Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Leaving Certificate History The Treaty negotiations, October-December 1921: helping students to think critically

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Leaving Certificate History The Treaty negotiations, October-December 1921: helping students to think critically"— Presentation transcript:

1 Leaving Certificate History The Treaty negotiations, October-December 1921: helping students to think critically

2 Helping students to think critically Increasing focus on students’ ability to think critically The enquiry-focused approach: rationale Card-sorting and critical skills (Booklet, pages 43-48)

3 The enquiry-focused approach Aims To give a clear focus to a series of lessons To clarify for all concerned what the learning purposes are To ensure that the sequence of lessons is leading to improved understanding on the part of the students

4 Case study: contextual overview ‘War of independence’: different designations, perceptions of IRA June 1921: both sides’ interest in peace moves July-September: London talks → exchange of letters → proposals for London conference, formula agreed? Irish delegation: members, de Valera’s absence, delegates’ status, case to be argued British delegation, venue, duration of conference Boundary commission proposals, signing of Articles of Agreement, resulting divisions

5 A glossary of terms Developing students’ historical literacy Key terms: Articles of Agreement, boundary commission, British Commonwealth, dominion status, envoys plenipotentiary, external association, fiscal autonomy, Government of Ireland Act 1920, oath of allegiance, reprisals

6 Timeline Government of Ireland, , May/June: background to truce July: truce, de Valera in London August-September: Lloyd George-de Valera correspondence October-December: developments in talks 6 th December and following: signing of Articles of Agreement and subsequent divisions

7 Biographical notes Irish delegates (leaders?) Irish secretaries (Childers, Chartres) British delegates (leaders?) British secretaries (Jones, Curtis) Other key figures

8 Useful websites ions_October-December_1921/ ions_October-December_1921/ room/digital-book-collection/digital-books-by- subject/history-of-ireland/pakenham-peace- by-ordeal/ room/digital-book-collection/digital-books-by- subject/history-of-ireland/pakenham-peace- by-ordeal/

9 The Treaty negotiations, October- December, 1921 An enquiry: What happened between July and December 1921 that led to major political division in Ireland? Rationale for this? Steps into which the enquiry can be broken

10 The Treaty negotiations, October- December, 1921 Introduction to the enquiry King’s speech Significance of Northern settlement? Possible hook: gallery/treaty-newsreel/ gallery/treaty-newsreel/

11 Enquiry, Step 1 What happened between July and October, 1921, that led to the Treaty negotiations which took place between October and December? Potential benefits of using this question to focus on the subject matter of the case study?

12 What happened between July and Oct ? Lloyd George’s invitation to de Valera to attend a conference (Source 1A) De Valera’s responses Truce De Valera’s acceptance of invitation (Source 1B)

13 What happened between July and Oct ? David Low, The Star, 12 th July 1921 © Express Syndication

14 What happened between July and Oct ? De Valera, Lloyd George meet in London: what Lloyd George offered De Valera’s responses (Sources 1D, 1E) Lloyd George’s ‘fresh’ invitation of 29 th September (Source 1G) De Valera’s acceptance (Source 1H)

15 What happened between July and Oct ? Delegated appointed Plenipotentiary status Instructions given (Source 1I) Envisaged elements of settlement

16 The delegates in London

17 Enquiry, Step 2 What are the main issues that arose in and around the Treaty negotiations? Potential benefits of using this question to focus on the subject matter of the case study?

18 What are the main issues that arose... between October and December? Significant developments Commentary Associated sources

19 What are the main issues that arose... between October and December? Griffith’s initial impressions (Source 2A) Childers to de Valera, 21 st October, re. strategy on issue of Crown (Source 2B) Griffith and Collins discussions with Lloyd George and Chamberlain on issues of Crown and essential unity (Source 2C)

20 What are the main issues that arose... between October and December? Griffith discussion with Lloyd George, 2 nd November (Source 2D) Griffith letter to de Valera re. boundary commission proposal, 12 th November (Source 2E); nature of undertaking given to Lloyd George?

21 What are the main issues that arose... between October and December? Irish memorandum of 22 nd November and British response to it (Source 2F) Griffith letter to de Valera re. Chequers meeting with Lloyd George, 28 th November (Source 2G); exchange on issue of Crown

22 Enquiry, Step 3 What were the circumstances in which the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty were signed in the early hours of 6 th December? Potential benefits of using this question to focus on the subject matter of the case study?

23 What were the circumstances in which the Articles of Agreement were signed...? Significant developments Related sources

24 What were the circumstances in which the Articles of Agreement were signed...? Interview between Collins and Lloyd George (Source 3A): Collins’ thoughts on boundary commission Final sub-conferences (Source 3B): Lloyd George’s use of Griffith ‘letter’; concession on trade?; threat of war?

25 Source 3C David Low, The Star, 7 th December 1921 © Express Syndication

26 Source 3D David Low, The Star, 9 th December 1921 © Express Syndication

27 Enquiry, Step 4 What divisions emerged in Ireland in December, 1921, following the signing of the Treaty? Potential benefits of using this question to focus on the subject matter of the case study?

28 What divisions emerged... following the signing of the Treaty? Significant developments Related sources

29 What divisions emerged... following the signing of the Treaty? Delegates summoned to cabinet meeting on 8 th December (Source 4A): Desmond Fitzgerald’s surprise at de Valera’s response Austin Stack’s recollection of cabinet meeting (Source 4B) C.S. Andrews’ recollection of IRA response (Source 4C) De Valera’s letter to the press (Source 4D)

30 What divisions emerged... following the signing of the Treaty? Extracts from Dáil debates on Treaty (Sources 4E, 4F, 4G, 4H, 4I, 4J, 4K, 4L) Questions to help students interrogate the sources (Booklet, p.49)

31 The Treaty negotiations: Aftermath Attributed to Constance de Markiewicz Courtesy of The National Library of Ireland

32

33 The Treaty negotiations, October- December, 1921 Card sorting and critical skills Supplementary cards Use of cards to facilitate categorisation of arguments for and against Treaty

34 Group activity Critical skills exercise

35 The Treaty negotiations, October- December, 1921 Historians’ views (Secondary sources A-E) Interrogating the historians

36 What happened between July and December 1921 that led to major political division in Ireland? Your conclusions on the enquiry Booklet p. 50

37


Download ppt "Leaving Certificate History The Treaty negotiations, October-December 1921: helping students to think critically"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google