Presentation on theme: "The rebuilding of the United States after the Civil War"— Presentation transcript:
1The rebuilding of the United States after the Civil War ReconstructionThe rebuilding ofthe United Statesafter the Civil War
2LIST AS MANY CAUSES AND EFFECTS AS YOU CAN OF THE CIVIL WAR
3“Lincoln’s Procession” in Petersburg/Richmond “Burnt Richmond”“Lincoln’s Procession”“Locomotive Ruins”in Petersburg/Richmond
4EFFECTS OF CIVIL WARHuman toll of the Civil War: The North lost 364,000 soldiers. The South lost 260,000 soldiers.creation of a single unified countryabolition of slavery-13th Amendment Dec 6th, 1865increased power of fed. gov'tU.S. now an industrial nationa stronger sense of nationalismw. lands increasingly opened to settlementa deep hatred of the North remained..South was economically and physically devastatedthe plantation system crippledWar destroyed 2/3 of South’s shipping industry + 9,000 miles of railroad.
5The struggles in the South By the end of the Civil War…Black Southerners began lives as newly freedmen in a poor region with slow economic activity.Plantation owners lost slave labor worth $3 billion.Poor white Southerners: job competition due to newly freedmen.
6What are the BIG, KEY questions that would have to be answered following the Civil War? Now that the Union won the war, what issues are they going to be faced with?
7Key Questions 1. How do we bring the South back into the Union? Pardon or punish?4. What branch of government should control the process of Reconstruction?2. How do we rebuild the South?3. How do we integrate and protect newly- emancipated black freedmen?
8Reconstruction When? 1865 to 1877 By Who? The federal government will carry it outPurpose? To create a plan that would repair the damage to the South and restore the southern states to the Union.
9How Lincoln tries to answer the questions 1863 he issues the Proclamation of Amnesty and ReconstructionHe outlined his plan on reunionThis plan was called the “10 Percent Plan”Amnesty = to pardon
10Lincoln’s 10% Plan In order to be “re-admitted” into the Union: Confederate Governments had to disbandA pardon would be issued to any Confederate who would take an oath of loyalty to the United States, and accept the federal policy on slavery (which was that slavery would be abolished).Pardons denied to high-ranking Confederate officers and gov’t officialsPardons denied to southerners who had killed African American War prisoners
11Once 10 % of 1860 eligible voters are pardoned states would then… hold a constitutional convention, for the purpose of creating a new state constitution (which would have to conform to the Constitution of the United States).hold elections and resume full participation in the Union.No former leaders of Confederacy or high ranking officers could be a part of the new government**Once “readmitted”, Lincoln would protect their property, not their slaves!
12Lincoln’s plan was forgiving In Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address March, 1865, he said the following:“With malice toward none, with charity for all, ...let us strive on to finish the work we are in, ...to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations.”
13Was Lincoln’s Plan a Success? states under Union occupation set up governments under the planLouisiana, Arkansas, and TennesseeOnce representative were chosen for CongressCONGRESS REJECTED THEMLincoln wasAssassinatedbefore a plan wasagreed upon**if re-admitted under Lincoln’s planthen that state would not getrepresentation in Congress
14Those who were unhappy with Lincoln’s Plans became known as the Radical Republicans Lincoln was too lenient on the south and the south needed to be punishedsaw it as a threat to their Congressional Authority.It’s Congress’s job to make laws, not the president’s!Lincoln “should confine himself to his executive duties—to obey and execute, not make the laws…and leave political reorganization to Congress.”Persuaded many moderate republicans
15They created the following plan... Thaddeus Stevens: Leading radical in the HouseCharles Sumner: Leading radical in the SenateThey created the following plan...
16Wade-Davis Bill (1864)Required the majority, over 50%, of number voters to take an “iron clad” oath of allegiance (swearing they had never voluntarily aided the rebellion ).Required a state constitutional convention.banned former Confederates from holding public officeNew state Constitutions had to accept EmancipationGave newly freedmen civil liberties EXCEPT the right to votePromised to redistribute southern landCongressman Henry W. Davis (R-MD)Who was not allowed to take the oath?Senator Benjamin Wade (R-OH)
17What happened to the Wade-Davis Bill? Lincoln let the bill die in a pocket veto.How does a pocket veto occur?Typically, if president does not sign bill within 10 days it automatically becomes lawBut….if Congress adjourns/leaves within those 10 days and is not signed then it does not become law
18Congress votes on law (majority) How a bill is passedCongress creates a lawCongress votes on law (majority)President of U.S.YesVeto (no)Pocket VetoCongress2/3 vote overridePresident ignores10 days Congress goes into recess bill “dies”
19Why use a pocket veto? Re-elections are coming up Doesn’t get accused of saying “No”Can’t go back to Congress for 2/3 override
20Freedmen’s BureauCreated by Congress March, 1865 to help black and poor white southerners adjust to freedomOffers clothing, medical supplies, and food to war refugeesBuilt schools, offered teacher training…Over 250,000 African Amer students received their first former education through the Bureau schools.Created job opportunitiesredistributed additional confiscated land to former slaves and poor whites..leased 40acres could purchase later
21How were things left before Lincoln was assassinated? No decisions were madeAt the end of the Civil War, in the spring of 1865…Lincoln and Congress were on the brink of a political showdown with their competing plans for Reconstruction…….and then….
22Lincoln’s hopes of forgiveness end Weeks after his Second Inauguration, April 14, 1865, Lincoln was assassinated at the Ford’s Theater by John Wilkes BoothJohn Wilkes Booth, an actor and Confed soldier plotted with others to first kidnap Lincoln and exchange him for prisoners. FailedVice President Andrew Johnson replaced Lincoln as President
23O Captain! My Captain! om/watch?v=h9QL2o6O7s8 Identify at least 2 metaphorshttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h9QL2o6O7s8What is repeated and why?Whitman refers to Lincoln
24MAKE A T-CHART ON THE FOLLOWING AND INCLUDE 10 NOTES FOR EACH JOHNSON’S ACTIONS/BELIEFS CONGRESS’S/BELIEFS ACTIONShttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BJLBrDSTgng
25RestorationJohnson’s plan would grant amnesty to most Southerners once they swore loyalty to the UnionHigh-ranking Confederates could be pardoned only by appealing to the president…why?Could hold constitutional conventions without Lincoln’s 10%-no requirementStates could hold elections and rejoin Union if…denounced secessionAnd ratified the 13th amendment (Abolished slavery in the US)AND repudiate(reject) Confederate debtJohn stated “white men alone must manage the SouthJohnson opposed equal rights for African Americanswanted to humiliate the leaders who he believed had tricked the South’s people into secedingRepudiate Confederate debt- since the south wasn’t technically another country, the US by law can take on the debt of one or more states. Therefore the south would not be paid back. Those who they borrowed money from and those who did the work won’t get paid. If the south included the 1.7bill due to the slave lablr they lost they are in 3.2billion in debt
27Under Johnson’s Administration HE:Believed “white men alone must manage the SouthOpposed equal rights for African AmericansAs State Governments were restored…Confederates recently pardoned quickly passed laws severely restricting African Americans newly found freedom.This allowed….
28Black CodesEnacted black codes, laws that restricted freedmen’s rights.The black codes established virtual slavery with provisions such as these:
29Black Codes: to regulate social & economic lives CANMarry BlacksSue in courtOwn propertyGo to schoolCANNOTServe on a juryCarry a weaponTestify against WhitesMarry WhitesStay out after sunsetTravel w/o permitOwn a businessCommit VagrancyLive in urban areasCurfew-Generally, black people could not gather after sunset.vagrancy– that is, not working– could be fined, whipped, or sold for a year’s labor.Land restrictions: Freed people could rent land or homes only in rural areas. This restriction forced them to live on plantations.Labor Contracts: Freedmen had to sign agreements in January for a year of work. Those who quit in the middle of a contract often lost all the wages they had earned
30Northern Republicans in Congress ANGERED by Codes Mad that southerners defied goal of ReconstructionBlamed President Johnson for the return of southern democratic power
31Powers Congress used to change this problem Amended the constitution.If vetoed by Johnson, theywould override it!
32Civil Rights Bill of 1866 Give Blacks citizenship 2. Forbid the passing of discriminatory lawsRepublicans in Congress blamed President Johnson for the southern Democrats’ return to Congress.In early 1866 Congress passed the Civil Rights Act which outlawed the black codes.--This outlawed THE BLACK CODES--
33Congress Breaks with the President Joint Committee on Reconstruction created.February, 1866 President vetoed the Freedmen’s Bureau bill.March, 1866 Johnson vetoed the 1866 Civil Rights Act.Congress overrides Johnson’s vetoes! Passed both bills over Johnson’s vetoes 1st in U. S. history!!
34The Fourteenth Amendment Ratifed July 1868, Congress passed the Fourteenth Amendment, which states:“All persons born or naturalized in the United States…are citizens of the United States and of the state wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges… of citizens of the United States… nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of the law …”Made protection of Civil Rights part of the Constitution
35Johnson’s ResponseContinued to oppose equal rights for African Americans.Urged states not to ratify the 14th Amendment
36Angry Northern Voters Respond to Johnson’s Stupidity Johnson is going down….Elect Radical Republicans into officeNow Radicals could put their own Reconstruction Plans into action!
37The Reconstruction Act of 1867 The Reconstruction Act of 1867 called for “reform not revenge,” passed by the Radicals in Congress. These were its key provisions:1. Put Southern states under military rule2. Southern states would have to create new state constitutions.3. Suffrage for all men4. Supporters of the Confederacy were temporarily barred from voting.5. Southern states were required to guarantee equal rights to all citizens.6. All states were required to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment.
39Quiz You may use your notes from yesterday! Fill in circle labeled 1 with points about Lincoln’s PlanFill in circle labeled 2 with points about Radical Reconstruction PlanFill in circle labeled 3 with points about Johnson’s Plan
40Important men Johnson better watch out for Thaddeus Stevens: a Pennsylvania Congressman, led the Radical charge that would threaten to bring down Johnson.Charles Sumner: Founder of the Republicans and sought voting right for all blacks.Edwin Stanton: Secretary of War and friends of the Radicals, would control military rule over the south
41Bad Mr. PresidentIn response to the Reconstruction Act of 1867 and not wanting a Radical to control the South, Johnson fired Secretary of War, Edwin Stanton, without Senate consentWent against the Tenure of Office Act passed by congress in 1867 which places limits on the President’s powers of who he can hire and fire b/c he needed Senate approvalFebruary 24, 1868 with of vote of 126 to 47, Johnson was impeached - charged with wrongdoing in the office–-by the House of Representatives.
42The Senate Trial 11 week trial. Johnson acquitted 35 to 19 (one short of required 2/3s vote).
43“He won the battle but lost the war” Johnson served the remaining months of his term with no mandate and no real power.In the following election of 1868, he was defeated by Ulysses S. Grant.
44The Fifteenth Amendment + Impact In February 1869, Congress passed the Fifteenth Amendment, granting African American males the right to vote. Ratified March 1870Once again due to angry white southern voters staying home:In 1870, southern black men voted in legislative elections for the first time.More than 600 African Americans were elected to state legislatureLouisiana gained a black governorHiram Revels of Mississippi became the first African American elected to the Senate.Before this: In 1867 and 1868, many freedmen had been registered by the military under the Reconstruction Act of 1867 to vote80% of the newly registered voted while most registered whites did not.As a result: One quarter of the delegates elected to the 10 state conventions were black.They would draft the new state constitutionThe new state constitutions guaranteed civil rights, allowed poor people to hold political office, and set up a system of public schools and orphanages.
46The Republican South During Radical Reconstruction, the Republican Party was split into two groups who both wanted to prosper in the south. ***Earned these nicknames from former Confederates who despised them for supporting RepublicansCarpetbaggersNorthern Republicans who moved SouthNickname came from arriving with a cheap suitcase made from carpet scraps.Carpetbaggers were often depicted as greedy men seeking to grab power or make a fast buck.Scalawags(“scrawny cattle”).White southern Republicans were seen as traitors and calledSupported ReconstructionSome were small farmers who resented the planter class.Many scalawags, but not all, were poor.
47Wanted to Industrialize Wanted to start Business SCALAWAGSSouthernern RepublicansWanted to end SlaveryWanted to IndustrializeConsidered TraitorsWanted to get ElectedCARPETBAGGERSNorthernern RepublicansLiked the warm ClimateLooking for AdventureWanted to start BusinessWanted to end Slavery
48With the end of slavery, what would happen to southern agriculture?
49Sharecropping The most common new farming arrangement Sharecropping family would farm a portion of planter’s landAs payment, the family was promised a share of the cropPlanter usually provided housingThe bad and the ugly: planters could evict sharecroppers, some charged for housing.Sharecroppers were stuck until paid off debt
50Economic Reorganization of the New South of the 1870s 40 acres and 1 mule-william tecumseh sherman
51Tenant farmingIf a sharecropper could save enough money, he could then become a Tenant farmer!Rented land and could grow what he wanted
52SHARECROPPING TENANT FARMING Work on a portion of planter’s landKeep 1/3-1/2 of yieldProvided food, shelter, clothing, seeds, and farm equipment at a priceTENANT FARMINGRented landKept all of the yieldChose which crops to plantChose when they wanted to workBoth didn’t own land they farmed onTenant-more freedom
53Changes in Farming in the South led to… Emphasis on Cash Crops: Sharecropping and tenant farming encouraged planters to grow cash crops, such as cotton, tobacco, and sugar cane. The South had to import much of its food.The rise of a new class: Tenant farming created a class of wealthy merchants who sold supplies on credit.Landlords would force their tenants to buy from their store.
54Could the South be like the Industrialized North??? Southern cities did become more industrializedOne problem: southern factories handled the earlier, less profitable stages of manufacturing.The items were shipped north to be made into finished products and sold.Ex: Cotton: The value in SC went from 713,000 in 1860 to 3mill in 1880BUT the big profit went to the northern factories who died the fabric and sold the finished product.
55Funding Reconstruction The South’s Need: Rebuilding the South’s infrastructure, the public property and services that a society uses,Roads, bridges, canals, railroads, and telegraph linespublic school systems by 1872.How to fulfill that need: Congress, private investors, and heavy taxes paid for Reconstruction. Spending by Reconstruction legislatures added another $130 million to southern debt.Much of this big spending was lost to corruption. The corruption became so widespread that it even reached the White House.
57Terrorism emerges The Ku Klux Klan emerges In 1866 a group of former Confederate soldiers of Pulaski, TN formed a secret society.Named Ku Klux Klan after the Greek word “Klukos” meaning circle.Dressed in masks and robes to symbolize the dead confederate soldiers who returned from the dead in search of their enemies of the south.
58Ku Klux Klan GOAL: to keep out “foreigners” Opposed unions and supported prohibition“felt threatened by changes in American society”In 1868 killed 1000 just from Louisiana.
60LYNCHING 1880 – 1950 = 5,000 killed with 70% being Black 1880 = 23 people every 2 ½ daysHeaviest in Georgia, Mississippi, Alabama, Lousiana and Arkansas –What do they all have in common?Not restricted to South – for example:Zacharia Walker 1911 – Coatesville, PA
61Enforcement Act of 1870At Grant’s request, Congress passed Anti-KKK laws that banned the use of terror, force, or bribery to prevent people from voting bc of their race
62The end of Reconstruction After being re-elected in 1872, Grant tries to continue reconstruction in the South but by the mid-1800s it dies bc…Corruption in Republican PartyTaking a toll on the economyWhite Resistance/ViolenceDemocrats come to powerThe Amnesty Act of 1872: all but 500 ex-confeds were pardoned and given the right to vote and hold office. They combine with other white southerners and form the Democratic Party of the Solid South
64Amnesty Act Redemption 1. Federal supervision of elections Enforcement Acts … to stop the Secret Societies1. Federal supervision of elections2. Pres. to declare martial law in areas of Klan** Freedmen’s Bureau dies out…** The Klan dies out...But then, theAmnesty ActRedemptionbegins
65Hayes could remain in office if… Hayes (R) vs. Tilden (D) 1876 Dispute over 4 statesD. scared away R. votersR. threw away D. votesPolls showed Hayes wonShould have been TildenHayes could remainin office if…
66Compromise of 1877 Remove remaining federal troops from South Support appropriations for building levees along Mississippi River and give huge subsidies to railrdMarked the end of Reconstruction, giving Democrats control of Southern politics
67Many people question whether or not Reconstruction was a success or a failure? What were the successes?What were the failures?Do you think Reconstruction was more of a success or failure?Successes: rebuilt Union, South’s economy grows and new wealth is created in north, amendments passed, educ in south, jobs and housing for freedmen,Failures: south is bitter, south is slow to industrialize, corruption, poverty, debt, Freedmen prevented from voting, racism
68Two goals of Reconstruction Unify the North and SouthEquality for FreedmenWhere these goals achieved???
70Reconstruction PlansLincoln’s planJohnson’s plan* Denied pardons to officers and anyone who had killed African American war prisoners.* Permitted eachstate to create a new constitution after 10 percent of voters took an oath of allegiance.* Each state could create a new constitution without Lincoln’s 10 percent allegiance requirement.* States had to void secession, abolish slavery, and repudiate the Confederate debt.* Offered pardons to Southerners who swore allegiance* States could then hold elections and rejoin the Union.