3Calls during the ratification process for greater guarantees of rights resulted in the addition of a Bill of Rights shortly after the Constitution was adopted.
4Demographics of the new nation Census 17904 million peopleCities growing- Philadelphia, New York, Boston, Charleston, and Baltimore90% rural95% lived east of the AppalachiansWithin fourteen years, Vermont, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Ohio all added as states within 14 years
5As the first national administrations began to govern under the Constitution, continued debates about such issues as the relationship between the national government and the states, economic policy, and the conduct of foreign affairs led to the creation of political parties.Kentucky and Virginia ResolutionsHamilton’s Financial PlanProclamation of Neutrality
6Election of Washington Unanimously chosen by the Electoral College in 1789Only presidential nominee to be chosen unanimouslyTook oath of office on April 30, 1789 in NYC
7Department Heads Under Washington Secretary of State- Thomas JeffersonSecretary of the Treasury- Alexander HamiltonSecretary of War- Henry Knox
8Washington established the first cabinet (not mentioned in the Constitution). Table 10-1 p182
9Bill of Rights Adopted in 1791 Protection of freedoms Freedom of speech, press, religion, assembly and petitionbear arms, trial by juryProtection against abuse of powerNo cruel and unusual punishmentProtection against arbitrary gov’t seizure of private property
109th Amendment 10th Amendment People have rights beyond those enumerated10th AmendmentAll powers not delegated or prohibited by the Constitution belong to the states or the peopleThe Bill of Rights preserved a strong central government while protecting minority and individual liberties
11Judiciary Act of 1789Organized the Supreme Court (John Jay became the first Chief Justice)Established federal district and circuit courtsEstablished the office of attorney general
12Hamilton’s Financial Plan “Funding at par”Federal government would pay off its debts at face value- more than $54 million(people had been losing faith that the new government would be able to meet its obligations and the value of government bonds had depreciated to cents on the dollar)“Assumption”Federal government would assume state debts. This would tie the states more to the fed. gov’t.The loyalty of wealthy creditors would shift from the states to the federal government.
13The Bargain1790Hamilton convinced Jefferson to support the plan for assumption in return for the new federal district (D.C.) to be located on the PotomacVirginia did not have a lot of state debt but would gain commerce and prestige from the location of D.C.
14Figure 10.1 Hamilton’s Financial Structure Supported by RevenuesFigure 10-1 p184
15Debt as a national blessing? If the government owes people money, those people have a stake in the success of that government
16RevenueForeign trade and protection of American manufacturing were two elements of Hamilton’s economic planCustom duties (tariff revenues)Dependent upon foreign trade1789 a low tariff was passedDesigned to raise revenue and protect infant industriesExcise taxes (internal tax on certain goods)WhiskeyFell heavily on backcountry distillersIndustrial revolution already in progress in Europe. Hamilton wanted to bring it to America.In the backcountry, farmers distilled the grain to make it more easily transportable
17Whiskey Rebellion 1794, southwestern Pennsylvania Distillers used arguments and symbols of the RevolutionWashington called for militias from the states. 13,000 troops responded.Whiskey Rebellion faded.Government was strengthenedWhiskey poles instead of Liberty poles“Liberty and No Excise”
18The Whiskey Boys The cartoonist clearly favored the Pennsylvania rebels who resisted Hamilton’s imposition of an excise tax on whiskey.p185
19A National Bank Hamilton proposed it Jefferson opposed it Argued that the Necessary and Proper (“elastic”) clause gave the government the authority to create one. This was an “implied power.”-”loose construction”Jefferson opposed itArgued that since it was not in the Constitution, the power to create banks remained with the states (Article X)Washington signed it into lawThe Bank of the United States created 1791Chartered for 20 yearsCapital of $10 million (1/5th owned by Fed. Gov’t)Hamilton believed that what the Constitution did not forbid it permittedJefferson believed that what it did not permit, it forbade
20Spirit, ppWhere do Hamilton and Jefferson stand on the various issues?At its core, what is their debate really about?
21Pair-ShareWhat do you know about our two current political parties and the two-party system?
23The Emergence of Political Parties Organized opposition to Hamilton’s revenue-raising and centralizing policies began to buildPreviously, factions (Whigs/Tories, Feds/Anti-Feds) had existed as opposed to organized political partiesBeginning of America’s two-party systemThe party out of power (“the loyal opposition”) acts as a check on the party in power
26To what extent do our current political parties align to Hamilton’s Federalists and Jefferson’s Democratic-Republicans?
27Assignment Washington’s Farewell Address -Briefly summarize George Washington's beliefs about political parties.-What warning about foreign nations does Washington give in his farewell address? Why was it to the advantage of America to remain aloof? Did Washington reject all alliances in all circumstances? Are the concerns that Washington had about the nation's foreign affairs still applicable today? Why or why not?-Why do you think Washington was so concerned about these two issues (political parties and foreign entanglements)?-Considering the role of political parties in our country today, were Washington's concerns valid?
29Key Concepts- ReviewIn response to domestic and international tensions, the new United States debated and formulated foreign policy initiatives and asserted an international presence.As western settlers sought free navigation of the Mississippi River, the U.S. forged diplomatic initiatives to manage the conflict with Spain and to deal with the continued British presence on the American continent.
30The French Revolution 1789 1792 France declared itself a Republic 1793 King Louis XVI beheaded and Reign of Terror beginsThe French Revolution’s spread throughout Europe and beyond helped fuel Americans’ debate not only about the nature of the United States’ domestic order but also about its proper role in the world.
31Storming the Bastille, 1789 This event signaled the outbreak of the French Revolution. p188
32The Execution of Queen Marie Antoinette, 1793 The bloody excesses of the notorious guillotine disgusted many Americans and soured them on the promises ofthe French Revolution.p187
33French Revolution was initially supported by many Americans, especially Jefferson and the Democratic-RepublicansWhen a world war erupted as a result, however, Americans became less supportive
34Neutrality Proclamation 1793Officially declared America’s neutrality in the battle between England and FranceMarked the beginning of America’s isolationist tradition
35Key ConceptDuring and after the colonial war for independence, various tribes attempted to forge advantageous political alliances with one another and with European powers to protect their interests, limit migration of white settlers, and maintain their tribal lands.Iroquois Confederation, Chief Little Turtle, and the Western Confederacy
36Map 10.1 American Posts Held by the British and British-AmericanClashes After 1783Map 10-1 p191
371794 Battle of Fallen Timbers Chief Little Turtle and the Miami Confederacy (which had been armed by the British) defeat U.S. forces in one of the worst U.S. defeats in the history of the frontier1794 Battle of Fallen TimbersMiamis defeatedTreaty of Greenville (1795)- the Miami Indians surrendered their claims to much of the Old Northwest.Miamis were given $20,000 and an annual annuity of $9,000. Treaty confirmed unequal relationship, but recognized the sovereign status of the Miamis.
38Signing the Treaty ofGreenville, 1795Following GeneralWayne’s victory at theBattle of Fallen Timbersin 1794, the MiamiIndians surrenderedtheir claims to much ofthe Old Northwest.p192
39Map 9.3 Main Centers of Spanish and British Influence After 1783 This map shows graphically that the UnitedStates in 1783 achieved complete independence in nameonly, particularly in the area west of the Appalachian Mountains.Not until twenty years had passed did the new Republic,with the purchase of Louisiana from France in 1803, eliminateforeign influence from the east bank of the MississippiRiver. Much of Florida remained in Spanish hands until theAdams-Oni´s Treaty of 1819 (see p. 239–240).Map 9-3 p167
40Tensions w/ BritainBritish goods flooded the American market while American exports were blocked by British trade restrictions and tariffsBritain maintained forts in North America that they had agreed to leave under the Treaty of ParisBritain impressed American sailors and seized naval and military supplies from American ships
41Jay’s TreatyBritain agreed to abandon the northwestern forts and provided the U.S. with a commercial treaty (although U.S. commerce with the British West Indies remained restricted).Other issues (Canadian-Maine border, compensation for pre-revolutionary debts, and British seizures of American ships) were to be resolved by arbitration.Maintained peace with Britain, but was unpopular with the American public.
42Pinckney’s Treaty1795Resolved territorial disputes between Spain and the U.S.Granted American ships the right to free navigation of the Mississippi and duty free transport through the port of New OrleansNew Orleans was under Spanish control
43Key ConceptAlthough George Washington’s Farewell Address warned about the dangers of divisive political parties and permanent foreign alliances, European conflict and tensions with Britain and France fueled increasingly bitter partisan debates throughout the 1790s.
44Washington’s Farewell Address 1796Printed in the newspapersWarned against permanent alliances (Washington favored temporary alliances for extraordinary emergencies)
45State of the Union The central government was solidly established The country was expandingInternational commerce was growingU.S. had avoided foreign entanglements“The experimental stage had passed ” (p.201)