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The rebuilding of the United States after the Civil War

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1 The rebuilding of the United States after the Civil War
Reconstruction The rebuilding of the United States after the Civil War


3 “Lincoln’s Procession” in Petersburg/Richmond
“Burnt Richmond” “Lincoln’s Procession” “Locomotive Ruins” in Petersburg/Richmond

4 EFFECTS OF CIVIL WAR Human toll of the Civil War: The North lost 364,000 soldiers. The South lost 260,000 soldiers. creation of a single unified country abolition of slavery-13th Amendment Dec 6th, 1865 increased power of fed. gov't U.S. now an industrial nation a stronger sense of nationalism w. lands increasingly opened to settlement a deep hatred of the North remained.. South was economically and physically devastated the plantation system crippled War destroyed 2/3 of South’s shipping industry + 9,000 miles of railroad.

5 The struggles in the South
By the end of the Civil War… Black Southerners began lives as newly freedmen in a poor region with slow economic activity. Plantation owners lost slave labor worth $3 billion. Poor white Southerners: job competition due to newly freedmen.

6 What are the BIG, KEY questions that would have to be answered following the Civil War? Now that the Union won the war, what issues are they going to be faced with?

7 Key Questions 1. How do we bring the South back into the Union?
Pardon or punish? 4. What branch of government should control the process of Reconstruction? 2. How do we rebuild the South? 3. How do we integrate and protect newly- emancipated black freedmen?

8 Reconstruction When? 1865 to 1877
By Who? The federal government will carry it out Purpose? To create a plan that would repair the damage to the South and restore the southern states to the Union.

9 How Lincoln tries to answer the questions
1863 he issues the Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction He outlined his plan on reunion This plan was called the “10 Percent Plan” Amnesty = to pardon

10 Lincoln’s 10% Plan In order to be “re-admitted” into the Union:
Confederate Governments had to disband A pardon would be issued to any Confederate who would take an oath of loyalty to the United States, and accept the federal policy on slavery (which was that slavery would be abolished). Pardons denied to high-ranking Confederate officers and gov’t officials Pardons denied to southerners who had killed African American War prisoners

11 Once 10 % of 1860 eligible voters are pardoned states would then…
hold a constitutional convention, for the purpose of creating a new state constitution (which would have to conform to the Constitution of the United States). hold elections and resume full participation in the Union. No former leaders of Confederacy or high ranking officers could be a part of the new government **Once “readmitted”, Lincoln would protect their property, not their slaves!

12 Lincoln’s plan was forgiving
In Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address March, 1865, he said the following: “With malice toward none, with charity for all, ...let us strive on to finish the work we are in, do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations.”

13 Was Lincoln’s Plan a Success?
states under Union occupation set up governments under the plan Louisiana, Arkansas, and Tennessee Once representative were chosen for Congress CONGRESS REJECTED THEM Lincoln was Assassinated before a plan was agreed upon **if re-admitted under Lincoln’s plan then that state would not get representation in Congress

14 Those who were unhappy with Lincoln’s Plans became known as the Radical Republicans
Lincoln was too lenient on the south and the south needed to be punished saw it as a threat to their Congressional Authority. It’s Congress’s job to make laws, not the president’s! Lincoln “should confine himself to his executive duties—to obey and execute, not make the laws…and leave political reorganization to Congress.” Persuaded many moderate republicans

15 They created the following plan...
Thaddeus Stevens: Leading radical in the House Charles Sumner: Leading radical in the Senate They created the following plan...

16 Wade-Davis Bill (1864) Required the majority, over 50%, of number voters to take an “iron clad” oath of allegiance (swearing they had never voluntarily aided the rebellion ). Required a state constitutional convention. banned former Confederates from holding public office New state Constitutions had to accept Emancipation Gave newly freedmen civil liberties EXCEPT the right to vote Promised to redistribute southern land Congressman Henry W. Davis (R-MD) Who was not allowed to take the oath? Senator Benjamin Wade (R-OH)

17 What happened to the Wade-Davis Bill?
Lincoln let the bill die in a pocket veto. How does a pocket veto occur? Typically, if president does not sign bill within 10 days it automatically becomes law But….if Congress adjourns/leaves within those 10 days and is not signed then it does not become law

18 Congress votes on law (majority)
How a bill is passed Congress creates a law Congress votes on law (majority) President of U.S. Yes Veto (no) Pocket Veto Congress 2/3 vote override President ignores 10 days Congress goes into recess bill “dies”

19 Why use a pocket veto? Re-elections are coming up
Doesn’t get accused of saying “No” Can’t go back to Congress for 2/3 override

20 Freedmen’s Bureau Created by Congress March, 1865 to help black and poor white southerners adjust to freedom Offers clothing, medical supplies, and food to war refugees Built schools, offered teacher training… Over 250,000 African Amer students received their first former education through the Bureau schools. Created job opportunities redistributed additional confiscated land to former slaves and poor whites.. leased 40acres could purchase later

21 How were things left before Lincoln was assassinated?
No decisions were made At the end of the Civil War, in the spring of 1865… Lincoln and Congress were on the brink of a political showdown with their competing plans for Reconstruction…….and then….

22 Lincoln’s hopes of forgiveness end
Weeks after his Second Inauguration, April 14, 1865, Lincoln was assassinated at the Ford’s Theater by John Wilkes Booth John Wilkes Booth, an actor and Confed soldier plotted with others to first kidnap Lincoln and exchange him for prisoners. Failed Vice President Andrew Johnson replaced Lincoln as President

23 O Captain! My Captain! om/watch?v=h9QL2o6O7s8
Identify at least 2 metaphors What is repeated and why? Whitman refers to Lincoln


25 Restoration Johnson’s plan would grant amnesty to most Southerners once they swore loyalty to the Union High-ranking Confederates could be pardoned only by appealing to the president…why? Could hold constitutional conventions without Lincoln’s 10%-no requirement States could hold elections and rejoin Union if… denounced secession And ratified the 13th amendment (Abolished slavery in the US) AND repudiate(reject) Confederate debt John stated “white men alone must manage the South Johnson opposed equal rights for African Americans wanted to humiliate the leaders who he believed had tricked the South’s people into seceding Repudiate Confederate debt- since the south wasn’t technically another country, the US by law can take on the debt of one or more states. Therefore the south would not be paid back. Those who they borrowed money from and those who did the work won’t get paid. If the south included the 1.7bill due to the slave lablr they lost they are in 3.2billion in debt


27 Under Johnson’s Administration
HE: Believed “white men alone must manage the South Opposed equal rights for African Americans As State Governments were restored… Confederates recently pardoned quickly passed laws severely restricting African Americans newly found freedom. This allowed….

28 Black Codes Enacted black codes, laws that restricted freedmen’s rights. The black codes established virtual slavery with provisions such as these:

29 Black Codes: to regulate social & economic lives
CAN Marry Blacks Sue in court Own property Go to school CANNOT Serve on a jury Carry a weapon Testify against Whites Marry Whites Stay out after sunset Travel w/o permit Own a business Commit Vagrancy Live in urban areas Curfew-Generally, black people could not gather after sunset. vagrancy– that is, not working– could be fined, whipped, or sold for a year’s labor. Land restrictions: Freed people could rent land or homes only in rural areas. This restriction forced them to live on plantations. Labor Contracts: Freedmen had to sign agreements in January for a year of work. Those who quit in the middle of a contract often lost all the wages they had earned

30 Northern Republicans in Congress ANGERED by Codes
Mad that southerners defied goal of Reconstruction Blamed President Johnson for the return of southern democratic power

31 Powers Congress used to change this problem
Amended the constitution. If vetoed by Johnson, they would override it!

32 Civil Rights Bill of 1866 Give Blacks citizenship
2. Forbid the passing of discriminatory laws Republicans in Congress blamed President Johnson for the southern Democrats’ return to Congress. In early 1866 Congress passed the Civil Rights Act which outlawed the black codes. --This outlawed THE BLACK CODES--

33 Congress Breaks with the President
Joint Committee on Reconstruction created. February, 1866  President vetoed the Freedmen’s Bureau bill. March, 1866  Johnson vetoed the 1866 Civil Rights Act. Congress overrides Johnson’s vetoes! Passed both bills over Johnson’s vetoes  1st in U. S. history!!

34 The Fourteenth Amendment
Ratifed July 1868, Congress passed the Fourteenth Amendment, which states: “All persons born or naturalized in the United States…are citizens of the United States and of the state wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges… of citizens of the United States… nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of the law …” Made protection of Civil Rights part of the Constitution

35 Johnson’s Response Continued to oppose equal rights for African Americans. Urged states not to ratify the 14th Amendment

36 Angry Northern Voters Respond to Johnson’s Stupidity
Johnson is going down…. Elect Radical Republicans into office Now Radicals could put their own Reconstruction Plans into action!

37 The Reconstruction Act of 1867
The Reconstruction Act of 1867 called for “reform not revenge,” passed by the Radicals in Congress. These were its key provisions: 1. Put Southern states under military rule 2. Southern states would have to create new state constitutions. 3. Suffrage for all men 4. Supporters of the Confederacy were temporarily barred from voting. 5. Southern states were required to guarantee equal rights to all citizens. 6. All states were required to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment.

38 Split up South into 5 military districts

39 Quiz You may use your notes from yesterday!
Fill in circle labeled 1 with points about Lincoln’s Plan Fill in circle labeled 2 with points about Radical Reconstruction Plan Fill in circle labeled 3 with points about Johnson’s Plan

40 Important men Johnson better watch out for
Thaddeus Stevens: a Pennsylvania Congressman, led the Radical charge that would threaten to bring down Johnson. Charles Sumner: Founder of the Republicans and sought voting right for all blacks. Edwin Stanton: Secretary of War and friends of the Radicals, would control military rule over the south

41 Bad Mr. President In response to the Reconstruction Act of 1867 and not wanting a Radical to control the South, Johnson fired Secretary of War, Edwin Stanton, without Senate consent Went against the Tenure of Office Act passed by congress in 1867 which places limits on the President’s powers of who he can hire and fire b/c he needed Senate approval February 24, 1868 with of vote of 126 to 47, Johnson was impeached - charged with wrongdoing in the office–-by the House of Representatives.

42 The Senate Trial 11 week trial.
Johnson acquitted 35 to 19 (one short of required 2/3s vote).

43 “He won the battle but lost the war”
Johnson served the remaining months of his term with no mandate and no real power. In the following election of 1868, he was defeated by Ulysses S. Grant.

44 The Fifteenth Amendment + Impact
In February 1869, Congress passed the Fifteenth Amendment, granting African American males the right to vote. Ratified March 1870 Once again due to angry white southern voters staying home: In 1870, southern black men voted in legislative elections for the first time. More than 600 African Americans were elected to state legislature Louisiana gained a black governor Hiram Revels of Mississippi became the first African American elected to the Senate. Before this: In 1867 and 1868, many freedmen had been registered by the military under the Reconstruction Act of 1867 to vote 80% of the newly registered voted while most registered whites did not. As a result: One quarter of the delegates elected to the 10 state conventions were black. They would draft the new state constitution The new state constitutions guaranteed civil rights, allowed poor people to hold political office, and set up a system of public schools and orphanages.


46 The Republican South During Radical Reconstruction, the Republican Party was split into two groups who both wanted to prosper in the south. ***Earned these nicknames from former Confederates who despised them for supporting Republicans Carpetbaggers Northern Republicans who moved South Nickname came from arriving with a cheap suitcase made from carpet scraps. Carpetbaggers were often depicted as greedy men seeking to grab power or make a fast buck. Scalawags (“scrawny cattle”). White southern Republicans were seen as traitors and called Supported Reconstruction Some were small farmers who resented the planter class. Many scalawags, but not all, were poor.

47 Wanted to Industrialize Wanted to start Business
SCALAWAGS Southernern Republicans Wanted to end Slavery Wanted to Industrialize Considered Traitors Wanted to get Elected CARPETBAGGERS Northernern Republicans Liked the warm Climate Looking for Adventure Wanted to start Business Wanted to end Slavery

48 With the end of slavery, what would happen to southern agriculture?

49 Sharecropping The most common new farming arrangement
Sharecropping family would farm a portion of planter’s land As payment, the family was promised a share of the crop Planter usually provided housing The bad and the ugly: planters could evict sharecroppers, some charged for housing. Sharecroppers were stuck until paid off debt

50 Economic Reorganization of the New South of the 1870s
40 acres and 1 mule-william tecumseh sherman

51 Tenant farming If a sharecropper could save enough money, he could then become a Tenant farmer! Rented land and could grow what he wanted

Work on a portion of planter’s land Keep 1/3-1/2 of yield Provided food, shelter, clothing, seeds, and farm equipment at a price TENANT FARMING Rented land Kept all of the yield Chose which crops to plant Chose when they wanted to work Both didn’t own land they farmed on Tenant-more freedom

53 Changes in Farming in the South led to…
Emphasis on Cash Crops: Sharecropping and tenant farming encouraged planters to grow cash crops, such as cotton, tobacco, and sugar cane. The South had to import much of its food. The rise of a new class: Tenant farming created a class of wealthy merchants who sold supplies on credit. Landlords would force their tenants to buy from their store.

54 Could the South be like the Industrialized North???
Southern cities did become more industrialized One problem: southern factories handled the earlier, less profitable stages of manufacturing. The items were shipped north to be made into finished products and sold. Ex: Cotton: The value in SC went from 713,000 in 1860 to 3mill in 1880 BUT the big profit went to the northern factories who died the fabric and sold the finished product.

55 Funding Reconstruction
The South’s Need: Rebuilding the South’s infrastructure, the public property and services that a society uses, Roads, bridges, canals, railroads, and telegraph lines public school systems by 1872. How to fulfill that need: Congress, private investors, and heavy taxes paid for Reconstruction. Spending by Reconstruction legislatures added another $130 million to southern debt. Much of this big spending was lost to corruption. The corruption became so widespread that it even reached the White House.

56 Secret Societies Form

57 Terrorism emerges The Ku Klux Klan emerges
In 1866 a group of former Confederate soldiers of Pulaski, TN formed a secret society. Named Ku Klux Klan after the Greek word “Klukos” meaning circle. Dressed in masks and robes to symbolize the dead confederate soldiers who returned from the dead in search of their enemies of the south.

58 Ku Klux Klan GOAL: to keep out “foreigners”
Opposed unions and supported prohibition “felt threatened by changes in American society” In 1868 killed 1000 just from Louisiana.

59 1867-elected Nathan Bedford Forrest as leader

60 LYNCHING 1880 – 1950 = 5,000 killed with 70% being Black
1880 = 23 people every 2 ½ days Heaviest in Georgia, Mississippi, Alabama, Lousiana and Arkansas – What do they all have in common? Not restricted to South – for example: Zacharia Walker 1911 – Coatesville, PA

61 Enforcement Act of 1870 At Grant’s request, Congress passed Anti-KKK laws that banned the use of terror, force, or bribery to prevent people from voting bc of their race

62 The end of Reconstruction
After being re-elected in 1872, Grant tries to continue reconstruction in the South but by the mid-1800s it dies bc… Corruption in Republican Party Taking a toll on the economy White Resistance/Violence Democrats come to power The Amnesty Act of 1872: all but 500 ex-confeds were pardoned and given the right to vote and hold office. They combine with other white southerners and form the Democratic Party of the Solid South

63 Quick Overview

64 Amnesty Act Redemption 1. Federal supervision of elections
Enforcement Acts … to stop the Secret Societies 1. Federal supervision of elections 2. Pres. to declare martial law in areas of Klan ** Freedmen’s Bureau dies out… ** The Klan dies out... But then, the Amnesty Act Redemption begins

65 Hayes could remain in office if… Hayes (R) vs. Tilden (D) 1876
Dispute over 4 states D. scared away R. voters R. threw away D. votes Polls showed Hayes won Should have been Tilden Hayes could remain in office if…

66 Compromise of 1877 Remove remaining federal troops from South
Support appropriations for building levees along Mississippi River and give huge subsidies to railrd Marked the end of Reconstruction, giving Democrats control of Southern politics

67 Many people question whether or not Reconstruction was a success or a failure?
What were the successes? What were the failures? Do you think Reconstruction was more of a success or failure? Successes: rebuilt Union, South’s economy grows and new wealth is created in north, amendments passed, educ in south, jobs and housing for freedmen, Failures: south is bitter, south is slow to industrialize, corruption, poverty, debt, Freedmen prevented from voting, racism

68 Two goals of Reconstruction
Unify the North and South Equality for Freedmen Where these goals achieved???

69 1 9 4 2

70 Reconstruction Plans Lincoln’s plan Johnson’s plan * Denied pardons to officers and anyone who had killed African American war prisoners. * Permitted each state to create a new constitution after 10 percent of voters took an oath of allegiance. * Each state could create a new constitution without Lincoln’s 10 percent allegiance requirement. * States had to void secession, abolish slavery, and repudiate the Confederate debt. * Offered pardons to Southerners who swore allegiance * States could then hold elections and rejoin the Union.


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