2Definition of Reconstruction Reconstruction means to rebuild the South and how to admit southern states back into the Union.Americans were not in agreement on how to do this at the end of the Civil War.
3Lincoln’s Plan for Reconstruction Lincoln’s plan was called the 10% PlanIt said that 10% of the voters in a southern state must take an oath of loyalty to the Union then,The state could form a new state government thenThe new state government would create a new state constitution that banned slavery
4Radical RepublicansThe Republicans in Congress did not like Lincoln’s plan for the South.They thought Lincoln was being too nice and forgiving.They are called Radicals because it means extreme..Radicals didn’t even allow southern states to be seated in Washington DC. (Louisiana, Arkansas and Tennessee)They came up with their own plan for the South.
5Wade-Davis BillIt said that a majority of white males swear an oath of loyalty to the Union.Only white males who swore their loyalty and DID NOT fight against the Union could participate in the state convention.New state constitution must ban slavery!Former Confederates could not hold public office.
6What does Lincoln think of the Wade -Davis Bill? President Lincoln will refuse to sign the Wade-Davis Bill!However- he realizes that he will have to compromise with the Radical Republicans in order to get southern states started towards admission in the Union.
7Freedmen’s BureauMarch Congress and President Lincoln created the Freedmen’s Bureau.It helped African Americans to adapt to their freedom. Schools were created to learn how to read and write and learn job skills.
8Lincoln was assassinated! Since Lincoln was assassinated, Lincoln’s plan didn’t go through….new president Andrew Johnson took over Lincoln’s administrationJohnson was from Tennessee but remained loyal to the Union during the war.President Johnson came up with his own plan for Reconstruction…
9Johnson’s plan: Restoration Amnesty to southerners after they swore their loyalty to the Union.High ranking Confederate officials granted pardon ONLY by the president himself! (This was done to humiliate the leaders.)Only pardoned white men could vote in state conventions (Pres. Johnson said only white men alone should manage the South.)
10Restoration continued State must denounce secession and ban slavery in their state constitution.Each state must ratify the 13th Amendment (abolishes slavery in the United States)By the end of all former Confederate states except Texas had new governments and were ready to rejoin the Union.
11Radical Republicans thoughts on Restoration Many Radical Republicans thought that President Johnson’s plan of Restoration was not strong enough.Many southern states were refused by Republicans to be seated in Congress…Southern states started to pass Black Codes- where African Americans were exploited and rights were trampled on. (Examples- African Americans were arrested if they did not have jobs. Also banned from owning or renting land…very similar to slavery.
12Civil Rights Act of 1866Granted full citizenship to all African Americans.Gave federal government the power to intervene in state affairs to protect African Americans’ rights.CRA of 1866 overturned black codes and the Supreme Court decision in Dred Scott.President Johnson threatened to veto the Freedmen Bureau bill and CRA of (He said they were unconstitutional because Congress was not allowing southern states their seats!
13RepublicansThe Republicans were able to override Johnson’s vetoes and they realized that they even though Johnson was a Republican too, compromise was not possible with the president! The Republicans decided to create their own plan of Reconstruction…
1414th AmendmentThe Republicans in Congress were afraid that the CRA of 1866 would be overturned in the Court so they passed the 14th Amendment.It granted full citizenship to all people born in the United States …No state could take away a citizen’s life, liberty or property without due process of law.Every citizen would be equally protected under the law.If any state tried to restrict adult male citizens from voting, then they could lose some representation in Congress!
1514th Amendment continued It also stated that former Confederate officials were barred from holding national office or state offices without being pardoned by Congress.Native Americans were excluded from citizenship.
16Congress said that all southern stated must ratify the 14th Amendment to rejoin the Union! Of the 11 southern states, only Tennessee ratified the 14th amendment…therefore it took a few years to make the amendment official
17Election of 1866President Johnson actively campaigned against his fellow Congressional Republicans!In the end, the Republicans won a solid victory in Congress and thus they crafted their own plans for Reconstruction.
18First Reconstruction Act of 1867 It called for the new governments in the 10 southern states that had not ratified the 14th Amendment.The 10 southern stated were divided up into 5 military districts..Each district was run by a military commander until new state governments were formed.African American males were guaranteed the right to vote in state elections.Confederate leaders were banned from holding political office.To rejoin the Union, states had to ratify the 14th Amendment and create new state constitutions that must be approved by Congress!
202nd Reconstruction Act of 1867 The 2nd Reconstruction Act stated that the military commanders must register voters and prepare the state constitutional conventions.Many southerners refused to participate in the elections for constitutional conventions and governments.Many African Americans turned out to vote…
21Readmission of StatesIn the state elections, Republicans gained control of southern states.By the end of of the 10 states met the requirements.By Mississippi, Virginia and Texas were restored to the Union.
22Johnson’s Impeachment President Johnson opposed the Radical Republicans plan of Reconstruction.Congress knew that the president was commander in chief of the army and he could give orders to the military governors in the military districts. Congress passed a series of measures to limit the president’s power.Tenure of Office Act- President could not remove government officials- including cabinet officials without the Senate’s approval.
23Impeachment Continued President Johnson suspended Sec of War Edwin Stanton…without Senate’s approval.When the Senate came back to session, they denied the suspension..President Johnson removed Stanton anyway...violating the Tenure of Office Act.House of Representatives voted to impeach the president.Senate held a trial (it lasted almost 3 months)…
24Impeachment continued The Republicans in the Senate were not able to get a 2/3rd’s majority required to convict (find guilty). The Senate was only short 1 vote!Some Republicans in the Senate were moderate Republicans not Radicals…and thought it was more about politics than violating laws.In the end, President Johnson remained in office to finish his term but will not run again for re-election.
25Presidential Election of 1868 Republicans nominated Ulysses S. Grant and Democrats nominated Horatio Seymour.Grant received most of the African American votes in the South and won the presidency.
2615th AmendmentIt prohibits the state and federal governments from denying the right to vote to any male citizen because of race, color or previous condition of servitude.It was ratified in 1870
27Reconstruction EndsWhile Grant was president, many Northerners lost interest in Reconstruction. …it was time for Southerners to solve their own problems, many of the Radical Republican leaders were dying or retiring, and their were feelings of racial prejudices in the North.
28Reconstruction EndsPresident Grant had some scandals during his administration…which hurt the Republican party.One group called themselves Liberal Republicans nominated Horace Greeley to run against Grant in the election of1 872….Grant won re-election though.1872- Liberal Republicans helped pass the Amnesty Act. It pardoned most former Confederates…..nearly all white Southerners could vote and hold office again.Amnesty changed the political balance in the South: restoring full rights to those who supported the Democratic Party.
29Democrats start to regain control In state elections, Democrats started to regain control of state governments.Many African American voters were terrorized because they voted for Republicans so the KKK terrorized them so they wouldn’t vote and the Democrats took control.
30Election of 1876Most Republicans did not want Grant to run for a 3rd term and instead nominated Rutherford B. Hays from Ohio, a moderate Republican instead. Democrats nominated Sam Tilden from New York.Possible Corruption? It first appeared that Tilden won the election but in 4 states there were disputed returns…representing 20 electoral votes.Tilden needed just one more EC vote and if Hayes won all 20 EC votes, Hays would win!
31Election continuedCongress created a special commission to solve this election crisis. It consisted of 7 Republicans, 7 Democrats and 1 Independent.The Independent resigned and a Republican took his place…the commission voted 8 to 7 to award Hays all 20 EC votes…it followed party lines.
32Compromise of 1877Democrats in Congress were UPSET with the Commission’s results..So Republicans and Southern Democrats met in secret to come up with an agreement/compromiseCompromise said that Hayes won the presidency, the South would receive more aid $ from the government and Republicans would remove all remaining troops from Southern states. Democrats promised to maintain African American rights.
33Hayes Policy for Reconstruction Pres. Hayes said in his Inaugural Address that “what the South needed most was the restoration of wise, honest and peaceful local self-government.”Hayes traveled to Southern States as a goodwill gesture and said that Southerners would handle racial issues…meaning Reconstruction had ended
34“New South”Forward looking Southerners believed that the South must develop a strong industrial economy.They argued that the South lost the Civil War because its industry did not match the North’s.Industries were based on coal, iron, tobacco, cotton, lumber and textiles.
35Southern Democrats limit the Rights of African Americans All of the following are examples of how Southern Democrats limited rights of African Americans.Poll Tax: a fee had to be paid in order to vote. Many African Americans could not afford the fee, therefore they could not vote…also hurt poor white males in the South too who couldn’t afford the fee to vote.Literacy Test: Votes had to read and explain difficult parts of state constitutions or the federal Constitution. Since most African Americans were not educated, they could not vote. Poor whites were also prevented from voting because they were uneducated too!
36ContinuedGrandfather Clause: allowed those who could not pass the literacy tests to vote if there father or grandfather could have voted before Reconstruction. Since African Americans were not allowed to vote until they were excluded.By the end of the 1800’s- African Americans voting declined due to restrictive laws and threats of violence.
37Jim Crow LawsSouthern states passed laws that legally separated blacks and whites in all public places (schools, libraries, hospitals etc.)The Supreme Court even said that this was legal!
38Plessy v. FergusonIn Louisiana had laws requiring separate sections of trains for African Americans. The Supreme Court said that separate facilities are legal as long as the facilities are equal.PROBLEM: they were not equal facilities! Southern states spent much more money on schools for whites than African Americans.Separate but equal doctrine will last for 50 years until 1954 case Brown v Board of education of Topeka Kansas.
39ConclusionIn the end, Reconstruction did help rebuild the South and its economy.Much of the South remained poor and primarily agricultural.For a brief time, African Americans gained freedom and equality and created their own institutions…but then Southern Democrats regained control of the South and rights were trampled on.“The slave went free, stood a brief moment in the sun, then moved back again toward slavery.” -W.E.B. Du Bois