Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Chapter 10.  The loss of unity and order, as well as the breakup of allegiances between kings and nobles changed the landscape of Western Europe after.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Chapter 10.  The loss of unity and order, as well as the breakup of allegiances between kings and nobles changed the landscape of Western Europe after."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 10

2  The loss of unity and order, as well as the breakup of allegiances between kings and nobles changed the landscape of Western Europe after the fall of Rome  Family-based law supplanted Roman laws and insecurities led communities to seek the protection of local strongmen Feudal system

3  Before the fall of Rome, the East (Mediterranean) flourished Population was high and economy was strong  Western Rome broke up into a handful of kingdoms in the 5 th century  Rome lost political importance—bishop of Rome—pope  Latin evolved and Europe had 3 linguistic zones: Romance languages (west and south) Germanic/Scandinavian languages (north) Slavic languages (east)

4  Muslims continued to invade Western Europe  Military effectiveness was key to the rapid emergence of the Carolingian family Charlemagne  In 793 Vikings started attacking “Viking warriors descending from multi-oared dragon-prowed boats to pillage monasteries, villages, and towns.” Settled Greenland, Iceland and Vinland Vikings settled Normandy

5  Major changes following the collapse of Rome: Cities became unpopulated—marble buildings became dilapidated because of lack of money, laborers, and leadership Trade languished—trading areas were cut off and Western Europe became self sufficient Education and civilized life disappeared—’local traditions’ flourished Diets changed—beer, lard, bread and pork in the North v. wheat, wine and olive oil in the South


7  Manors became the primary centers of agricultural production  Life on the manor reflected one’s personal status—the Lord and his family exercised almost unlimited power over their serfs Serfs had to till their lord’s fields and were subject to other dues and obligations They were prohibited from leaving the manor where they were born

8  “Feudal Society” in which kings and lords gave land to ‘vassals’ in return for sworn military support  Military security was a constant concern in most parts of Europe The rise of the mounted warrior on the battlefield is associated with the use of stirrups  A fief was a grant of land in return for a sworn oath to provide specified military service  Kings tended to be weak and dependent on their vassals

9  The lord’s manor was the effective source of governance and justice in most areas  Noblewomen had obligations as heiresses and candidates for marriage  Women could own land and some noblewomen administered their husband’s lands  Women who were not noble usually worked alongside their husbands performing agricultural tasks—staking hay, shearing sheep, picking vegetables


11  The church was the sole institution claiming jurisdiction over large segments of Europe’s population  The papacy helped unify and bring order to Western Europe  The church hierarchy was intended to ensure consistency in Christian belief throughout the Christian community

12  Their were many disagreements over Jesus’ relationship, the Trinity and the use of Mary and Jesus icons  The most severe ecclesiastical authority arose in North Africa and resulted in the schism—a formal division resulting from disagreements about doctrine  The common way of dealing with challenges to Christian unity was for a council of bishops to deliberate and declare a doctrine true or false

13  In Western Europe, the pope needed allies and he found them in rulers Holy Roman Emperor  Their was a struggle over ecclesiastical appointments—bishops appointed by secular rulers or the pope  Investiture controversy refers to the struggle to control ecclesiastical appointments and the conflict between popes and emperors

14  Following the investiture controversy, Western Europe was heir to three legal traditions: Feudal law Canon, or church, law based on Roman precedent with jurisdiction over Western Christendom Roman law  Monasticism developed where monks and nuns lived in religious communities where they devoted themselves to prayer

15  Monasteries were the primary centers of literacy and learning in the centuries following the decline of the Western Empire  Copying manuscripts and religious manuals were part of their religious calling Illuminated pages


17  The Byzantine emperors represented the continuation of Roman imperial rule and tradition  It brought continuity to political, social and religious life  The Roman emperors retained many of the imperial traditions that disappeared in the West

18  In contrast to the West, the Byzantine emperor appointed the patriarch of Constantinople and involved himself in doctrinal disputes  The Byzantine empire was torn for centuries over theological disputes— religious differences permeated society Polytheism died fairly quickly  Having a single ruler with supreme legal and religious authority prevented the break up of the Eastern Empire

19  In many areas, barter replaced money transactions, cities declined in population and prosperity and the traditional class of local urban notables nearly disappeared  A family-based military aristocracy developed Women increasingly found themselves confined to the home by their husbands and social customs When they went out, they covered their faces behind veils

20  Economically, emperors set prices, controlled grain provisions and monopolized trade  Byzantium started to decline, but not until the Crusades did the Byzantines realize they were being surpassed by the West Lost valuable provinces, Constantinople was sacked during the 4 th Crusade  Cultural Achievements: Corpus Juris Civilis—basis for Civil Law Hagia Sophia—domed cathedral

Download ppt "Chapter 10.  The loss of unity and order, as well as the breakup of allegiances between kings and nobles changed the landscape of Western Europe after."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google