Presentation on theme: "RECONSTRUCTION Chapter 15. The Problem of Peacemaking No one knew what to do as the war was ending Lincoln refused to acknowledge the Confederate."— Presentation transcript:
The Problem of Peacemaking No one knew what to do as the war was ending Lincoln refused to acknowledge the Confederate Government as legitimate, thus could not negotiate a treaty Why did Lincoln do this?
The Aftermath of War and Emancipation After the war the South was devastated Farmland was pillaged and burned Towns were gutted Infrastructure (bridges and railroads) were destroyed Confederate Bonds and money worthless Shortage of labor (why?) 250,000 Confederate Soldiers Died 20% of adult white males Lee and Jackson become heroes of the “Lost Cause” and the nostalgic old day of the South
The Aftermath of War & Emancipation 4 million Blacks emerge from bondage More people than the modern states of Alabama, South Carolina, Louisiana, and Kentucky. 200,000 had fought for the Union (38,000 died) Thousands of slaves had already escaped to the North Black Migration Blacks had 0 wealth and possession—no capital, no way to raise money, or borrow it.
Competing Notions of Freedom Some Southern Blacks wanted REPERATIONS and redistribution of wealth and property Other wanted only equality Some blacsk created autonomous communities The Federal Government kept troops in the South to preserve peace and protect the “Freedmen”
The Freedman’s Bureau In March of 1865 Congress established the Freedman’s Bureau A government agency designed to manage the new free black population and help them acclimate to free society The Bureau Distributed food Established school Tried to settle blacks on government land Was chartered for only one year
Issues of Reconstruction Republicans feared readmitting the South would reunite the Northern and Southern Democrats and weaken the Republican control of policy Republicans passed Nationalistic Economic Legislation before the South was readmitted Many Northerners thought Southerners should be punished
The Republicans and Readmittance Republicans differed over how the Southern states should be readmitted into the Union: Radicals—wanted Southern civil and military leaders punished and the lands of Confederate supporters confiscated. Conservatives—insisted that the South accept abolition of slavery but had few other conditions for readmission Moderates—rejected punishing the South but wanted some concessions in the way of less political power (less organized platform)
Plans for Reconstruction Lincoln’s Plan Lincoln favored rapid reunification above all else Lincolns plan granted general amnesty to Southerners (but not high ranking confederate officials) People had to take an oath to the Federal Government against slavery Lincoln’s 10% Plan Once 10% of the states total population took the oath, a state government could be established Louisiana, Arkansas, and Tennessee established loyal governments in 1864
Plans for Reconstruction The Wade-Davis Bill The plan of the Radical Republicans Authorized the President to appoint Governors of each “conquered” state Majority of population had to pledge an oath to build a Government free of slavery The political rights of Blacks were left to the states to decide The bill passed but Lincoln immediately vetoed it
Death of Lincoln The death of lincoln created a mistrust of the South in the North Lincoln martyrdom slowed social and cultural reconstruction
Johnson and Restoration Johnson is a former Democrat He is hostile towards freed claves and did not want them to have civil equality “White men alone must manage the South.”
Johnson and Restoration Johnson’s plan for Reconstruction Grant amnesty to Southerners who take an oath of allegiance to the Union Johnson’s plan looks a lot like the Wade-Davis Bill States must ratify the 13 amendment to gain re- admittance By 1865 all states had formed state governments North was upset as Southern states seemed reluctant to abolish slavery and because they elected Confederates to government positions
Radical Reconstruction When Congress reconvened they took over Reconstruction from Johnson The Black Codes South legislatures write laws giving White Southerners substantial control over Black’s Police could arrest unemployed blacks for vagrancy and “hire” them to work on plantations to pay their bail Laws forbade any work but plantation work for blacks Congress passed Civil Rights Bills that gave the Federal Government the right to reject these laws
Radical Reconstruction 14 th Amendment Gave constitutional definition of American Citizenship Passed by congressional Radical Republicans Congress says any state that ratifies the 14 th Amendment gets automatic readmission Only Tennessee did so 1866 Republicans win big in Congress and are now able to do whatever they want.
Congressional Plan Congress combined the 10 states not readmitted into 5 military districts controlled by a military governor. Commanders are ordered to register black voters If states create a state Constitution that ratifies the 14 Amendment and ensures black suffrage, they could be readmitted into the union By 1867—7 states had done so 1870—all states had rejoined
15 th Amendment Forbade states and Federal Government from denying suffrage based on “race, color, or previous condition of servitude.” Congress preempts Johnson’s interference through: Tenure of Office Act—forbade the President from removing his staff without congressional approval Command of Army Act—president could not issue military orders unless through military Generals.
Impeachment of Johnson Johnson removes Secretary of War Stanton because of his support of Radical Republicans, without congressional approval in violation of the Tenure of Office Act Johnson is impeached by the House Removal by the Senate was one vote shy. Radicals were clearly in control of Congress