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UNIT 2 Standard 21 A. nature and cause of crime

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1 UNIT 2 Standard 21 A. nature and cause of crime
B. criminal acts have on their intended victims Categorize different crimes Different types of defenses of crimes Standard 22 a. analyze steps in criminal justice process B. explain due process rights C. steps in criminal trial or civil suit D. explain different sentences people receive

2 Criminal Justice Essential Questions: Why does crime exist? What are the effects of crime on the accused as well as victims, and the effect on society as a whole?

3 In the United States, the criminal justice system consists of three main parts:
(1) law enforcement ( police ) (2) adjudication (courts) (3) corrections (jails, prisons, probation and parole). In a criminal justice system, these distinct agencies operate together both under the rule of law and as the principal means of maintaining the rule of law within society . The citizens within society have methods of protecting themselves when they are accused of a crime. They have the right to Due Process under the law. Due Process includes the proper steps that take place in the criminal justice process and also encompass the legal steps in a criminal trial. Lastly, when a person has been found guilty of a crime, there are different types of sentences that a convicted person can receive.

4 Action- The legal, formal name given to the issues embodied in a complaint against another.
Accused -The defendant in a criminal case. Alibi- A reason why a defendant could not have done what they are accused of doing; usually a statement by a witness that the defendant was somewhere else. Appeals Court (also called Appellate Court)- A court that reviews decisions made by trail courts because one side in a case is unhappy with the decision and asks for a "second opinion" on review; an appeals court can agree with the trial court and uphold the lower court decision or disagree with the lower court and overturn the decision. Award- An official decision by a judge or jury that one party must pay another party a specific amount of money.

5 Bailiff- The law enforcement officer responsible for order and security in a courtroom.; also responsible to watch over and assist the jury. Bench- The place in the courtroom where the judge sits; also, the court itself. Burden of Proof- The amount of evidence required in a case in order for the jury to find in favor of the person bringing the suit; the more serious the consequences of the case, the greater amount of proof required.

6 Civil Case- A legal action stated against another asking recovery for a private wrong; not a criminal case. Client- A person who employs or retains a lawyers to advise and defend them in a legal matter. Closing Arguments- The opportunity given to the lawyers at the close of testimony to sum up what they believe the jury's verdict should be. Complaint- In civil cases, the legal document that states the reasons why someone is being sued and the relief sought, for example, monetary damages or return of property. In criminal cases, the legal document that states the law (or laws) broken and the reasons why the person (or persons) named in the complaint is accused of committing a crime. Counsel- Lawyer, attorney, or counselor; someone who gives advice in a legal matter. Cross Examination- Questioning of a witness by the lawyer who did not call the witness.

7 Defendant- A person in a trial who is accused of a crime or some wrongdoing.
Defense Attorney- A lawyer who acts on behalf of a defendant on trial. Finding- A decision made by a judge or jury. Grand Jury- A jury that investigates criminal complaints and decides whether someone should be formally charged with committing a crime. Hung Jury- A jury that cannot agree on a verdict; this can result in a new trial before different jurors.

8 Jury- A group of people who have sworn to decide the facts in a court case and to reach a fair verdict, or decision. Juvenile Law- A legal system for people under the age of eighteen that is different in some ways from the adult system. Oath- A formal promise to perform a specific duty or act. Objection- A request by a lawyer during a trial that the judge order a witness not to answer a question asked by the other layer. The just must either "sustain" the objection (agree with it and forbid the witness to answer it) or "overrule" it (allow the question to be asked). Opening Statements- The presentation made by the lawyers on each side of a case at the start of trial. During opening statements the issues and facts that will be presented are outlined; the purpose of opening statements is to give the jury an overview of the case so the jurors will be better able to understand the evidence they will hear.

9 Plaintiff- A person who starts the action, files a complaint, or sues another person.
Plea Bargain- A criminal court practice that allows someone charged with a crime to plead guilty to a lesser offense (so there will be no trial) or allows them to plead guilty to the original charge with the prosecutor promising to recommend a particular sentence. Prosecute- To bring someone to trial to obtain a conviction. Prosecutor- The government official who is authorized to accuse and prosecute (bring to trial) someone who is believed to have committed a crime. Prosecutors are known by various names in difference places, i.e. district attorney, state's attorney, and people's attorney. Public Defender- In criminal cases, a lawyer who is appointed and paid by the state or federal government to defend a person who has been accused of committing a crime and who is not able to afford a private attorney. Rest One's Case- An announcement by a lawyer that he or she has finished presenting the evidence for that side. Sentence- In criminal cases, the decision by a judge or jury as to what punishment is appropriate for a convicted defendant.

10 Subpoena- An order signed by a judge or prosecutor requiring the presence of someone of something (ie. Records) in a court on a specific date and time. Summons- An official order issued by a judge or law enforcement official which notifies the person named in the summons that legal action has been started against the person and which tells him or her a date, time, and place they must appear to answer the complaint. Testimony- Evidence given after taking an oath in court to tell the truth, questions answered under oath concerning what one knows about a case being heard in court. Trial- The formal presentation of both sides of a dispute before a judge or jury. Verdict- The decision that a jury or judge makes after hearing and considering all of the evidence and testimony in a case. Witness- Someone who has seen or heard something; someone who provides evidence about something; someone who is officially ordered to testify in a court.

11 Researchers and commentators may classify crime into categories, including:
property crime public order crime violent crime Analysts can also group crimes by severity, some common category-terms including: federal crimes felonies infractions misdemeanors

12 are nine types of crime called the crime index that are tracked
are nine types of crime called the crime index that are tracked. These are: murder forcible rape robbery aggravated assault burglary larceny-theft motor-vehicle theft arson hate crimes

13 Due process refers not only to how the government may use its power, but it also limits when and why that power may be exercised. It protects us against unreasonable laws, no matter how clearly defined or properly enacted they are. Confining mentally ill people against their wishes if they are not dangerous to themselves or the public, for instance, in an unreasonable limit of their liberty. It violates due process. Even if a law reflects the wishes of the majority, it must also be a reasonable law. It must be just.

14 The Supreme Court Decision Making
Attorneys submit briefs; oral arguments may be heard conferences: chief justice presents cases and his vote, others discuss and vote

15 The Supreme Court Decision Making
Judicial Restraint and Judicial Activism Judicial Restraint: a judicial philosophy whereby judges adhere closely to statutes and precedents in reaching their decision Judicial Activism: a judicial philosophy whereby judges interpret existing laws and precedents loosely and interject their own values in court decisions


17 The Supreme Court Decision Making Judgment and Argument
Judgment: the judicial decision in a court case Argument: the heart of a judicial opinion; its logical content separated from facts, rhetoric and procedure Opinions may be unanimous


19 The Supreme Court Decision Making The Opinion
Chief justice or most senior justice in the majority writes or assigns the majority opinion Opinion writing is the justices’ most critical function Opinion drafts are circulated and rewritten to accommodate colleagues



22 The Supreme Court The Chief Justice Important functions Forms docket
Directs Court’s conferences Can be a social leader Can embody intellectual leadership


24 Judicial Recruitment The Appointment of Federal Judges
Federal judges hold their commission for life

25 Judicial Recruitment The Appointment of Federal Judges
The “Advice and Consent” of the Senate Senate Judiciary Committee: conducts hearing for each judicial nominee

26 Diversity on the Federal Courts




30 UNIT 2 SSCG6 The student will demonstrate knowledge of civil liberties and civil rights. b. Analyze due process law expressed in the 5th and 14th Amendments. c. Explain selective incorporation of the Bill of Rights. d. Explain how government seeks to maintain the balance between individual liberties and the public interest. e. Explain every citizen’s right to be treated equally under the law.

31 Essential Question How has the U.S. Constitution and decisions of the Supreme Court defined civil liberties and civil rights?

32 Civil liberties versus civil rights
Civil Liberties: protections the U.S. Constitution provides against the abuse of government power, including the Bill of Rights and decisions of the courts Civil Rights: concern the basic right to be free from unequal treatment based on certain protected characteristics (race, gender, disability, etc.)

33 The Fifth amendment Actual Text: No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation Double Jeopardy: no one can be charged twice with the same offense Due Process Clause: fundamental, constitutional guarantee that all legal proceedings will be fair and that one will be given notice of the proceedings and an opportunity to be heard before the government acts to take away one's life, liberty, or property Eminent Domain: right of the government to take property for public use as long as the government provides just compensation for the property is called

34 The Fourteenth Amendment (1868)
Due Process Clause: “no state shall deprive any person of life, liberty or property without due process of law” Equal Protection Clause: “no state shall deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws”

35 Selective incorporation
Selective Incorporation: a theory or doctrine of constitutional law that those rights guaranteed by the first eight amendments to the U.S. Constitution that are fundamental to and implicit in the concept of ordered liberty are incorporated into the Fourteenth Amendment's due process clause

36 Selective incorporation
The following amendments in the Bill of Rights have NOT been incorporated and may thus be restricted by the states: Third Amendment – protection against forced quartering of troops in private homes Fifth Amendment – right to indictment by a grand jury Seventh Amendment – right to jury trial in civil cases Eighth Amendment – protection against excessive bail and fines

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