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African-American History from the Civil War to the Present dr. Liz Bryant.

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Presentation on theme: "African-American History from the Civil War to the Present dr. Liz Bryant."— Presentation transcript:

1 African-American History from the Civil War to the Present dr. Liz Bryant

2 US During the 1850s Lots of tension over slavery South – Wants slavery to expand – Economy is totally dependent on slavery

3 US During the 1850s North- wants slavery to stop Abolition – Gradualists – Immediatists Key: this does not mean that Northerners believe African-Americans should be EQUAL; they just felt they shouldn’t be slaves

4 Election of 1860

5 Lincoln’s Beliefs He was anti-slavery BUT did not want to abolish slavery immediately Thought it should end gradually


7 The Secession Crisis Deep South followed: 1.12/20/60 South Carolina 2.01/09/61 Mississippi 3.01/10/61 Florida 4.01/11/61 Alabama 5.01/19/61 Georgia 6.01/26/61 Louisiana 7.02/01/61 Texas

8 Map of Dates of Secession

9 Become the Confederate States of America

10 WAR!!!!

11 Goals during War South Want to keep slavery North Want to keep the Union intact

12 Emancipation Proclamation

13 Freed slaves only in areas that had seceded from the United States (no jurisdiction) Used as a justification for the war Why doesn’t Lincoln free all the slaves?

14 Blacks in the Military

15 Blacks Served in the Navy

16 Gideon Welles Secretary of Navy Authorized enlistment of black soldiers BUT: – Highest rank was “boy” – Paid less than whites

17 James Lane Authorized blacks in calvary – These were the first blacks in combat – Blacks could not become officers

18 Recruiting African-Americans

19 1863- Large Scale Registration of Black Soldiers

20 54 th Massachusetts

21 Colonel Robert Shaw

22 Differences in the Way Troops Were Treated Pay – Blacks= $10 a month (minus $3 for clothes) – Whites= $13 a month (plus 3.50 clothes allowance) Black volunteers could not receive $100 bounty Blacks could not become commissioned officers

23 Black POWs Were not treated as enemy combatants Were to be treated as slaves and taken to the South and sold

24 White Officers of Black Troops Confederacy called for the death of all white officers working with black troops (1863)

25 Black Soldiers Took part in 450 battles 154 regiments 12% of Union forces 186,017 served/ 68,178 died Mortality rate= 40%


27 Canons Conquer But They Do Not Necessarily Convert Post-War South: Economy is destroyed

28 Many Plans for Reconstruction Lincoln (Presidential) Johnson Radical

29 Different Goals for Reconstruction Lincoln- wants to reunite North and South as quickly as possible Radical Republicans- want to punish the South

30 Issue: What Is Going to Happen to the 4 Million Freedmen

31 Lincoln’s Plan for Reconstruction Known as Presidential Reconstruction 10% of Southerners had to take a loyalty oath After oath, states could draw up new constitutions that – Abolished Slavery – Provided education to freedmen

32 Lincoln’s Plan for Reconstruction Pretty easy on the South

33 Lincoln’s Plan for Reconstruction No mention of civil or political rights for African-Americans

34 Lincoln’s Plan for Reconstruction Criticized by the Radical Republicans in Congress for being too lenient

35 Wade-Davis Bill Passed by Congress Required 50% of Southerners to take an “ironclad” oath to the Union Vetoed by Lincoln

36 Lincoln’s Fate

37 Andrew Johnson

38 Lincoln’s Vice President Southern Democrat Not well-educated

39 Johnson’s Plan for Reconstruction Key: Johnson was concerned with uniting the white north and the white south Did not care what happened to African- Americans

40 Johnson’s Plan for Reconstruction Did not require common men to take a loyalty oath Only planters with over 20,000$ had to request a presidential pardon All states had to ratify the 13 th Amendment before being allowed back into the Union

41 Johnson’s Plan for Reconstruction

42 13 th Amendment

43 What actually ended slavery in the United States


45 The Radical Republicans Led by Thaddeus Stevens and Charles Sumner Wanted to do more for African-Americans Constantly challenged Johnson

46 Thaddeus Stevens

47 Charles Sumner

48 Goals of the Radical Republicans 1)Punish the South 2)Help African Americans

49 Why were the Radical Republicans So Angry? 1)Confederate leaders were back in power 2)Emergence of Black Codes

50 Alexander Stephens

51 Black Codes Slave codes but for freedman Regulated almost every aspect of their lives

52 Black Codes

53 Freedman’s Bureau Established by Lincoln to help African- Americans make the transition from slavery to freedom

54 Freedman’s Bureau

55 Freedman’s Bureau Schools

56 Freedman’s School

57 Johnson and the Freedmen’s Bureau Johnson vetoed the renewal of the Freedmen’s Bureau Said it was no longer necessary because wartime conditions had ended Becomes a big battle between Johnson and the Radical Republicans

58 Civil Rights Act (1866)

59 Guarantees civil rights to blacks Vetoed by Johnson Radicals override him Shows Radicals are now in charge of Reconstruction

60 Freedmen’s Bureau Radical Republicans pass a revised version of this bill


62 “Radical” Reconstruction Designed to help African-Americans more than either Lincoln or Johnson’s plans Punished the South

63 14 th Amendment

64 Granted African-Americans citizenship Gives blacks equal protection under the law KEY: Native Americans are not considered citizens under the 14 th Amendment

65 South Divided into 5 Military Districts

66 Reconstruction Act (1867) Creates 5 military districts in the South All states must ratify the 14 th Amendment All states must guarantee blacks the right to vote

67 Reconstruction Act (1867) Johnson tries to veto this but is overridden

68 South’s Reaction to the Reconstruction Act Thought it was unfair – Blacks couldn’t vote in all northern states so why were they allowed to in the South Hated seeing Union military leaders in the South making sure the Reconstruction Act was enforced

69 When States Were Admitted Back into the Union

70 15 th Amendment

71 Gave African-Americans the right to vote

72 Blacks Voting

73 The 15 th Amendment: Idealized

74 Depicting That All Men Could Vote

75 Voting Was Not Always an Easy Process


77 Carpetbaggers

78 Northerners who came South during Reconstruction to profit financially White Republican Many are elected to office

79 Scalawags

80 White Southerners who voted Republican Most hated group in the South – Seen as being treasonous


82 African Americans during Reconstruction A visible minority

83 Blacks Were Politically Active Served in government in the local, state, and federal levels Voted in large numbers – Republican – Seen as the “Party of Lincoln”

84 From the plantation to the Senate… Most blacks were not prepared for these positions

85 Blanche Bruce

86 Hiram Revels

87 Black Politicians Create many programs designed to help African-Americans ISSUE: leads to taxes being raised

88 Black Politicians By the end of Reconstruction: – 16 Black Congressmen – 600 Black state legislators – 18 served as Lieutenant Governors, Treasurers, or Secretaries of State – Several hundred- local leadership roles Justice of the Peace School superintendents Mayors Country Commissioners Sheriffs

89 “Negro Supremacy”

90 Stereotype created by racist whites Fear tactic to get Southerners to come together to support white Democrats Components taken from slavery: – Blacks are brutes – Black men want to rape white women – Do you want to trust black men with a gun?

91 The Brute

92 Stereotype of Negro Supremacy


94 Life for African Americans in the South Most worked agricultural jobs – Sharecropping – Tenant farming – Crop-lien system

95 Example of Sharecropping

96 Sharecropping Plantations are broken up into smaller plots Blacks work land Split profits 50/50 with owner of land Owner provides: – Land, seeds, farming tools, etc. Blacks provide labor

97 Tenant Farmers

98 Similar to sharecropping BUT blacks have something to contribute besides labor 75/25 split of profits

99 A Different Look Than Slavery?

100 Living Quarters


102 Crop Lien System Whites loan money to blacks to buy supplies, etc. Was to be paid back when crops were harvested

103 Crop Lien System ISSUE: What happens if a farmer has a bad year?

104 Crop Lien System Keeps blacks in a cycle of poverty Not allowed to move if they owed money


106 Rise of White Supremacist Organizations Ku Klux Klan (KKK) Knights of the White Magnolia Goal of these groups was to restore white supremacy in the South through any means necessary

107 Birth of a Nation 1915 How is Reconstruction portrayed? How are blacks acting? What stereotypes are they conforming to?

108 KKK


110 KKK Used Terror to Achieve Their Goals

111 KKK= Voter Intimidation

112 KKK Social club founded in 1866 Hated Republicans Goal: Get Democrats in office

113 KKK Used voter intimidation to achieve their goal Blacks, Catholics, carpetbaggers, scalawags

114 KKK Their tactics work Leads to the emergence of “Redeemer” governments throughout the South – Conservative, white, Democratic leaders

115 Civil Rights Act 1875 Guaranteed blacks equal treatment in: – Public accommodation – Public transportation – Said blacks could serve on juries

116 Reaction to the Civil Rights Act of 1875

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