescuers. These all occurred while performing rescues from a silent and potentially deadly killer-confined spaces.

4 Confined Space Entry-Physiological and Psychological Considerations
Entering confined spaces can be a dangerous and stressful situation. There may be physical constraints and in many cases hazards you can encounter. These can cause physical, physiological and psychological burdens on the person entering. Some common reactions-Anxiety, claustrophobia, panic

5 Confined Space Entry-Physiological and Psychological Considerations
For some these conditions could escalate inside a confined space and result in injury or illness to the person in the space, and could lead to a scenario requiring the person to be rescued. If you know that you react with anxiety, have panic attacks, or experience claustrophobic tendencies, DON’T enter confined spaces.

6 Confined Space Entry General Industry Standard 1910.146
Best Practices for all Industries

7 Confined Space Definition
A space that: Is large enough and configured so employee can bodily enter; AND Has a limited/restricted means for entry or exit; AND Is not designed for continuous occupancy. Is greater than 5 feet in depth Note: The space has to be all to be classified as a confined space.

8 Not Designed for Continuous Worker Occupancy
Most confined spaces are not designed to enter and work in on a regular basis. Product storage Enclose materials or processes Transport products or substances Occasional worker entry for inspection, repair, cleanup, maintenance, etc.

9 Limited and/or Restricted Access
No clear definition in the regulations For RIT purposes, “limited or restricted means for entry or exit” corresponds to those entryways that have: a lip (threshold) of greater than six inches in height, a width of less than two feet, and/or the total door height is less than five and one-half feet

10 Entering Non-Permit Required Confined Spaces
RIT Employees may enter a non-permit required confined space without any prior EH&S authorization, however safety procedures outlined in this plan and for the individual space must be followed.

11 Entering Non-Permit Required Confined Spaces (cont.)
Those procedures may include, but are not limited to: 2 way communication via cell phone or radio Notification to FMS Call Center during normal business hours or your Group Leader after hours Notification shall include time you are entering and when you expect to exit If space is one that has been reclassified from a permit required space, a copy of the completed reclassification permit shall be faxed to EH&S x 2966 within 2 business days.

12 How to Identify “ Non-Permit-Required” Confined Spaces

13 Re-Classification of a “Permit-Required” Confined Space
In order to avoid going through the formal “Permit-Required” confined space entry program and associated testing and monitoring, a “Permit-Required” confined space may be reclassified as “Non-Permit-Required” confined space. This only applies to “Permit-Required” confined spaces that pose no actual or potential atmospheric hazards and all other spaces where hazards can be eliminated from outside of the space without requiring entry into the space to eliminate those hazards.

14 Re-Classification of a “Permit-Required” Confined Space (cont.)
In order to re-classify a permit required confined space, a Reclassification of a Permit-Required Confined Space-Hazard Elimination Certificate must be filled out and posted at the job site. (Forms found on EH&S website.) EH&S must be notified of all Permit-Required Confined Space Re-Classifications. If space is one that has been reclassified from a permit required space, a copy of the completed reclassification permit shall be faxed to EHS x 2966 within 2 business days.

15 Mechanical/Physical Hazard Elimination Certificate

16 Atmospheric & Mechanical/Physical Hazard Elimination Certificate

17 Unusual confined spaces

18 Permit-Required Confined Space Definition
Must fall under the definition of a confined space and has one or more of the following hazards: Electrical or Mechanical Hazard Unfavorable Natural Ventilation Oxygen deficient atmosphere (<19.5%) or enriched atmosphere (>23.5%)

19 Permit-Required Confined Space Definition (cont.)
Toxic atmosphere (Hydrogen Sulfide, Carbon Monoxide) Thermal: Temperature Extremes Flammable or explosive atmosphere ( at or above 10% LEL) Engulfment potential Sloping or inwardly converging floors, Noise, Slick/Wet Surfaces, Falling Objects

20 Typical Permit Required Confined Spaces
Boiler, Degreaser, Furnace, Tanks Pipeline, Pit, Pumping Station Reaction or Process Vessel Sewer, Utility Vault, Manhole Trenches, Shafts, Caissons

21 How to Identify “Permit-Required” Confined Spaces
RIT has identified confined spaces across campus. Each confined space that has been classified as a “Permit-required” confined space is posted with the following sign: Permit-Required Confined Space DO NOT ENTER For Entry Contact Environmental Health & Safety at In Case of an Emergency Contact Public Safety at V/TTY

22 Entering “Permit Required” Confined Spaces
No entry without an RIT permit. (Permit forms will be available by contacting EH&S only) Permit must be written and posted at the job site. Permit is used to: prevent unauthorized entry identify and evaluate the hazards ensure safe practices

23 Entering Permit Required Confined Spaces- that can NOT be reclassified
If an employee needs to enter a confined space that is classified as “permit required”, they must first follow the procedures outlined in the Permit-Required Confined Space Entry Plan. This type of entry requires a minimum of 48 hour notification to EH&S, unless it is an emergency.

24 Confined Space Hazards – Electrical and/or Mechanical Hazards
A confined space may include equipment or conditions that could lead to mechanical or physical hazards These conditions need to be properly controlled prior to entry into the space. Mechanical Electrical Paddles Non-explosion proof lighting Blades Broken lighting or other equipment Shafts and Augers Electrical sensing devices Chain or Belt Drives Limit switches and Level indicating devices Hydraulic or pneumanic energy Hazards from equipment taken into the space

25 Confined Space Hazards - Unfavorable Natural Ventilation
Lack of air movement in and out of the space can create an atmosphere much different than the outside atmosphere. Deadly gases can be trapped inside. Organic materials can decompose. Decreased oxygen level Presence of other gases Chemical reactions such as rusting Worker(s) consumption rate of oxygen

26 Confined Space Hazards - Oxygen Deficient Atmospheres
19.5 % Minimum acceptable oxygen level. % Decreased ability to work strenuously. Impair coordination. Early symptoms. 12-14% Respiration increases. 10-12% Respiration increases. Lips blue. 8-10% Mental failure. Fainting. Nausea Unconsciousness. Vomiting. 6-8% 6 minutes - 50% fatality minutes - possible recovery. 4-6% Coma in 40 seconds. Death.

27 Confined Space Hazards - Oxygen Enriched Atmospheres
Oxygen level above 23.5%. Causes flammable and combustible materials to burn violently when ignited. Hair, clothing, materials, etc. Oil soaked clothing and materials. Never use pure oxygen to ventilate. Never store or place compressed tanks in a confined space.

28 Confined Space Hazards - Toxic Atmospheres
Product stored in a confined space: Materials absorbed into walls of confined space Decomposition of materials in the confined space Work performed in a confined space: Gases released when cleaning Welding, cutting, brazing, soldering Painting, scraping, sanding, degreasing Sealing, bonding, melting

29 Confined Space Hazards – Hydrogen Sulfide
Decomposition of materials. Human waste. Rotten egg odor at low concentrations. Odor smell unreliable-sense of smell diminishes with time. PPM Effect Time 50 ppm Permissible Exposure Level 8 Hours 20 ppm Short-Term Exposure Level 10-minute peak Mild Irritation - eyes, throat 1 Hour Significant Irritation 1 Hour Unconsciousness, Death 1/2 - 1 Hour > Unconsciousness, Death Minutes

30 Confined Space Hazards - Carbon Monoxide
PPM Effect Time 50 PEL 8 Hours Slight headache, discomfort Hours 600 Headache, 1 Hour discomfort Confusion, 2 Hours nausea, headache Tendency to stagger Hours 2000 Slight heart 30 Min. 2000 palpitation Unconsciousness Min. Odorless, Colorless Gas. Combustion By-Product. Quickly collapse at high concentrations.

31 Confined Space Hazard - Temperature Extremes
Extremely hot or cold temperatures. Steam cleaning of confined spaces. Humidity factors. Extremely cold liquids. Work processes inside the confined space can increase temperature extremes.

32 Confined Space Hazards - Flammable Atmospheres
3 Critical Factors: Oxygen content in the air Presence of a flammable gas, or vapor Presence of dust (visibility of 5’ or less) Proper air/gas mixture can lead to explosion Typical Ignition Sources: Sparking or electric tool Welding / cutting operations Smoking

33 Confined Space Hazard - Engulfment
Engulfment is the entrapment of a person by the contents of a space. The contents surround the entrant(s) and holds them. The substance can be a liquid or flowable solid substance. Loose, granular materials stored in bins and hoppers - grain, sand, coal, etc. Flooding of confined space Water or sewage flow

34 Confined Space Hazards - Other Hazards
Noise Amplified due to acoustics within the space Damaged hearing, affect communication Slick / Wet Surfaces Slips and falls Increased chance of electric shock Falling Objects Topside openings expose workers inside confined space to falling objects

35 RIT Confined Space Permits
When RIT employees are required to enter permit-required confined spaces, specific precautions must be taken to ensure that the entry is performed in a safe way. Permits ensure all necessary precautions are undertaken. Permit-Required Confined Space Entry Permit Reclassification of a Permit-Required Confined Space - Hazard Elimination Certificate

36 Permit-Required Confined Space Entry Permit
An Entry Supervisor will be designated for each permit-required confined space entry. The Entry Supervisor will fill out the Entry Permit and post it at the entry to the confined space. The Permit verifies pre-entry precautions have been taken and the space is safe to enter. The Permit also specifies apparent hazards and corrective actions taken prior to entry.

37 Permit-Required Confined Space Entry Permit
The Entry Supervisor may also serve as the attendant or as an authorized entrant for an entry operation, as long as they are properly trained and equipped for each role. The duties of Entry Supervisor may also be passed from one individual to another during the course of an entry operation, as long as the terms and requirements of the Entry Permit continue to be met. This transfer of duties should be noted on the entry permit for each transfer.

38 Permit-Required Confined Space Entry Permit
The exception to this is when the confined space contains an immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) atmosphere. One employee or, when needed, more than one employee must be located outside the IDLH atmosphere per the OSHA Respirator Protection Standard (29 CFR (g) (3) ). Definition- Immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) means an atmosphere that poses an immediate threat to life, would cause irreversible adverse health effects, or would impair an individual's ability to escape from a dangerous atmosphere. One member of the team must be First Aid & CPR trained (outside the confined space).

39 Permit-Required Confined Space Entry Permit (Cont.)
The Entry Permit will include: Purpose of entry and known hazards Duration of entry permit time Authorized entrants, attendants, supervisors Air testing results - signature of tester Protective measures to be taken Name and phone numbers of rescue and emergency services Communication procedures Special equipment and procedures Personal protective equipment Alarm procedures Rescue equipment Respirators

40 Permit Required Confined Space Entry Permit

41 Permit-Required Confined Space Entry Permit (cont.)
The space will be isolated and ventilated. Atmospheric testing and monitoring will be performed to ensure a non-hazardous atmosphere in the space. Requires termination of permit when task is completed or when new conditions exist or personnel change in space

42 Isolation Locking and tagging out electrical sources.
Blanking and bleeding pneumatic and hydraulic lines. Disconnecting mechanical drives and shafts. Securing mechanical parts. Blanking sewer and water flow. Locking and tagging out shutoff valves.

43 Ventilation First option to correct problems.
Must be aware of hazards you are trying to correct in the confined space. Air intake in a safe location to draw fresh air only. Continuous ventilation whenever possible. Retest the confined space before entry.

44 Testing and Monitoring
Must be conducted prior to any entry to verify the presence of safe work atmosphere. Overseen by Entry Supervisor Must test for (in order) Oxygen Flammability Toxicity Carbon Monoxide is the same weight as air. Hydrogen Sulfide is heavier than air. Methane is lighter than air.

45 Testing and Monitoring (cont.)
Never trust your senses to determine if the air in a confined space is SAFE! You cannot see or smell many toxic gases and vapors, nor can you determine the level of oxygen present.

46 Personal Protective Equipment
Each Confined Space Entry Permit will specify the PPE required for the job

47 Rescue Services Non-Entry Rescue
Non-entry emergency rescue services may be provided by crewmembers designated as emergency personnel on the permit. Non-entry mechanical means for rescue (winch/tripod) must be in use. Each entrant shall use a chest/full body harness with a retrieval line attached to the winch/tripod.

48 Rescue Services (cont.)
Entry Rescue If more than one entrant is needed, more than one mechanical means for rescue must be employed (i.e., one entrant attached to one tripod). Such personnel shall be trained in First Aid and CPR. If this is not the case, then outside rescue services must be called. At no time is an RIT employee or contractor approved to bodily enter a space to rescue an entrant.

49 Rescue Services (cont.)
All entry rescues must be performed by emergency service personnel (Henrietta Fire Department). Calls placed for emergency services will be directed through the RIT Campus Safety Department at Extension The person calling in the emergency will remain on the telephone with the RIT Campus Safety Department Dispatcher until the Dispatcher informs him/her that they have all the information they need.

50 What ifs - In case of illness or injury
When communication is difficult due to noise or inability to use cell phones or radios, another communication method needs to be recognized and in place. O.A.T.H. (Ok, Advance, Take up, Help) A series of tugs on the tag line enables this method

51 OATH Signals (Inside and Outside)
Ok 1 Tug Advance 2 Tugs ( more rope needed) Take up 3 Tugs ( turn around to come out) Help 4 Tugs (GET OUT or I need help immediately)

52 Confined Space Training
Training – The following RIT employees must take this training and hands on use of confined space entry equipment training, prior to their initial confined space work assignment: All workers who must enter confined spaces must undergo training. All attendants and rescue team members. Other employees as necessary for awareness.

53 Confined Space Training (cont.)
Retraining – RIT employees must be retrained when: Job duties change. Change in the confined space program (new or revised procedures). New hazards are present. Job performance indicates deficiencies. Any employees who performs or has the potential to perform non-entry rescues should undergo hands-on non-entry rescue training.

54 Examples of common Confined spaces

55 Examples of common Confined spaces

56 Examples of uncommon Confined spaces

57 FMS Confined Space Process
Equipment that requires Confined Space procedures are designated in Archibus The SOPs are referenced in the Preventive Maintenance work order. There will be a hard copy with each Foreman and a web site reference. If there is a repair or emergency the staff will have to access the C. Space inventory and SOPs from the EH&S web site. All paperwork will be signed and the hard copies will be collected by your Foreman.

58 What you will see accessing the CS table
Archibus Equip ID Space Permit Procedure Number Required HC-001-CT-01 309 Y 15 310 311 HC-001-AHU-06 312 3 313 314 8

59 SOP 1 SOP 1=phone call only. Non-Permit Required Confined Spaces
1) An RIT employee may enter a Non-Permit Required Confined Space using the following procedure: 1) Before entry into Non-Permit Required Space, employee calls FMS Call Center (7am-5pm M-Fr) or FMS Group Leader (after hours) and advises of the entry location and expected time of exit from space. 2) Employee enters space with communication device (cell phone or two-way radio). 3) Upon exit of space, employee calls FMS Call Center or FMS Group Leader and confirms employee has exited space.

60 How to Identify “ Non-Permit-Required” Confined Spaces

61 How to Identify “Permit-Required” Confined Spaces
RIT has identified confined spaces across campus. Each confined space that has been classified as a “Permit-required” confined space is posted with the following sign: Permit-Required Confined Space DO NOT ENTER For Entry Contact Environmental Health & Safety at In Case of an Emergency Contact Public Safety at V/TTY

62 SOP 2-39 Permit Required Confined Spaces that can be Reclassified as Non-Permit Spaces via Procedure Individual can mitigate. This is VERY similar to your current activities.

63 Re-Classification of a “Permit-Required” Confined Space (Cont.)
Call Fill in Mech/Physical Hazard Elimination Certificate Proceed with work Hand over signed tag to Foreman after completion of work Foreman to EH&S within 2 business days

64 SOP SAMPLE FOR RECLASSIFICATION
3) Air Handlers - Fan Section (Supply or Return) 1. Power down Supply Fan and Return Fan (if there is a Return Fan) at VSD. 2. Lock out and Tag out Power Disconnect Switches for Supply and Return Fans. 3. Notify FMS CC or FMS Group Leader (after regular business hours) of entry and approximate exit time. 4. Notify FMS CC or Group Leader of exit.

65 SOP 40-69 Permit Required Confined Spaces that can be Reclassified as Non-Permit Spaces via Procedure TEST AIR Fill out Atmospheric and Mechanical/Physical Hazard Elimination Certificate If numbers fall within range- proceed If not –STOP Call Foreman

66 SOP SAMPLE WITH RECERTIFICATION AND AIR TESTING
41) Air Intake/Exhaust Pits 1. Test atmosphere with 4 gas meter. 2. Notify FMS CC or FMS Group Leader of entry and approximate exit time. 3. Notify FMS CC or FMS Group Leader of exit. 42) Blg 76 Crawl Space 2. Notify FMS CC or FMS Group Leader of entry and approximate exit time.

67 Call Progression for Entering Confined Spaces with Procedures 1-69

68 SOP’s 70-99 Do not enter without correct team Fill out Confined Space Permit Available through EH&S, will not be on EH&S website. Call EH&S to obtain form.

69 SOP SAMPLE WITH CONFINED SPACE PERMIT REQUIRED
72) HTHW City Water Make Up Tank (Blg 01 & 50A) – Vertical Tank – Horizontal Rescue 1. Close City Water valve to Make Up Tank. 2. Lock out and Tag out City Water valve. 3. Close valve between Make Up Tank and Make Up Pumps(s). 4. Lock out and Tag out City Water valve. 5. Vent and drain tank. 6. Remove tank manhole cover.

70 SUMMARY All equipment will be labeled either “CAUTION” OR CONFINED SPACE SOP 1- call only SOP fill out Mechanical/Physical Hazard Elimination Certificate and continue work SOP test air quality, if pass-continue work and fill out Atmospheric and Mechanical/Physical Hazard Elimination Certificate SOP fill out Confined Space Permit -cannot enter ALONE- a team is required that includes EH&S and someone who is properly certified (First Aid, CPR)

71 SCHEDULE Hands on training- May 12th week
All equipment labeled by May 15, 2008 Start process May 15, 2008 Foreman will have lists of all equipment and SOPs by May 15, 2008 EH&S website available by May 15, 2008


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