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  

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Presentation on theme: "  "— Presentation transcript:


2    Documentary and Crash Course

3   Seven’s Year- left French monarchy in debt  Support of the American Revolution further endangered Financial stability  Louis XV and Louis XVI were unable to solve taxation disputes with the parlements  Jacques Necker- issued a report blaming the aristocratic government for France’s financial troubles The Crisis of the French Monarchy

4   Charles Alexandre de Calonne proposed new taxes:  Taxes on salt-Gabelle  Tax on landowners regardless of status  Meeting with Calonne:  Assembly of Notables  Claimed that they had no authority to consent to new taxes only Estates General had the Right  1788 Louis XVI agreed to convene the Estates General Crisis Continued

5   Estates General  First Estate (the Clergy)  Second Estate (the nobility)  Third Estate (wealthy members of professional middle class)  First conflict that arose was the organization the Estates General  After calling the Estates General conflicts emerge between the Aristocrats (2 nd Estate) and Bourgeoisie (3 rd estate) The Revolution of 1789

6   Cahiers de Doleances- list of grievances presented to the Monarchy  The Third Estate petitioned the king fro equality of rights among the king’s subjects Revolution Continued

7   After a standoff the third estate leave and assembles at a near by tennis court  Invite Nobility and Clergy to join (some do but a majority do not)  June 17 th 1789-  Take an oath of loyalty known as the Tennis court oath)  declare itself the National Constituend Assembly Tennis Court Oath

8   July 14, 1789 800 Parisians stormed Bastille (prison where they hold debt violations and political activists)  Search for weapons for the citizen militia in response to presence of royal troops in the city  Crowd stormed the fortress, released prisoners, killed troops and governor Bastille

9   Driven by peasants who felt they were reclaiming what was rightfully theirs but what had been lost t aristocrats over time The Great Fear

10   August 1789  Set Forth by the National Assembly  Claimed that all men “were born to remain free and equal in rights”  Louis XVI was forced by a group of women to return from Versailles to Paris  After First Hesitating Louis XVI sanctioned the measures Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen

11   National Constituent Assembly reforms:  Men paying annual taxes equal to three days of local labor were allowed to vote  Women could not vote or hold office  This law transferred power from aristocratic wealth to anyone who accumulated land or property  Judical Adminstration:  83 departments replaced the ancient provinces The Reconstruction of France

12   Suppressed guilds (artisan organizations), liberated grain trade, established the metric system  Confiscated Church property and sold it to pay for debts  Civil Constitution of the Clergy- the result of the reconstruction of the Roman Catholic Church into a branch of the secular state  Emigres- wealthy who left France and settled on the border to plot a revolution Reforms Continued

13   Jacobins- desired more radical reform  Known as the Girondists (Jacobins in Legislative body)  ordered the emigres to return from border  Demanded clergy who refused to take the oath to support the civil constitution to do so or lose state pensions  Louis XVI vetoed both acts Second Revolution

14   A Parisian crowd invaded the Tuileries Palace  forced Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette to take refuge in Legislative Body  Louis XVI loses power to the Paris Commune a committee of representatives from wards of Paris  September Massacres- Paris Commune Murders about 1,200 people in jail  The Convention (a new assembly) declared France a Republic  December 1792 Louis XVI was executed  A month later France is at war with England, Holland, Spain and Prussia August of 1792

15   Edmund Burke- a British statesmen and Irish born writer condemned the Revolution for its extreme measures  Reflections on the Revolution in France  William Pitt (England) and other European leaders (Prussia and Russia) would discourage popular uprisings Europe at War with the Revolution

16   The revolutionary government established a series of committees to protect its new creation  Committee of General Security and Committee of Public Safety  Carried out executive duties of the government  A levee en masse:  a military conscription for all males in the population was mobilized to defend the country  Citizen led army led to Reign of the Terror The Reign of Terror

17   Autumn of 1793- mid-summer 1794:  A period marked by quasi-judicial executions  Christian calendar was replaced by a secular calendar and all other places of worship were “de-christianized”  Executions grew increasingly arbitrary  Sans-culottes revolutionaries served as victims as well as persecutors  Marie Antoinette and other members of the royal family were the first victims Reign of Terror Continued

18   Maximilien Robespierre- powerful member of the Committee for Public Safety  Established the “cult of the Supreme Being”  A civic religion modeled after the views of Rousseau  Encouraged the execution of key republican political figures including committee colleague Jacques Danton  Robespierre would also be executed during this period  The reign of terror would claim more than 25,000 victims Reign of Terror Continued

19   Involved:  Political reconstruction  Abandoned constitution of 1793  The Convention issued the Constitution of the Year III  Provided for a legislature of two houses:  Upper Body (Council of Elders)- consisted of men over 40 who were husbands or widowers  Lower council of 500- consisted of men who were at least 30 years old and either married or single  The executive body was a 5 person directory chosen by the elders from a list submitted by the Council of 500 The Thermidorian Reaction

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