Presentation on theme: "Section 4 The Cold War at Home Pages 851-857. 1.Discuss the actins the U.S. government took to limit communism at home, and describe how these actions."— Presentation transcript:
1.Discuss the actins the U.S. government took to limit communism at home, and describe how these actions affected Americans’ everyday lives. 2. Explain how Senator Joseph McCarthy was able to play upon Americans’ fears of communism. 3. Describe how Americans reacted to the prospect of nuclear war and the launch of Sputnik.
July, 1947- Congress retooled the War Department by renaming it the Department of Defense. Also, a Joint Chiefs of staff combining the navy, army, and air force. This was known as peacetime rearmament. National Security Council: created by Congress to advise the president on strategic matters.
In 1947 then President Harry S. Truman setup a Loyalty Review Board to question all federal employees. He was accused of allowing communists into the federal government. 1938-House Un-American Activities Committee – established to fight the fascist groups. Now they were going after the Communist Party. 1947-Hollywood Ten: The committee went after the movie industry. The group chose not to answer questions and many went to jail, were blacklisted, denied work, and saw careers destroyed.
Imagine that your school has decided that any student who questions school policy is a negative influence. The principal has decided to detain all students suspected of disagreeing with school policy. How would you feel about such a situation? How would this affect school morale?
Alger Hiss: a New Deal lawyer that began working at the State Department in 1936. In 1948 Whittaker Chambers former member of the Communist Party accused him of being a Communist spy. Hiss denied the charges, evidence was shown that he was involved (microfilm). Committed perjury (lying) under oath. Five years in prison. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg: In 1951 this couple was accused of giving the Soviet Union atomic-energy secrets during WWII. Many said they were victims of communist hysteria. Executed in June, 1953.
Internal Security Act: 1950- Required all Communist Party members and organizations to register with the federal government. Stricter controls on immigration that may be suspected of being Communist.
Task 1: Conduct research on science-fiction movies that explored Cold War themes. Task 2: Select and watch a science-fiction movie that contains a theme associated with Cold War fears. Task 3: Put together a movie review power point. Task 4: Assignment due on Friday, October 1, 2010.
Joseph McCarthy: U.S. senator from Wisconsin, with all the fear of communism this senator fueled the suspicions. He said, “the Communists within our borders have been more responsible for the success of communism abroad than Soviet Russia.” McCarthy’s rise: Claim to fame in 1950 when he said a list of Communists who worked at the State Department. He ruined reputations of government workers. Margaret Chase Smith: Republican senator from Maine challenged his ruthlessness. Declaration of Conscience: condemned those that had made the Senate into a forum of hate and character assassination.
The Crucible-1953: Arthur Miller the playwright drew parallels between McCarthyism and the Salem Witchcraft trials of 1692. See It Now: Television newscaster Edward R. Murrow questioned McCarthy’s tactics. Murrow commented “We cannot defend freedom abroad,” “by deserting it at home.” He was praised and ridiculed for what he said.
1954: McCarthy’s congressional committee investigated charges that there were Communists in the U.S. Army. This was the decline of McCarthy after 35 days of questions nothing was produced. Joseph McCarthy: groundless accusations came as little surprise. A lawyer and former circuit court judge, he had won Wisconsin’s Republican senatorial nomination in 1946 in a primary that featured lies about his opponent’s campaign finances. In the general campaign, McCarthy lied about his military record during WWII. He claimed that he had flown some 30 combat missions when he actually had not flown any. After winning the election, McCarthy gained a reputation in the Senate for rude behavior and heavy drinking. He died of liver failure in 1957, at the age of 48.
Hydrogen bomb: or H-Bomb was part of the fears in the US in the 1950s. J. Robert Oppenheimer, one of the creators cautioned moderation in the growing arms race. Religion and nuclear war: due to anxiety people turned to religion as a form of comfort in these turblement times. Billy Graham: attracted large audiences to venues. Congress added “One Nation Under God” to the Pledge of Allegiance and “In God We Trust” to U.S. coins.
Calming public fears: 1951 Federal Civil Defense launched a campaign to educate the public on what to do in case of a nuclear attack. Pamphlets, films, television shows, magazines and the “Duck and Cover” program for ways to protect ourselves. Nuclear Fallout: The threat of nuclear war led many Americans to invest in bomb shelters. In 1957 Congress held hearing to discuss radioactive fallout. Dr. Benjamin Spock: organized the committee known as Sane Nuclear Policy: urging the end of nuclear tests.
Sputnik: Soviet Union launched it first artificial satellite in orbit in October, 1957. Sputnik II: November, 1957 launched another satellite with a dog aboard. January, 1958—Explorer I: first satellite into orbit. The space race had begun. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA): promote U.S. space technology. 1958: National Defense Education Act: approved millions in improving education in science, math, and foreign languages.