2 The Civil War had ended. Slavery and secession were no more. Now what? The South faced the challenge of building a society not based on slavery. RECONSTRUCTION-The process the federal government used to readmit the Confederate States to the UnionThe Civil War had ended. Slavery and secession were no more. Now what?How does the Union integrate the South back into American society?How do 4 million newly freed African American slaves integrate themselves into society?
3 LINCOLN’S PLAN Pardoning Confederate officials Allow Confederate states to quickly form new governments and send representatives to CongressLincoln made it clear that he favored a lenient Reconstruction policyHis Ten Percent Plan called for a pardon of all Confederates who would swear an oath of allegiance to the Union (Swallow the dog)When 10% of the voting population of a state took the oath, a state would be readmitted into the Union
4 THE POLITICS OF RECONSTRUCTION The politics of Reconstruction was complicated by the fact that Lincoln, his VP and successor Andrew Johnson, and the Congress all had different ideas of how Reconstruction should be handledANDREW JOHNSON
5 Johnson Becomes President Johnson became President in April of 1865He was a DemocratPut on ballot in 1864 with help win border statesFormer slave-holderWas a stubborn unyielding manBelieved Reconstruction was President’s job-NOT CongressOffered Amnesty to most white Southerners if they pledged loyalty to US government
6 JOHNSON’S PLANAfter Lincoln’s death, his VP & successor Andrew Johnson announced his own plan by supporting LincolnIt differed only slightly from Lincoln’s: He excluded high ranking Confederates and wealthy planters from the oath, but did pardon 13,000 while contending that “White men alone must manage the South”
7 Radical RepublicansSome members of the Republican Party were not only in favor of the abolition of slavery but believed that freed slaves should have complete equality with white citizens. They also opposed the Fugitive Slave Act and the Kansas-Nebraska Act. This group became known as Radical Republicans. They were led by Thaddeus Stevens of Pennsylvania and Charles Sumner of Massachusetts. Their goal was to destroy the South’s old ruling class and turn it into a region of small farms, free schools, respect for labor, and political equality for all citizens.Thaddeus Stevens
8 Rebuilding ConflictsHow did the Radical Republicans wish to reorganize the south?Radical Republicans wanted the federal government to play an active role in dictating a variety of aspects of Southern society. Most importantly, the Radical Republicans wanted full and equal citizenship for African-AmericansThey divided the South into military districts with Union soldiers placed in Southern states to keep the peaceFelt the South should be punish for starting the war
9 1. In the South what does the reconstruction period bring? Racial massacres, vigilante violence, and the riseof para-military groups
10 2. The Civil War claimed the lives of how many Southern men? 260,000
11 3. How did Southern men find their homes when they returned after the war? They found utter devastation with cities almost totally destroyed, trains demolished, crops burned, and animals by the road dead.
12 4. Why was there a so called “Second Civil War” against the Republican Party? Because they represented, as Lincoln did, the idea of overturning the old order in Southern society.
13 FROM HARPER’S MAGAZINE 1866 – BLACKS CELEBRATE CIVIL RIGHTS ACTOne of the important acts passed by Congress was the Civil Rights Act -1866All people born in the United States were citizens (except Native Americans)Citizens entitled to equal rights regardless of racePresident Johnson vetoedCongress overrode the vetoFROM HARPER’S MAGAZINE 1866 – BLACKS CELEBRATE
14 14TH AMENDMENTIn 1866, Congress passed the 14th Amendment which provided legal backing to the Civil Rights ActAll people born in the United States were citizens (except Native Americans)Equal protection under the lawNo voting rights for African-Americans
15 5. What was the Freedmen’s bureau? America’s first major relief organization responsible for the general welfare of the newly freed slaves.
16 EDUCATION WAS AN IMPORTANT PART OF THE BUREAU FREEDMEN’S BUREAUCongress also passed the Freedmen’s Bureau Act which provided much needed aid to African AmericansTo assist former slaves, the president established the Freedmen’s Bureau. This agency set up schools and hospitals for African Americans and distributed clothes, food, and fuel through the South.EDUCATION WAS AN IMPORTANT PART OF THE BUREAU
17 6. What were black codes?Harsh laws designed to regulate the lives of blacks, to control their movements in the South, and to force them back onto the plantations.
18 Black CodesThe Southern states passed laws, known as Black Codes, which limited the freedom of former slaves.Employment was required of all freedmen; violators faced vagrancy chargesAfrican Americans were forbidden to carry a gun or meet in unsupervised areas; they were forced to work on plantations if they did not show proof of workFreedmen were assumed to be agricultural workers and their duties and hours were tightly regulatedFreedmen were not to be taught to read or writePublic facilities were segregatedViolators of these laws were subject to being whipped or branded.
19 7. During the Civil War how many black men served in the Union Army? 180,000 and many of them were escaped slaves
20 8. What happened on July 30, 1866, in New Orleans? Black Union veterans are attacked by a voluntary police and massacred.
21 9. The Reconstruction Acts of 1867, an attempt to crush the ex-confederates, stated what? All state governments elected before this time were abolished, new elections were ordered, and in the elections freemen must be allowed to vote.
22 RECONSTRUCTION ACT OF 1867Congressional Republicans again joined forces to pass the Reconstruction ActThis act voided the state governments formed in the South under the Presidential plans and instead divided the south into 5 military districtsBefore the South could re-enter the Union, they had to ratify the 14th Amendment and approve the new state governments.“First Vote”This image depicts an artisan, a businessman, and a soldier standing in line to cast their first ballot.
23 Rebuilding Brings Conflict Many Southern states set up governments much like old onesRefused to ratify 13th Amendment“This is a white man’s government, intended for white men only.”Passed Black Codes
24 1868 ELECTIONCivil War hero U.S. Grant ran as a Republican against Democratic nominee Horatio SeymourGrant won by a margin of 300,000 in the popular vote500,000 African Americans voted – 90% for Grant
26 10. The Ku Klux Klan was started in Tennessee by? The Pulaski 6 who were ex- confederates soldiers
27 KU KLUX KLANThe Klan was formed by disgruntled Confederate soldiers whose goals included restoring Democratic control of the south and keep former slaves powerlessEstimates range as high as 20,000 murders attributed to the Klan whose membership peaked at almost 4 million in the 1920sMany African Americans were lynched as a form of terrorThe Klan utilized acts of intimidation and violence to bring about its goals
28 11. Who became the first Grand Wizard of the KKK? Nathan Bedford Forest
29 Red shirts, White liners, White League 12. Ex- confederates formed groups to use violence to further their racial cause, list the groups.Red shirts, White liners, White League
30 13. The Lowry War in North Carolina starts after what? A Lumbe carpenter and his son were killed, by the home guard, for helping Union prisoners escape to the north
31 14. In northeast Texas a war against ex-confederates was called what? The Lee Peacock War Lewis Peacock was considered a scalawag-a southerner who remained loyal to the Union. Peacock tried to suppress white supremisists who terrorized the area of Northeast Texas. Bob Lee wanted to get rid of Peacock and any of his Unionist friends.
32 15. What changes the tide in northeast Texas in 1871? President Grant sends Union Troops to confront the ex-confederates
33 1868 ElectionIn 1868 the Republican party seemed to be stronger than everThat year, its candidate, General Ulysses S. Grant, won the presidency. During the campaign the Democrats attacked the Republicans’ Reconstruction policies. They blamed the party for granting rights to African Americans.
34 15th AMENDMENTSoon after Grant’s election, Congress passed the 15th AmendmentPrevented men form being stopped from voting based upon the color of their skin, Native Americans were once again excludeWomen protested because it failed to give them the right to voteThe 15th Amendment was ratified in 1870
35 Grant Fights the KlanAfrican Americans continued to be terrorized by the Klan in the SouthPres. Grant asked Congress to pass a tough law against the KlanCongress approved the bill in 1871Federal marshals arrested thousands of Klansmen the bill was called, the Anti-Klan BillGrant signed theAnti-Klan Bill in 1871.
36 Grant Defeats Horace Greeley of New York The Election of 1872Grant Defeats Horace Greeley of New YorkThe Liberal Republicans nominatedNew York Tribune editor Horace Greeleyto run against Grant. The Democrats whowere in disarray went along with the nomination.Ulysses S. Grant andrunning mate Henry Wilson.Grant won an overwhelmingvictory over Greeley.
37 Scandal Rocks Grant Grant made poor choices for his advisors Many were unqualified and corruptBribes were accepted from the Union Pacific Railroad to head off a Congressional hearing by Cabinet membersDone in by the “Spoils System”
38 Grant’s Administration was marred with scandal Grant’s Administration was marred with scandal. Although he was an honest man himself, some of his advisors weren’t. Republicans broke away and formed the Liberal Republican Party
39 Panic of 1873 (-1878)Started in Europe and reached the U.S. in the fall of 1873Severe economic depressionSeveral Banks ran out of moneyMore than 18,000 businesses failedStock market collapsed89/364 Railroads went brokeMidwestern farmers couldn’t move their cropsHundreds of workers lost their jobsPanic of 1873
40 Reconstruction Ends Election of 1876 Rutherford B. Hayes vs Samuel J. Tilden