5Dressing style has been changing since 1980’s in accordance with market economy. Young Muslim girls have been replacing their long robes with jackets.
6Women in Turkey1. Wife of the President of Turkey. 2. Former Prime Minister/ 3/Current prime minister’s wife.4. Businesswomen.5. Supreme court member. 6. Judges.7. Doctor in public service. 8. Doctor in private clinic. (Doctors, judges and lawyers who are female can not serve with a head scarf in public sector but in private sector. The ideology of modern Republic of Turkey,Kemalism, does not allow them to cover their hair in public sector.
7Ideology of State: Kemalism After the foundation of the modern Republic of Turkey in 1923, the state implemented a series of reforms in order to establish a secular state instead of a religious one. One of them was to adopt a dress code like the European dress code. In 1924, the state passed a bill regarding the adoption of a hat instead of the traditional fez and other traditional head coverings, a ban which under the current constitution may not be lifted.The main goal was to implement Western values to the society since west was developed.
8Transition from veil to hat, 1925. Before Tukish Republic was not found, girls had started to attended the universities in Turkey in the era of Ottoman Empire in The religious authority, şeyhülislam, in those days wanted them with headscarfs in the classrooms but they were fighting for remove to their headscarves since they sought looking like a Western modern women. Women had to cover themselves at the era of Ottoman Empire as as religious and governmenteal obligation.Things changed in Turkey and new Turkish republich declared itself as a secularist state in 1923 and made some regulations consodilation to modern west. One of the regulations was made the dressing codes. The government accepted a bill which prohibited to use traditional dresses or religious dresses in the public sphere. That bill also enforce the man to get modern hats instead of fez which was a red conic hat . The Turkish Republic’s new face regarding the women was the same. Most of the women removed their head scarfs and replace them with hats. They believed Islam enforces them to cover their heads with a headscarfs as a religious obligation. They believe they could stay in religion while they looked modern in hats.
9Hat Law of 1925The Hat Law of 1925 introduced the use of Western style hats instead of the fez.Legislation did not explicitly prohibit veils or headscarves and focused instead on banning fezzes and turbans for men.Man was the subject of the ban. Man who resisted to the bills during the first years of the revolution were executed or punished.
10Ataturk’s wife showed up in burqa. Government did not banned women to wear burqa instead some municipals betweenAlthough black burqa was not banned officially by the government, some municipalities pioneering from the Northern Turkey banned to wear them locally in some provinces. You can see the wife of Ataturk above both in traditional dress and modern dress in public sphere.
11Coupe in 1960 New constitution was introduced in 1961. New constitution gave more democratic rights in accordance with the political developments in the West. However, religious citizens could not benefit from this liberal rights.School principals and academics at the universities did not allow the girls to get in the school and attend the classes with their head scarfs.CHP which was formed by Ataturk lost the election 1950 and Democratic Party which held different values then CHP was in the office. In 1960 military took control of the government.
12Hatice BabacanIn 1968, a female university student, Hatice Babacan, refused to remove her headscarf and from then onwards, although there was not a uniformly applied ban, some problems began to arise for students wearing headscarves at universities.
13Hatice Babacan 1968Unlike women accepeted to wear hat or to uncover their head after founding of modern Turkish Republic, most of the women continued covering their heads traditionally. The movement that started 1960’s in the USA, affected all over the world including Turkey’s religious women. They wanted to their religious freedom with respect to dressing.
14Coupe in 1980 Turkey banned to headscarf in the universities in 1982. Military took control in 1980 to protect Turkey from communism. Marxist revolutionaries and nationalist fought all over Turkey. Even family members became enemies because of their political views. Police and army detained a lot of people, tortured or exiled them. They mainly sought a refugee in the West, mostly in Germany where Kurdish movement and religious movement rooted there, both of wich influenced domestic politics of Turkey.
15Headscarf was banned in1984 officially. With a constitutional principle of official secularism, the Turkish government has traditionally banned women who wear headscarves from working in the public sector.teachers, parliamentarians, female lawyers and journalists, and others working on state premises.Women who covered their heads can be served but cannot serve in public sector.
16Students could not attend the classes with their headscarves As I mentioned before some girls and women accepted hats instead of headscarf, most of the women resisted it since they believed they must cover not only their head but also their neck as well as their chest according to Koran, the holly book of Islam. Wives of some of the politicians had hats in order to convice the girls to have hats. But it did not work.Girls who wanted to attend the universities started defending that they had rights to be educated without removing their headscarfs at the beginng of Headscarf issue bacame a problem between students and state after Altough some girls graduated from Medical Schools from 1950’s to 1960’s. They did not cover their heads in the calssrooms.Conflict between religious univetsity students and state became more serious 1980’s. While authorities like deans or chansellors forced the girls to go away from capus because they covered their heads,however girls stand up to authority with their headscarfs.(In tose years secuity would chect us and our purses before we get in the classrooms.)Incompatibiliy decisions of The Counsil of Higher Education followed each other. The Counsil of Higher Education prohibited the veilining 1982 while it liberated the other way of veiling which is called turban 1984, that only covers the hair but neck.In 1986, the Counsil of Higher Education empowered the liberation again. Then, the president of Turkish republic Colonel Kenan Evren who was the pioner of the que de ta in 1980 in Turkey got involved the dispute between the state and the students and the counsil banned the headscarf again. Altought the ruling party or governmet enacted two laws in 1988 and set a liberty for the students with headscarf, the president veto it in After a bill was pass by ruling party late 1988 again and admitted to the attendance the calsses with headscarfs in universities, the persident appealed the bill at the supreme court.In 1989, girls could not atten the classes with their headscarf the ruling party modified a law and set the attendance to the classes free in universities. Then, students could not have their right at supreme court and the appeal courts in Turkey after 1997.
17Rulings of courtsIn 2000, Nuray Bezirgan, a Turkish female student, wore a headscarf at her college final exams. A Turkish court sentenced her to six months jail.The European Court of Human Rights upheld the ban in 2004, saying the rules on dress were "necessary" and did not violate the European Convention on Human Rights. In October 2006, the European Court of Human Rights upheld the university ban again, rejecting a complaint filed by another Turkish university student, Leyla Şahin A students appeal it to European Court of Human Rights; however, they could not find a solution for themselves.
18Trakya University April 27, 2011 University rectors (chancellors) are appointed by the President of Republic of Turkey. Chancellors have started allowing student attend the classes in 2012 and 2013.
19In the parliament:In May 1999, the ban on headscarves in the public sphere hit the headlines when Merve Kavakçı was prevented from taking her oath in the National Assembly because she wore a headscarf.She was the newly elected of Istanbul of the pro- Islamist Virtue Party.
20Dispute on headscarfNot only students but also civil servants, women want to work for governmet with headscarf as medical doctor, lawyer, judge etc, as well as teacher who work for goverment or private sector and also politicians themself. Altough many women work in a political party they can not be deputy in the parlaiment with their headscarf. They have to remove it before they get in the building of the parlaiment. Two women was elected as deputy at the elections of 1999, however one of them, Merve Kavakçı , was disqualifed by the supreme court and lost the membership of the parlaiment whereas NesrinÜnal removed her headscarf when she was at the parlaiment.
21AK Party and headscarfAfter winning a referendum in September 2010, the ruling AKP vowed to support any student who was disciplined for wearing the headscarf on a university campus.While this goes against the Constitutional Court ruling of 2008, most universities have started permitting students to wear the headscarf on campus.AKP is one of the of springs of Prosperity Party, which is in office since 2002.Up until 2002, courts banned a lot of Islamist political parties in the politics in Turkey. Courts and military officers did not want an Islamic party turn Turkey a Islamist country.
22Politicians’ wives with their headscarves. In October 2006, Turkish president Ahmet Necdet Sezer refused to allow AKP politicians whose wives wore headscarves to a ball on Republic Day.President and his covered wife host receptions today.Any politician accompany with their covered wife can attend any official receptions.
24Snow means “Kar” in Turkish Veiling as it did the dirt, the mud, and the darkness, the snow would continue to speak to Ka purity. (9). Snow represents the veiling for gils in this novel, who adopted head scarf in order to protect their honor,and follow their own will. On the other hand the author repeats that there is hidden symmetry in the world. That means snow or veiling can refers a loosing freedomsince it bloced the roads. Pamuk, uses metaphors masterfully. He mentions in the preface that he added the last version of novel in 2013 that he wanted to explain the feeling of religious girls in this political novel. His readers which are mainly consisted of secular women were irritated his support of veiled girls. However, he says he felt responsibility as a novelist to explain the OTHER in his work.
25Ka- Kar- KarsKaKa, initial of Kerim Alakus, symbolize the leftist secular intellectuals and their crisis in Turkey. Ka is a fragile intellectual and having an identity crisis. He does not belong Germany where he lived after fled to Istanbul as well as Istanbul since everything has changed since he left. As an intellectual he does not belong his own society, Kars. Ka has difficulty to write poems or publish them because of identity. Continium of Ka- Kar – Kars or self-time-space sho the reader leftist intellectuals need identity construction .
26Quran (33:59)the women of the believers to bring down over themselves [part] of their outer garments. That is more suitable that they will be known and not be abused. And ever is Allah Forgiving and Merciful.
27Secular women perceive headscarf as a symbol of suppression of women in Islam. If I had to go into a classroom full of covered girls, I would not dare go in uncovered. I’d wear a headscarf even if I did not want to. (44)I grew up Istanbul Nisantasi, among society people. I wanted to be like Europeans. I could not see how I reconsile my becoming a Europan with a God who requires women to wrap themselves in scarves. (96)The ongoing conflict on the headscarves is about the conflict of identity for both sides.
28Head scarf and identity construction Headscarf protect women from harassment, rape and degradation (45).The veil saves women from the animal instincts of men in the street (45).When a girl accepted head scarf as the word of God and symbol of faith (121).They do not have to live like sex object (45).Their mother and father brought up them to be as they are. So did religious instruction they received during their state education (113).Besides of girls who identified themselves a pious Muslim. Girls like Kadife accepted head scarf to refuse the oppression of the state.
29Conflict between state and individuals State maintains its hegemony by its Repressive State Apparatus" (RSA)The basic function of the RSA (heads of state, government, police, courts, army, etc.) is to intervene and act in favor of the ruling class. Since the ruling class control the power of state, the RSA is controlled by them. (Louise Althusser)As a politically organized body of people, state, dominates its subjects socially, culturally, ideologically or economically which is called hegemony. In ortder to maintain its hegemony state utilizes some apparatuses.
30CoupeIf there is a threat of its values which construct the state, the state turns to increasingly physical and severe measures in response : police force, and ultimately military intervention.As we can see in the novel a local coup was put on the stage. An authoritarian state can kill its subjects like Rustam killed his own son in order to protect its status que.“paternalistic state” : State control everything, the body of their citizen,etc. Paternalistic state does not share its power of not want to loose it in favor of its citizens.
31Ideological State Apparatus gives power to hegemonic forces. Ideological State Apparatuses" (ISAs), which include the family, the media, religious organizations, and the education system.National theater represents that state indoctrinate its subjects by it agents. Sunay Zaim and Funda reproduce the power of sate.Institute of Educations were formed by the state in order to reproduce teachers who would serve in the rural areas and teach illiterate people to the values of new Western government. The directors and the teachers who graduated from those schools carried Kemalist ideology to the urban. ( When the republic was founded, Turkish society was mainly rural society, although more than 85% of the population live in the urban areas nowadays. )
32EducationThe State is an “educator” in the sense that its tendency is to create a new civilization type or level. It operates according to a plan, it impels, incites, requests, punishes. These actions lead to a “passive” revolution, in other words, to a constant reorganization of the power of the State in the sense of preserving its hegemony through the exclusion of the masses over the economical and political institutions.In the novel state banns the girls from the schools, its agents travels Ankara the capital to Kars and try the girls persuade not to have head scarf at the universities.Assassination of director of Institute of education is meaningful in this novel since state established these institutions to control the minds of teachers and their students. They taught ideology in these schools.Headscarf became an issue of politics because of the domestic immigration from rural the urban at the end of 1950’s , 60’s and 70’s, girls attend to the school more and reach the opportunity of being more educated.
33Islamist MilitansKiller of the directorate of Institute of Education was related to the international Islamist groups.” Since the freedom Fighters for Islamic Justice condemned you to death.” (46)
34Blue in the novel. Green was in real politics in Turkey. He served for MIT (intelligence service)His name is Mahmut Yildirim or Green in Turkish “Yeşil”. He worked for intelligence service. He was active in 1990’s but then he disappeared mysteriously.
37Religious dress was banned in the public sphere for religious zealots by law in 1934. Modern Turkishs tate controlled its citizens body and appearances as a matter of their religiosity.
38Sufi lodges was banned in 1925. Sufi lodges are used by Muslims to practice rituals of a Sufi order. Shortly after the Republic of Turkey was proclaimed, the government banned all Sufi lodges, convents and visits to tombs of prominent Islamic scholars as part its drive to modernize. Sufi lodges have been functioning underground since 1925.
39Sheikh EfendiThe Light movement is the largest religious network in Turkey.Sheik in the novel helps construct people’s religious identity.
40NECIP FAZIL (died in 1983) Religious poet, novelist, playwrite Philosopher and activistIn the Sufi Naqshbandi OrderAny revolutionary movement needs its intellectuals/ Marsist revolutionaries left the country or jailed after Whereas Marxist or leftist revolutionaries abandoning the politics because of fear of the state, religious intellectuals became influential on young generation. Necip fazil who was one of them represented wıth his altered identity with the characters Necip and Fazil. The planet Necip sought Ghazzali is the place people can find serenity by leavıng all materıal goodsç. Necip seybolizes sufists who are modest Islamists. Fazil means knowledge in Turkish symbolizes Muslims who are more educated. Necip was killed and Muslims lıke Fazil survived ın the novel.
41Religious and Secular Characters MuhtarNecipFazilMesudSheik SaadettinBlueHandeKadifeSunay ZaimFundaZeki DemirkolTurgut BeySaffet
42Ipek and Kadife (Silk and Velvet) Kadife (velvet) is a romantic revolutionist.She was caught by the Islamic ideology.Ipek (silk) is more valuable than velvet, although both are precious.She respects religious people but she is not one of them.Religious belief or one’s own will might destroy only one, when it becomes an ideology is is harmful for society like any other ideology.There is still an ongoing conflict between veiled and unveiled women in Turkey. Two type of women in the same society have a little tolerance to each other. In some cases none.
43September, 2013Dispute has not been solved between Islamist and secular students in Turkey.