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The New Nation 1789–1800.

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Presentation on theme: "The New Nation 1789–1800."— Presentation transcript:

1 The New Nation 1789–1800

2 p201

3 Calls during the ratification process for greater guarantees of rights resulted in the addition of a Bill of Rights shortly after the Constitution was adopted.

4 Demographics of the new nation
Census 1790 4 million people Cities growing- Philadelphia, New York, Boston, Charleston, and Baltimore 90% rural 95% lived east of the Appalachians Within fourteen years, Vermont, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Ohio all added as states within 14 years

5 As the first national administrations began to govern under the Constitution, continued debates about such issues as the relationship between the national government and the states, economic policy, and the conduct of foreign affairs led to the creation of political parties. Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions Hamilton’s Financial Plan Proclamation of Neutrality

6 Election of Washington
Unanimously chosen by the Electoral College in 1789 Only presidential nominee to be chosen unanimously Took oath of office on April 30, 1789 in NYC

7 Department Heads Under Washington
Secretary of State- Thomas Jefferson Secretary of the Treasury- Alexander Hamilton Secretary of War- Henry Knox

8 Washington established the first cabinet (not mentioned in the Constitution).
Table 10-1 p182

9 Bill of Rights Adopted in 1791 Protection of freedoms
Freedom of speech, press, religion, assembly and petition bear arms, trial by jury Protection against abuse of power No cruel and unusual punishment Protection against arbitrary gov’t seizure of private property

10 9th Amendment 10th Amendment
People have rights beyond those enumerated 10th Amendment All powers not delegated or prohibited by the Constitution belong to the states or the people The Bill of Rights preserved a strong central government while protecting minority and individual liberties

11 Judiciary Act of 1789 Organized the Supreme Court (John Jay became the first Chief Justice) Established federal district and circuit courts Established the office of attorney general

12 Hamilton’s Financial Plan
“Funding at par” Federal government would pay off its debts at face value- more than $54 million (people had been losing faith that the new government would be able to meet its obligations and the value of government bonds had depreciated to cents on the dollar) “Assumption” Federal government would assume state debts. This would tie the states more to the fed. gov’t. The loyalty of wealthy creditors would shift from the states to the federal government.

13 The Bargain 1790 Hamilton convinced Jefferson to support the plan for assumption in return for the new federal district (D.C.) to be located on the Potomac Virginia did not have a lot of state debt but would gain commerce and prestige from the location of D.C.

14 Figure 10.1 Hamilton’s Financial Structure
Supported by Revenues Figure 10-1 p184

15 Debt as a national blessing?
If the government owes people money, those people have a stake in the success of that government

16 Revenue Foreign trade and protection of American manufacturing were two elements of Hamilton’s economic plan Custom duties (tariff revenues) Dependent upon foreign trade 1789 a low tariff was passed Designed to raise revenue and protect infant industries Excise taxes (internal tax on certain goods) Whiskey Fell heavily on backcountry distillers Industrial revolution already in progress in Europe. Hamilton wanted to bring it to America. In the backcountry, farmers distilled the grain to make it more easily transportable

17 Whiskey Rebellion 1794, southwestern Pennsylvania
Distillers used arguments and symbols of the Revolution Washington called for militias from the states. 13,000 troops responded. Whiskey Rebellion faded. Government was strengthened Whiskey poles instead of Liberty poles “Liberty and No Excise”

18 The Whiskey Boys The cartoonist clearly favored the Pennsylvania rebels who
resisted Hamilton’s imposition of an excise tax on whiskey. p185

19 A National Bank Hamilton proposed it Jefferson opposed it
Argued that the Necessary and Proper (“elastic”) clause gave the government the authority to create one. This was an “implied power.” -”loose construction” Jefferson opposed it Argued that since it was not in the Constitution, the power to create banks remained with the states (Article X) Washington signed it into law The Bank of the United States created 1791 Chartered for 20 years Capital of $10 million (1/5th owned by Fed. Gov’t) Hamilton believed that what the Constitution did not forbid it permitted Jefferson believed that what it did not permit, it forbade

20 Spirit, pp Where do Hamilton and Jefferson stand on the various issues? At its core, what is their debate really about?

21 Pair-Share What do you know about our two current political parties and the two-party system?

22 Political Opinion Poll

23 The Emergence of Political Parties
Organized opposition to Hamilton’s revenue-raising and centralizing policies began to build Previously, factions (Whigs/Tories, Feds/Anti-Feds) had existed as opposed to organized political parties Beginning of America’s two-party system The party out of power (“the loyal opposition”) acts as a check on the party in power

24 Table 10-2 p186

25 Table 10-3 p198

26 To what extent do our current political parties align to Hamilton’s Federalists and Jefferson’s Democratic-Republicans?

27 Assignment Washington’s Farewell Address
-Briefly summarize George Washington's beliefs about political parties. -What warning about foreign nations does Washington give in his farewell address? Why was it to the advantage of America to remain aloof? Did Washington reject all alliances in all circumstances? Are the concerns that Washington had about the nation's foreign affairs still applicable today? Why or why not? -Why do you think Washington was so concerned about these two issues (political parties and foreign entanglements)? -Considering the role of political parties in our country today, were Washington's concerns valid?

28 Foreign Policy

29 Key Concepts- Review In response to domestic and international tensions, the new United States debated and formulated foreign policy initiatives and asserted an international presence. As western settlers sought free navigation of the Mississippi River, the U.S. forged diplomatic initiatives to manage the conflict with Spain and to deal with the continued British presence on the American continent.

30 The French Revolution 1789 1792 France declared itself a Republic
1793 King Louis XVI beheaded and Reign of Terror begins The French Revolution’s spread throughout Europe and beyond helped fuel Americans’ debate not only about the nature of the United States’ domestic order but also about its proper role in the world.

31 Storming the Bastille, 1789 This event signaled the outbreak of the French Revolution.

32 The Execution of Queen Marie Antoinette, 1793 The bloody excesses of the
notorious guillotine disgusted many Americans and soured them on the promises of the French Revolution. p187

33 French Revolution was initially supported by many Americans, especially Jefferson and the Democratic-Republicans When a world war erupted as a result, however, Americans became less supportive

34 Neutrality Proclamation
1793 Officially declared America’s neutrality in the battle between England and France Marked the beginning of America’s isolationist tradition

35 Key Concept During and after the colonial war for independence, various tribes attempted to forge advantageous political alliances with one another and with European powers to protect their interests, limit migration of white settlers, and maintain their tribal lands. Iroquois Confederation, Chief Little Turtle, and the Western Confederacy

36 Map 10.1 American Posts Held by
the British and British-American Clashes After 1783 Map 10-1 p191

37 1794 Battle of Fallen Timbers
Chief Little Turtle and the Miami Confederacy (which had been armed by the British) defeat U.S. forces in one of the worst U.S. defeats in the history of the frontier 1794 Battle of Fallen Timbers Miamis defeated Treaty of Greenville (1795)- the Miami Indians surrendered their claims to much of the Old Northwest. Miamis were given $20,000 and an annual annuity of $9,000. Treaty confirmed unequal relationship, but recognized the sovereign status of the Miamis.

38 Signing the Treaty of Greenville, 1795 Following General Wayne’s victory at the Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794, the Miami Indians surrendered their claims to much of the Old Northwest. p192

39 Map 9.3 Main Centers of Spanish and British Influence
After 1783 This map shows graphically that the United States in 1783 achieved complete independence in name only, particularly in the area west of the Appalachian Mountains. Not until twenty years had passed did the new Republic, with the purchase of Louisiana from France in 1803, eliminate foreign influence from the east bank of the Mississippi River. Much of Florida remained in Spanish hands until the Adams-Oni´s Treaty of 1819 (see p. 239–240). Map 9-3 p167

40 Tensions w/ Britain British goods flooded the American market while American exports were blocked by British trade restrictions and tariffs Britain maintained forts in North America that they had agreed to leave under the Treaty of Paris Britain impressed American sailors and seized naval and military supplies from American ships

41 Jay’s Treaty Britain agreed to abandon the northwestern forts and provided the U.S. with a commercial treaty (although U.S. commerce with the British West Indies remained restricted). Other issues (Canadian-Maine border, compensation for pre-revolutionary debts, and British seizures of American ships) were to be resolved by arbitration. Maintained peace with Britain, but was unpopular with the American public.

42 Pinckney’s Treaty 1795 Resolved territorial disputes between Spain and the U.S. Granted American ships the right to free navigation of the Mississippi and duty free transport through the port of New Orleans New Orleans was under Spanish control

43 Key Concept Although George Washington’s Farewell Address warned about the dangers of divisive political parties and permanent foreign alliances, European conflict and tensions with Britain and France fueled increasingly bitter partisan debates throughout the 1790s.

44 Washington’s Farewell Address
1796 Printed in the newspapers Warned against permanent alliances (Washington favored temporary alliances for extraordinary emergencies)

45 State of the Union The central government was solidly established
The country was expanding International commerce was growing U.S. had avoided foreign entanglements “The experimental stage had passed ” (p.201)

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