Presentation on theme: "Reconstruction and the New South ( )"— Presentation transcript:
1Reconstruction and the New South (1865-1896) Chapter 17Reconstruction and the New South ( )
2Essential QuestionHow did plans to unify the nation differ after the Civil War?
3Reconstruction Debate Main Idea: Government leaders disagreed about how Southern states could rejoin the UnionSouthern states, because they had left the Union in 1861, needed to be readmittedThe economy and society of the South needed to be rebuilt
4Lincoln’s PlanTen Percent Plan: When 10% of the voters of a state took an oath of loyalty to the Union, that state could be readmitted.Punishing the South was uselessOffered amnesty to all white Southerners willing to swear loyalty to the Union.
5The Radical’s PlanRadical Republicans headed by Thaddeus Stevens believed Lincoln’s plan was too forgiving.Radical Republicans controlled Congress and voted to deny seats to representatives from any state readmitted under Lincoln’s plan.Passed the Wade Davis Bill
6Wade Davis Bill July 1864 – passed by Congress To rejoin the Union, a state had to meet the following requirementsMajority of white males must swear loyalty to the UnionOnly white males who did not fight against the Union could vote for delegates to a state constitutional conventionHad to ban slavery
7The Freedmen’s BureauSet up by Lincoln and Congress to help African Americans adjust to freedomProvided food, clothing and medical servicesSet up schoolsHelped freed people acquire land or find work
8Assassination of Lincoln Shortly after the Freedmen’s Bureau was founded, a tragic event took place that shocked the nation. On April 14, 1865, President Lincoln attended a play at Ford’s Theater in Washington D.C. John Wilkes Booth, an actor and Confederate sympathizer, entered the private box and shot Lincoln in the head. Lincoln died several hours later.
10Assassination of Lincoln When Lincoln died, Vice President Andrew Johnson became president. Johnson was born in the South but supported the Union during the war. Johnson soon revealed his plan for Reconstruction.
11Johnson’s PlanGrant amnesty to most Southerners once they swore loyaltyDesired to humiliate Southern Confederate leaders by making them appeal to him personally for a pardonOpposed equal rights for African AmericansStates had to ratify the 13th Amendment before allowed back in the UnionBy the end of 1865, all states, except Texas, had new governments and were ready to join the Union.
12Compare and ContrastWhat were the similarities and differences between Lincoln’s views and the Radical Republicans’ views concerning Reconstruction?Venn Diagram
13Radicals in Control Essential Question: What were the results of Radical Reconstruction?
14The Thirteenth Amendment December 6th, 1865The first of the Reconstruction AmendmentsAbolishes and continues to prohibit slavery and involuntary servitude
15Radicals in Control Black Codes Laws to control freed men and women that resembled slaveryExamplesArrest and fined jobless African AmericansBanned from renting or owning farmsCongress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1866 which granted full citizenship to African Americans and overturned the Black Codes
16The Fourteenth Amendment Congress, fearing that the Civil Rights Act of might be overturned in court, passed this in 1866Granted full citizenship to all people born in the United States“Equal protection of the laws”Excluded citizenship of Native Americans
17Radical Reconstruction After winning the congressional elections of 1866, the Radical Republicans were able to put their version of Reconstruction into actionPresident Johnson could do little to stop the Republicans because they could easily override his vetoes in Congress. Thus began a period known as Radical Reconstruction.
18Reconstruction Acts of 1867 Divided 10 Southern states into military districtsRun by a military commander until a new government could be formedGuaranteed African American men the right to vote in state electionsBanned former Confederate leaders from holding officeStates had to pass 14th Amendment to reenter the Union.
19Readmission of StatesWith help of African American voters, all ten states were readmitted to the Union by 1870.
20Impeaching the President So that Johnson could not control the military governors as commander-in-chief, Congress passed a series of laws to limit his powerTenure of Office Act: Prohibited president from removing government officials without the approval of the Senate
21Impeaching the President (cont.) Johnson removed Secretary of War Edwin Stanton without Senate’s approvalOutraged by his actions, the House of Representatives moved to impeach JohnsonSenators could not get a 2/3 majority because some Republicans said Johnson should not be removed from office due to political differencesJohnson stayed in office until 1869
22The Fifteenth Amendment 1896Prohibits the state and federal governments from denying the right to vote to any male citizen because of “race, color or previous condition of servitude.”Right to Vote!!!
23Making ConnectionsComparing: How were the black codes similar to slavery?Summarize the Reconstruction Amendments
24Answer the Essential Question What were the results of Radical Reconstruction?African Americans gained full citizenship, although protecting these rights proved difficultAfrican American voters helped to put Republicans in control of Southern gov’tBy 1870, all Southern states had met the requirements under Radical Reconstruction and were restored to the Union.
25The South During Reconstruction Essential Question:What kinds of resistance did African Americans face as they tried to exercise their rights as citizens of the South?
26The South During Reconstruction Main Idea: As African Americans began to take part in civic life in the South, they faced resistance, including violence from the Whites.
27African Americans in Government Played important roles in Reconstruction politics as voters and officialsContributed heavily to some Republican victories
28Scalawags and Carpetbaggers Southern whites who were non-slave holding and backed RepublicansCarpetbaggersNorthern whites to moved south after the war and backed RepublicansMany Southerners accused Reconstruction governments of corruption. Although some officials made money illegally, probably less corruption occurred in the South than in the North.
29Resistance to Reconstruction Most Southern whites opposed efforts to give rights to African AmericansAfrican Americans were oftenRefused land to rentRefused credit at storesNot hired by white employers
30Ku Klux KlanSecret society who used fear and violence to deny rights to freed men and women.Killed thousands of African Americans while wearing sheets and hoodsBurned African American schools, churches and homesSupported by many Southern planters and DemocratsCongress passed several rather unsuccessful laws to stop the Klan in 1870 and 1871.
38Election of 1876Rutherford B. Hayes (Republican) vs. Samuel Tilden (Democrat)Hayes wins although the outcome of the election is disputed
39Compromise of 1877Hayes presidential victory is disputed and Democrats threaten to challenge the decision. Party leaders meet in secret to work out an agreement.Agreement includes some favors for the SouthNew gov’t would give more aid to the SouthRepublicans would withdraw all troops from the SouthDemocrats in turn, promised to maintain African American rights
40A New PolicyHayes announces intention to let Southerners handle radical issuesFederal government would no longer attempt to reshape Southern societyReconstruction has come to an end
41Change in the SouthAfter Reconstruction, the South experienced a political shift and industrial growth.
42Democrats in ControlLarge landowners, merchants, bankers, business leadersAdopted conservative practicesLower taxesCut government spendingEliminated many social services begun during ReconstructionCut public education
43Rise of the “New South”By the 1880s, forward-looking Southerners were convinced that their region must develop a strong industrial economy. They argued that the South lost the Civil War because its industry didn’t match the North’s.
44Rise of the “New South”Built industry based on coal, iron, tobacco, cotton and lumberTextile mills, tobacco manufacturing, iron and steel millsIndustry grows as a result of cheap, reliable workforceAgriculture is still the South’s main economic activity
45Rural EconomySupporters of the “New South” hope to advance agriculture as wellToo much debt for farmersTo repay debt, farmers rely on cash crops like cottonToo much cotton forced prices downSharecropping and reliance on one cash crop keeps Southern agriculture from advancing
46A Divided SocietyAs Reconstruction ended, African Americans’ dreams for justice faded. In the last 20 years of the 1800s, racism became firmly set in the culture. Individuals took steps to keep African Americans separated from white and to deny them basic rights.
47Jim Crow Laws What is it? Impact Laws that required African Americans and whites to be separated in almost every public placeImpactSegregation! Unequal facilities and accommodations
48Poll Tax What is it? Impact A fee people had to pay to vote Most African Americans could not afford the tax and therefore could not vote
49Literacy Test What is it? Impact Voters take a test in which they have to read and explain difficult parts of the Constitution in order to vote.ImpactBecause most African Americans had little education, literacy tests prevented many from voting.
50Grandfather Clause What is it? Impact Law that allowed people whose fathers or grandfathers had voted before Reconstruction to vote.ImpactLiteracy tests could keep some whites from voting. These laws allowed them to do so. Because African Americans could not vote until 1867, they were excluded.
51Lynching What is it? Impact When an angry mob kills a person by hangingImpactFear! African Americans were lynched because they were suspected of crimes, or because they did not behave the way they should.
53Plessy vs. FergusonThe Supreme Court decides to uphold the idea of “segregation of the South” by handing down the decision of Plessy vs. Ferguson (1896)Impact: Said separate is equal. The problem is however, that the facilities are separate but in no way, equal. Gave legal support to Southern segregation and inequality.
54Answer the Essential Question How did the South change politically, economically and socially when Reconstruction ended?