Presentation on theme: "Aim (copy): How was Europe organized during the Middle Ages? Do Now (Don’t copy – simply address the queries): While China, India, The Byzantines, and."— Presentation transcript:
Aim (copy): How was Europe organized during the Middle Ages? Do Now (Don’t copy – simply address the queries): While China, India, The Byzantines, and the Islamic Empires were experiencing a golden age, what was going on in Western Europe? For review, briefly describe what happened to “western Europe” at the end of the Roman Empire. What do you think a dark age is? Why might one arise?
Today’s focus/rundown Do Now (5 minutes) Agenda (2-3 minutes) Case study surrounding The Rise of Feudalism – Political and Social Organization of Medieval Europe: Students will be presented with a problem, working with your neighbor, all are asked to find plausible solutions (10-12 minutes) PowerPoint presentation/overview of Feudalism (15 minutes) Personal Reflection (5-7 minutes) Closing (5 minutes) –Quick review of homework# 4
The Rise of Feudalism in Europe during the Middle Ages
The Rise of Feudalism – Political and Social Organization of Medieval Europe The Problem (Don’t copy – read and then respond with workable solutions): You are one of many kings ruling various kingdoms in Western Europe during the Middle Ages. You are also the proud owner of large landholdings in your area. However, you are struggling to control the nobles in your kingdom who are fighting each other over land to increase their power (in turn, threatening yours). In addition, you are concerned about increasing barbarian attacks from the east. In connection to homework# 3, what can you do to create structure in your kingdom and ensure order? Hint: think of Land & power. Your Solution:
The Middle Ages Defined After the fall of Rome, Western Europe entered a period known as the Middle Ages, also known as The Medieval Period, which lasted from 400 – 1400 A.D. 500 B.C – 476 A.D The Roman Empire The Middle Ages or Medieval Period The Renaissance (Rebirth) Begins around 1400
The Middle Ages Defined In general, the Middle Ages are defined by a lack of central government, decline of trade, population shift to rural areas, decrease in learning, and a rise in the power of The Roman Catholic Church.
Bad gov’t managem ent, diseases, Barbarian Invasions cause the Fall of the Western Roman Empire Rise of New Kingdoms/ States are not united New Kingdoms are unable to protect themselves from Barbarian Invasions, causing a need for localized Protection The Rise of Feudalism (based on fiefdom = land based economic system) in Europe The Middle Ages or Medieval Period ( 500 CE CE.)
Feudal Europe Power Pyramid The Pope King Lords/Nobles Knights Peasants
The Rise of Feudalism – Political and Social Organization of Medieval Europe King Vassal (Lord) Knights Serfs and Peasants (90% of population) Grant Fief (land) Oath of loyalty/military support Shelter/food Loyalty/military Labor, rent
Feudalism- (Fyoo-duh-lih-zuhm) A system of PROTECTION in the Middle Ages. Vassal- An agreement between lords & knights that stated that they would protect the land. Knights were called their lords “vassals”. Key words Essential to Feudalism
The Rise of Feudalism – Political and Social Organization of Medieval Europe ` Causes of Feudalism: After the fall of Rome, Western Europe was a scary place! With no strong, central government to raise a large army, there was no protection from invaders. The Feudal system emerged as a means to create social/political order and stability in society as well as to provide a system of protection The Role of Serfs: They were bound to the land. In other words, slaves. No social mobility! Your place in this feudal pyramid was determined by birth!
Sometimes the manor system is referred to as manorialism. The manor was completely self sufficient meaning that everything that was needed was on the manor. Very little reason to leave or travel beyond your manor. The Manor System – The Medieval Economic System
Europe in the 6 th century. ca 565. century, ca. 565
Growth of Islam by 8 th century – By then most of the “Germanic barbarians” had converted to Christianity. As Christians, many fought to defend their new homes & faith against invading Muslims. Ironic don’t you think?
The Rise of Feudalism – Political and Social Organization of Medieval Europe The Problem: You are one of many kings ruling various kingdoms in Western Europe during the Middle Ages. You are also the proud owner of large landholdings in your area. However, you are struggling to control the nobles in your kingdom who are fighting each other to expand their landholdings and increase their power (in turn, threatening yours). In addition, you are concerned about increasing barbarian attacks from the east. What can you do to create structure in your kingdom and ensure order? Your Solution:
Popes Leader of Church Popes were seen as representatives of God on Earth.
Kings Leader of Kingdoms/ States All lords/nobles and knights swore an oath of loyalty to the king to protect the land.
Nobles/Lords Swore loyalty to the king and were given land called “fiefs” to protect
Knights Armored warriors that protected the land. They often received “fiefs” for their service.
Peasants Worked on the lords land
Protection from whom? 1.The Vikings invaded from Scandinavia- They were quick and savage. They attacked Ireland, England and France. They looted and captured people to sell into slavery. Most Europeans lived in terror of them 2.The Magyars from Asia 3.The Muslims (from South)
Vikings, Muslims and Magyars Invasion Map
Charlemagne Charlemagne was first crowned the king of the Franks Later, in 800 CE he was crowned by the POPE Leo III as the king of the Holy Roman Empire. This enraged the Eastern Byzantines because their ruler was not selected The Church and Charlemagne depended on each other. The Pope needed the support of his army to protect the church, Charlemagne gained support from his people because he was viewed as having “god on his side”
Charlemagne Continued Through wars of conquest he united European tribes into one single empire. He showed them that they have similar values like Christianity, allowing them to see themselves as Europeans not as tribe members.
By Rafael: the Coronation of Charlegmagne
Personal Reflection: In your notebook, summarize what you learned today surrounding Feudalism & the Manorial System. --You might include: -- Why were the two systems created in the first placed? Purpose? -- Effects on society in terms of political, social, and economic structure and growth. --your prior knowledge from last year --your knowledge from homework# 3 and today’s class work.
Homework# 4 (09/19/12; due: 09/20/12: (Don’t copy – simply read). Carefully Read (peruse) Write an analysis (at least two detailed paragraphs) examining the power and purpose of the church. Also, look-up the following words; for each, define and find the significance: Curia, tithe, simony, monasticism, inquisition, sacraments, heretics, and excommunication [not listed in this section of the book – please look it up].
STOP HERE! Do Not Proceed!
William The Conqueror He defeated the English king at the Battle of Hastings To reward the knights that helped him win the battle, he gave them land….Hence, the beginning of the feudal system in England
William The Conquerer
Battle of Hastings
The Pope and King: A Power Struggle Since the large majority of the people of Feudal Europe were Christian the Pope had tremendous power over every body. They thought they should select Bishops. Kings believed they should have the power to select the bishops.
Pope Gregory VII vs. King Henry IV In 1073 King Henry IV selected a bishop Pope Gregory VII did not like. The Pope excommunicated (cast him out of the church) Henry IV. Remember :Christians believe that if you die while excommunicated you will not go to heaven. Desperate, the king apologized and asked for forgiveness. In fact, the king stood barefoot in the snow for three days before the Pope would even talk to him.