Lincoln’s Plan (10%) Did not want to punish the South for treason He offered a pardon to all Southerners who took an oath of loyalty to the U.S. and accepted the Union’s proclamations concerning slavery When 10% of a state’s voters in the 1860 presidential election had taken this oath, they could organize a new state government
Resistance to Lincoln’s plan Radical Republicans: – Did not want Confederate leaders in power – Wanted the Republican party to become powerful in the South – Wanted the federal government to help African Americans to achieve political equality Abolition of slavery meant an end to the 3/5 Compromise
Resistance to Lincoln’s plan Moderate Republicans: – Lincoln was too lenient; Radicals too far in their support of African Americans – Wade-Davis Bill: Majority of adult white men in a former Confederate state had to take an oath of allegiance to the Union Abolish slavery Deprive all former Confederate government officials and military officers the right to vote or hold office Lincoln blocked this bill with a pocket veto
Presidential Reconstruction Refers to the plans laid out by President Abraham Lincoln and carried out by President Andrew Johnson. This plan echoed the words of Lincoln’s second Inaugural Address, which urged no revenge on former Confederate supporters. The purpose of Presidential Reconstruction was to readmit the southern states to the Union as quickly as possible. Republicans in Congress, however, were outraged by the fact that the new southern state governments were passing laws that deprived the newly freed slaves of their rights.
President Andrew Johnson Jacksonian Democrat. Anti-Aristocrat. White Supremacist. Agreed with Lincoln that states had never legally left the Union.
President Johnson’s Plan (10%+) Offered amnesty upon simple oath to all except Confederate civil and military officers and those with property over $20,000 (they could apply directly to Johnson) In new constitutions, they must accept minimum conditions repudiating slavery, secession and state debts. Named provisional governors in Confederate states and called them to oversee elections for constitutional conventions. EFFECTS? 1. Disenfranchised certain leading Confederates. 2. Pardoned planter aristocrats; brought them back to political power to control state organizations. 3. Republicans were outraged that planter elite were back in power in the South!
Growing Northern Alarm! Many Southern state constitutions fell short of minimum requirements. Johnson granted 13,500 special pardons. Revival of southern defiance. BLACK CODES: Intended to keep African Americans in a condition similar to slavery
Radical Republicans Control Congress The 14 th amendment is introduced President Johnson attacked the 14 th amendment The election of 1866 the Republicans achieved an overwhelming majority in Congress
Plans compared Oath of allegiance: 50% High ranking Confederate officials lost voting rights if they did not take the oath Write new state constitutions Ratify 13 th, 14 th, and 15 th amendments Reject secession and states’ rights Submit to U.S. government authority Divide the South into five military districts Military Reconstruction Act of 1867- Military Reconstruction Act of 1867--76
Radical Plan for Readmission Civil authorities in the territories were subject to military supervision. Required new state constitutions, including black suffrage and ratification of the 13 th and 14 th Amendments. In March, 1867, Congress passed an act that authorized the military to enroll eligible black voters and begin the process of constitution making.
Reconstruction Acts of 1867 Military Reconstruction Act * Restart Reconstruction in the 10 Southern states that refused to ratify the 14 th Amendment. * Divide the 10 “unreconstructed states” into 5 military districts.
Reconstruction Acts of 1867 Command of the Army Act * The President must issue all Reconstruction orders through the commander of the military. Tenure of Office Act * The President could not remove any officials [esp. Cabinet members] without the Senate’s consent, if the position originally required Senate approval. A question of the constitutionality of this law. Edwin Stanton
President Johnson’s Impeachment Johnson removed Stanton (Secretary of War) in February, 1868. Johnson removed four generals in the field who were more sympathetic to Radical Reconstruction. The House impeached him on February 24 before even drawing up the charges by a vote of 126 – 47!
The Senate Trial 11 week trial. Johnson acquitted 35 to 19 (one short of required 2/3s vote).
Freedmen’s Bureau Congress created this to help African Americans make the transition to freedom. The Freedmen’s Bureau helped former slaves solve everyday problems by providing food, clothing, jobs, medicine, and medical-care facilities. While the Freedman’s Bureau did help some former slaves acquire land unclaimed by its pre-war owners, Congress did not grant land or the absolute right to own land to all freed slaves. Such land grants would have provided African Americans with some level of economic independence.
“I felt like a bird out of a cage. Amen. Amen. Amen. I could hardly ask to feel any better than I did that day…….The week passed off in a blaze of glory “Men are taking their wives and children, families which had been for a long time broken up are united and oh! Such happiness. I am glad I am here.” emancipation
“The end of the war, it come just like that---like you snap your fingers….Soldiers, all of a sudden, was everywhere---coming in bunches, crossing and walking and riding. Everyone was a-singing. We was all walking on golden clouds. Hallelujah! Everybody went wild. We all felt like heroes, and nobody had made us that way but ourselves. We was free. Just like that, we was free.” emancipation
freedom, so they’d know what it was--- like it was a place or a city.” “Right off colored folks started on the move, recalled a freedman. “They seemed to want to get closer to freedom, so they’d know what it was--- like it was a place or a city.” emancipation
No more auction block for me…No more, No more…No more auction block for me…Many thousand gone.. No more auction block for me…No more, no more…No more auction block, whiplash for me…Many thousand gone…. An oh, the one thing…That we did wrong…No more, no more…Staying in the wilderness…A day too long…No more, no more… And oh, the one thing..That we did right..Oh yes, oh yes… Was the day….That we began to fight…Oh yes, oh yes….. My Lord…. And it’s no more auction block for me….No more, no more, no more…Auction block for me….Many, many thousand gone…...
1865, Congress created the Freedman’s Bureau to help former slaves get a new start in life. This was the first major relief agency in United States history. Bureau’s Accomplishments Built thousands of schools to educate Blacks. Former slaves rushed to get an education for themselves and their children. Education was difficult and dangerous to gain. Southerners hated the idea that Freedmen would go to school.
Importance of Educ to freedmen Letter by a Teacher teaching freedmen on the importance of education, 1869: “It is surprising to me to see the amount of suffering which many of the people endure for the sake of sending their children to school. Men get very low wages here---from $2.50 to $8.00 month usually, while a first rate hand may get $10.00, and a peck or two of meal per week for rations-----and a great many men cannot get work at all. The women take in sewing and washing, go out by day to sour, etc. There is one woman who supports three children and keeps them at school; she says, “ I don’t care how hard I has to work, if I can only send Sallie and the boys to school looking respectable.”
Letter for teachers 1 Letter to the Editor of the National Era Creswell, Texas, November 29, 1867 W.V. Tunstall, School Board, Houston, Texas To the Editor: We need immediately 500 teachers for colored schools in Texas. The colored people in this state cannot supply the demand. There are but a few white Republicans who can engage in the profession of teaching and Rebels (Southern whites) will not teach them. Therefore, our only prospect is to get teachers among the educated colored people of the North or Christian white people who are willing to endure privations among the heartless whites of the “sunny South.” The late elections have opened the South, I trust, for the introduction of civilization. Send us teachers…….
Forsyth, Georgia, July 22, 1867 Dear Sir, I write to inform you of a most cowardly outrage that took place last Saturday night. Our teacher whom we have employed here was shot down by a crowd of Rebel Ruffians for no other cause than teaching school. General, this is the second teacher that has been assaulted. The rebels make their brags to kill every Yankee teacher that they find. We do not know what we may do if the military does not assist us. The Freedmen are much excited at such an outrage. George H. Clower, William Wilkes, Freedmen
Grant becomes President Election of 1868 Lack of political experience undermined his political power Grant won reelection in 1872 A series of scandals and an economic crisis (The Panic of 1873) hurt the Republicans Democrats made gains in Congress
The “New South” Railroads were rebuilt in the South Southern industry grew Still largely agrarian Many African Americans became sharecroppers