Presentation on theme: "Tabernacle of David Presentation"— Presentation transcript:
1Tabernacle of David Presentation Marriage as a CovenantTabernacle of David PresentationPresented by:Ryan White
2Objectives for the Series Discuss the difference between Covenant and Contract.Discuss why YHWH created the institution of marriage.Discuss Genesis 1-3 from the aspect of a marriage covenant.Discuss principles in Genesis 1-3 that can make your marriage blissful regardless of how bad it has become.Define the roles of a man and woman within a relationship.Discuss marriage, divorce, and women’s rights in the ancient Near East.
3Objectives for the Series Compare and contrast marriage, divorce, and women’s rights in the ancient Near East with the Torah.Discuss marriage, divorce, and women’s rights in the First CenturyCompare and contrast views and rulings on marriage and divorce in First Century Judaism with the words of Yeshua and Paul.
4Resources Used Marriage as a Covenant by Gordon Hugenberger Garden of Peace by Rabbi Shalom ArushFlame of Yahweh by Richard DavidsonDivorce and Remarriage in the Bible by David Instone-BrewerThe Marriage Covenant by Derek PrinceMarriage as Covenant by John TartwaterMadam I’m Adam (audio) by Rabbi Daniel LapinWhat God has Joined Together (audio) by Tim Hegg
5Resources Used Genesis Sermon Series (audio) by Dr. Gordon Hugenberger ‘Adultery’ entry in the Encyclopedia of the Bible and Its ReceptionThe Family in the Old Testament by J. Andrew DearmanWomen in Mesopotamia by M. StolA New Understanding of the Divorce and Remarriage Legislation in Deuteronomy 24:1-4 by Anthony GarrettA Typology of Israelite Marriage: Kinship, Socio-Economic, and Religious Factors by Allen Guenther
6Current State of Marriage “No Fault” divorce introduced in 1970’sSkyrocketing divorce ratesOver 50% of marriages today end in divorceNo difference between Christian and secularMarriage rates down 33%~70% of married people unhappy
7Values of the Western Culture Individual choice over moral responsibilityIndividuality over communityIndependence over interdependence
8Contract vs. covenantCovenant:“An elected, as opposed to natural, relationship of obligation established under divine sanction.”Contract:“A private legal or commercial agreement of which the principle guarantors are the courts and community rather than God or the gods.”
94 “Ingredients” of a Covenant Personal RelationshipElectionObligationOath
10Ezekiel 16:8“Again I passed by you and looked upon you and saw that your time was the time of love. And I spread My skirt over you and covered your nakedness. And I swore an oath to you and entered into a covenant with you, and you became Mine,” declares the Master יהוה.
11Elohim vs. DivorceDeath rates for divorced men are 70% higher than their married counterpartsDeath rates for divorced women are 37% higher than their married counterpartsUnemployment rate amongst divorced men is 3 times higher than that of their married counterparts
12Malachi 2:10-12Have we not all one Father? Did not one create us? Why do we act treacherously against one another, to profane the covenant of the fathers? Yehudah has acted treacherously, and an abomination has been done in Yisra’el and in Yerushalayim, for Yehudah has profaned what is set-apart to יהוה – which He had loved – and has married the daughter of a foreign mighty one. Let יהוה cut off from the tents of Ya’akov the man who does this – stirring up or answering, and bringing an offering to יהוה of hosts!
13Malachi 2:13-14And this you have done a second time: you cover the altar of יהוה with tears, with weeping and crying, because He no longer regards the offering, nor receives it with pleasure from your hands.
14Malachi 2:13-14And you said, “Why?” Because יהוה has been witness between you and the wife of your youth, against whom you have acted treacherously, though she is your companion and your wife by covenant.
151 Peter 3:7In the same way, husbands, live understandingly together, giving respect to the wife, as to the weaker vessel, and as being heirs together of the favor of life, so that your prayers are not hindered.
161 Timothy 5:8And if anyone does not provide for his own, and especially for those of his household, he has denied the belief and is worse than an unbeliever.
17Malachi 2:15And did He not make one? And He had the remnant of the Spirit? And what is the one alone? He seeks a seed of Elohim. So you shall guard your spirit, and let none act treacherously against the wife of his youth.
18Malachi 2:16“For I hate divorce,” said יהוה Elohim of Yisra’ĕl, “and the one who covers his garment with cruelty,” said יהוה of hosts. “So you shall guard your spirit, and do not act treacherously.”(The Scriptures 1998+)
19(Hugenberger’s Rendition) Malachi 2:16"If one hates and divorces," says Yahweh, God of Israel, "he covers his garments with violence," says Yahweh of Host, "Therefore take heed to yourself and do not be faithless [against your wife]“(Hugenberger’s Rendition)
20Divorce in the ANE (Ancient Near East) שׁלח shalach H7971 – “to send out”Idiom for “to divorce”Deut 24:3, Isaiah 50:1גּרשׁ garash H1644 – “drive out/driven out”Idiom for “to divorce” or a divorced womanGen 21:10, Lev 21:7, 22:13, Num 30:10-12כריתת ספר sefer keritut H3748 – “bill of divorce”
22Marriage in the ANE (Ancient Near East) Began with commitment and then searched for romanceAge: Girls 14-20, boys 26-32Arranged, but still given a choice
23Marriage in the ANE (Ancient Near East) Roles in the marriageHusband:Civic and military affairsProvides income, protects household, represents family in courtWife:Administers the household and the family business
24Marriage in the ANE (Ancient Near East) Bride-priceGiven by the groom to the bride’s fatherUsually ~1 years wagesDowryGiven by the bride’s father to the brideIn the husband’s control and/or sewn into the bride’s gownUsually 5-25% of the estate
25Polygamy in the ANE (Ancient Near East) While it is never prohibited, the Scriptures teach monogamy as idealMost commonly practiced by commoners for the reason of progeny.Surrogate motherhoodCost prohibitiveDeut 17:17 & the Essenes
26Adultery in the ANE (Ancient Near East) Witnessed adultery = deathCourt proven adultery = divorceAdulterous wife publically strippedSuspected adultery – Numbers 5:11-31ANE divine river ordealLying about adulteryDeut 22:13-21Attempt to steal dowry
27Divorce in the ANE (Ancient Near East) Just Cause divorceChildren stay with fatherWife loses dowryChildlessness was in contract as just groundUnjust Cause divorceGenerally accepted in the ANEDowry returned to wifeDeut 22 & Mal 2:16 imply this was unacceptable
28Divorce in the ANE (Ancient Near East) Legal reasons for divorceFor man:The woman is not a virginShe refuses cohabitationShe commits adulteryShe contracts a diseaseShe has bad behavior
29Divorce in the ANE (Ancient Near East) Legal reasons for divorceFor woman (only in some cultures):Bad behavior of the husbandHe refuses cohabitationHe is abroad for a long time (i.e. POW)If woman couldn’t prove neglect, she would be put to deathSome reasons included in marriage contracts such as in cases of polygamy
30Divorce in the ANE (Ancient Near East) (Speaking of an amah or maidservant marriage): Exodus 21:10-11 “If he takes another wife, her food, her covering, and her marriage rights are not to be diminished. And if he does not do these three for her, then she shall go out for naught, without silver. “
31Divorce in the ANE (Ancient Near East) Understood by most ANE cultures as well as all 3 major sects of Judaism in the 1st Century.Valid grounds for divorce were:Lack of foodLack of clothingLack of marital rightsMainly sexual, but included was prohibition against physical abuse
32Divorce in the ANE (Ancient Near East) Deuteronomy 24:1-4 “When a man takes a wife and shall marry her, then it shall be, if she finds no favor in his eyes because he has found a matter of uncoveredness in her, and he shall write her a certificate of divorce, and put it in her hand, and send her out of his house, and if she left his house and went and became another man’s wife, and the latter husband shall hate her and write her a certificate of divorce, and put it in her hand,
33Divorce in the ANE (Ancient Near East) (cont) and send her out of his house, or when the latter husband dies who took her to be his wife, then her former husband who sent her away is not allowed to take her back to be his wife after she has been defiled, for that would be an abomination before יהוה . And do not bring sin on the land which יהוה your Elohim is giving you as an inheritance.
34Marriage in the 1st Century Due to poorer population, the bride-price was no longer paid; it was promised to the father of the bride and then paid if the man divorced the woman.Fathers would give large dowries to ensure that the daughters would be self sufficient if death or divorce occurred.
35Adultery in the 1st Century Mishnah Ketubot 7.6 These are to be divorced without receiving their Kethubah [Dowry]: a wife who transgresses the Law of Moses or [one who transgresses] Jewish practice. And what is [regarded as a wife`s transgression against] the Law of Moses? Feeding her husband with untithed food, having intercourse with him during the period of her menstruation, not setting apart her dough offering, or making vows and not fulfilling them.
36Adultery in the 1st Century And what [is deemed to be a wife`s transgression against] Jewish practice? Going out with uncovered head, spinning in the street or conversing with every man. Abba Saul said: [such transgressions include] also that of a wife who curses her husband`s parents in his presence. R. Tarfon said: also one who screams. And who is regarded a screamer? A woman whose voice can be heard by her neighbours when she speaks inside her house.
37Adultery in the 1st Century Tosephta Ketubot 7.6 adds: " and she who goes out with bother her sides [shoulders] uncovered…and bathes in a public bath with any man." Mishnah Sotah 6.1 Requires trial by bitter waters even if she is found alone in a room with a man
38Divorce in the 1st Century Exodus 21:10-11“If he takes another wife, her food, her covering, and her marriage rights are not to be diminished. And if he does not do these three for her, then she shall go out for naught, without silver. “qol vahomer (argument from major to minor)If this case is true…then surely this must be true
39Divorce in the 1st Century Lack of food, Lack of clothing, Lack of marital rightsMishna Ketubah "...those without work, every day; workers, twice a week; donkey drivers, once a week, camel drivers, once in thirty days; sailors, once in six months - the words of R. Eliezer“Rabbis allowed themselves 30 days of abstinence for Torah study...
40Divorce in the 1st Century Mishnah Gittin 9.10 Beth Shammai say: a man should not divorce his wife unless he has found her guilty of some unseemly conduct, as it says, because he hath found some unseemly thing in her. Beth Hillel, however, say [that he may divorce her] even if she has merely spoilt his food, since it says, because he hath found some unseemly thing in her. R. Akiba says, [He may divorce her] even if he finds another woman more beautiful than she is, as it says, it cometh to pass, if she find no favor in his eyes.
41Divorce in the 1st Century Matthew 19:3-6 And the Pharisees came to Him, trying Him, and saying to Him, “Is it right for a man to put away his wife for every reason?” And He answering, said to them, “Did you not read that He who made them at the beginning made them male and female, and said, ‘For this cause a man shall leave his father and mother and cleave to his wife, and the two shall become one flesh’? “So that they are no longer two, but one flesh. Therefore, what Elohim has joined together, let man not separate.”
42Divorce in the 1st Century Matthew 19:7-9 They said to Him, “Why then did Mosheh command to give a certificate of divorce, and to put her away?” He said to them, “Because of the hardness of your hearts, Mosheh allowed you to put away your wives, but from the beginning it was not so. “And I say to you, whoever puts away his wife, except on the ground of whoring, and marries another, commits adultery. And whoever marries her who has been put away commits adultery.”
43Divorce in the 1st Century Matthew 19:10-12 His taught ones said to Him, “If such is the case of the man with his wife, it is good not to marry.” And He said to them, “Not all receive this word, but only those to whom it has been given, for there are eunuchs who were so born from their mother’s womb, and there are eunuchs who were made eunuchs by men, and there are eunuchs who have made themselves eunuchs for the sake of the reign of the heavens. He who is able to receive it, let him receive it.”
44Matthew 19 Summary Monogamy Marriage should be lifelong Gen 1:27 was standard proof text, see Damascus document CD 4:20-5:6Marriage should be lifelongDivorce is not God’s willDivorce is not compulsory, even with adulteryHardness of hearts – Unwilling to repent
45Matthew 19 Summary Marriage is not compulsory Thus infertility is not valid grounds for divorceDivorce for “any matter” is invalidRuling against HillelRemarriage is invalid after an “any matter” divorceRuling against Shammai
46Divorce in the Greco-Rome 1 Corinthians 7:1-4 And concerning the matters you wrote to me: It is good for a man not to touch a woman. But because of whoring, let each one have his own wife, and let each woman have her own husband. Let the husband render to his wife what is her due, and likewise also the wife to her husband. The wife does not have authority over her own body, but the husband does. And likewise the husband does not have authority over his own body, but the wife does.
47Divorce in the Greco-Rome 1 Corinthians 7:5-8 Do not deprive one another except with agreement for a time, to give yourselves to fasting and prayer. And come together again so that Satan does not try you because of your lack of self-control. And I say this as a concession, not as a command. For I wish that all men were even as I myself. But each one has his own gift from Elohim, one in this way and another in that. And I say to the unmarried and to the widows: It is good for them if they remain even as I am
48Divorce in the Greco-Rome 1 Corinthians 7:9-13 but if they do not have self-control, let them marry, for it is better to marry than to burn. And to the married I command, not I, but the Master: A wife should not separate from a husband. But if she is indeed separated, let her remain unmarried or be restored to favour with her husband, and let a husband not send away a wife. And to the rest I say, not the Master: If any brother has an unbelieving wife, and she thinks well to live with him, let him not send her away. And a woman who has an unbelieving husband, and he thinks well to live with her, let her not send him away.
49Divorce in the Greco-Rome 1 Corinthians For the unbelieving husband has been set-apart in the wife, and the unbelieving wife has been set- apart in the husband. Otherwise your children would be unclean, but now they are set-apart. And, if the unbelieving one separates, let him separate himself. A brother or a sister has not been enslaved in such matters. But Elohim has called us to peace. For how do you know, O wife, whether you shall save your husband? Or how do you know, O husband, whether you shall save your wife?
50Divorce in the 1st Century Standard Jewish Divorce Certificate: You are free to marry any Jewish man you wish
51Divorce in the Greco-Rome 1 Corinthians 7:39A wife is bound by Torah as long as her husband lives, and if her husband dies, she is free to be married to whom she desires, only in the Master.qol vahomer – We know remarriage after a valid divorce is possible…
521 Corinthians 12:14-24“Because I am not a hand, I do not belong to the body” “An eye is unable to say to the hand, “I have no need of you” “Those members of the body which are thought to be weaker are necessary” “To those of the body which we think to be less respected, these we present greater respect”
53Ephesians 5:22-33“The husband is head of the wife, as also the Messiah is head of the assembly” “Husbands, love your wives, as Messiah also did love the assembly and gave Himself for it” “Husbands ought to love their own wives as their own bodies. He who loves his wife loves himself”
54It is Not Good For Man to be Alone Marriage as a CovenantPresented by:Ryan White
55Why is Genesis the Model of Marriage? Malachi 2:15Matthew 19:5-6 (Mark 10:8)1 Corinthians 6:16Ephesians 5:31
56Why is Genesis the Model of Marriage? Proverbs 5:19A loving deer and a pleasant doe! Let her breasts satisfy you at all times. And be captivated by her love always.
57About Genesis 2-3 Written by Mosheh Focus on marital relationship Multiple viewpointsAncient Near Eastern treaty languageMale-orientedWhat is scarier? 2 couples walking down a dark street towards you or 4 guys?Marriage is a microchasm of Suzerainty
58Treaty Structure of Genesis 2 PreambleVs.4 יהוה ElohimHistorical PrologueVs Adam created and given the GardenStipulationsVs.15 Work and Guard (a job)Vs.17a Do not eat…
59Treaty Structure of Genesis 2 SanctionsBlessings:Vs Woman made for AdamCurses:Vs.17b You will surely dieDynastic DispositionVs.24 Leave his mother and fatherDynastic disposition(providing for how the relationship is to be perpetuated in the face of changing circumstances)
60Male and Female, created He them… Genesis 1:26-28Departure from ANE normCreated as king and queenImage-bearers of ElohimRomans 9:20Differentiation of sexesPrinciple of the Seed
62It is Not Good for Man to be Alone Genesis 2:7-18What’s wrong with being single?Why was Adam created first?What was the cure for man’s ineptitude?What’s about the study of Torah?
63A Helper His Opposite Defining עזר (‘ezer) Hosea 13:9, Isaiah 41:10;13, Psalm 33:20, Exodus 18:4Subordinate or other half?Defining כנגדו(kenegdo/neged)Why is it important to be “opposite”?“Standing in front of while facing”Much like a mirror
64Principle of the Mirror Wife as our mirrorReflection of male leadership1 Corinthians 11:1Amplification of the leaderHow to correct your spouseHow to become the king
65One of His Ribs… Veiling/lethargy Meaning of the word ‘love’ Similarity to Genesis 15Meaning of the word ‘love’Why use the rib?Comparison to ANE literature
66Bone of My Bone, Flesh… Covenantal Oath COMPLIMENT Ish and Ishah 1 Chronicles 11:1COMPLIMENTWhy compliment Ishah if there were no other women around to compete with?Ish and Ishah
71Ecclesiastes 4:9-12Two are better than one, because they have a good reward for their labor. For if they fall, one lifts his companion up. But woe to him who is alone when he falls, for he has no one to help him up. Also, if two lie down together, they keep warm; but how does one keep warm by himself? Although one might be overpowered, two withstand him. And a threefold cord is not readily broken.
72Ba’al vs. IshBa’al = husband, pagan deity, animal, or inanimate objectProverbs 1:17, Isaiah 41:15Ba’al role is:Owner or master, to have domination over something or someone, or decision-making member of the communityIsh refers to man as counterpart or companion
73Cleave to His Wife… Why does the man have to leave his father? ‘Leave’ (azab)Deuteronomy 28:20Comparison to ANE literatureDynastic disposition
74Cleave to His Wife… Why leave the mother? Cleave You MUST put your wife firstCleaveDeut 11:22, 30:20; Ruth 1:14Two become Echad BasarEphesians 5:28-29Remember, this is a COVENANT between man, woman, and God
75Naked and Not Ashamed… More than physical nakedness Arom (H6174) Not fully clothed or not clothed in normal mannerErom (H5903)Full and shameful nudity
77The Fall of Mankind Why was the serpent in Gan Eden? Why does the serpent speak to Ishah?Serpent = nachash (H5175/5172)Brass, enchantment, shiningMales attracted through eyes, Females through earsCrafty = Arum (H6175)
79The Fall of Mankind How was the serpent ‘cunning’? Who received the divine mandate?Covenant lawsuit against the CreatorIshah’s responseSerpent’s rebuttalUsurping authorityReversing the hierarchy
80And They Knew They were Naked Erom vs. Arom – shameWhy is this written?Hosea 2:3 – Stripped nakedWhat is the significance of fig leaves?What would have been the proper course of action?
81YHVH Elohim’s Covenant Lawsuit Historical PrologueCalling of WitnessesInterrogationIndictment of the accusedVerdict rendered
82The Woman YOU gave Me… Who’s fault was it? Transference of authority The woman vs. my wifeTaking responsibilityDoes arguing, criticizing, or blaming ever work?“The serpent deceived me…”
83Indictment of Ishah Pattern: Punishment -> blessing “Her desire shall be for her husband and he shall rule over her”Overcomes natural instinctDifficulty in raising children
84Desire Husband, Rule over Her Mashal (H4910)2 Samuel 23:3, Proverbs 17:2, Zechariah 6:13Matthew 20:25-26Genesis 1 – ‘subdue’ (kabash H3533) and ‘rule’ (radah H7287)Desire and ruleGenesis 4:7Her desire, NOT his desire
85To Adam He Said… Only Adam gets any explanation Punishment and BlessingProductivity and purposeFree vs. earned
86Chavah Change the name, change the role/function Restoration of marriage/Covenant renewalCovenant ratification ceremonyName givenAnimal Sacrificed
87Garments of SkinSame terminology used in Leviticus 8:7 for the kohenimAccording to Leviticus 7:8, the skins of sacrificed animals belong exclusively to the priesthood(Re)adoption and reconfirmation of continuity of inheritance
88Sent out….Drove out Sent out = Shalach Deuteronomy 22:19, 24:3 Isaiah 50:1Drove out = GarashGenesis 21:10, Leviticus 21:7, 14Why only Adam?