Presentation on theme: "THE FRENCH REVOLUTION UNIT 3 AREA OF STUDY 1: REVOLUTIONARY IDEAS, LEADERS, MOVEMENTS AND EVENTS WEEK 5: THE TENNIS COURT OATH."— Presentation transcript:
THE FRENCH REVOLUTION UNIT 3 AREA OF STUDY 1: REVOLUTIONARY IDEAS, LEADERS, MOVEMENTS AND EVENTS WEEK 5: THE TENNIS COURT OATH
Learning Outcomes: Understand the significance of the Tennis Court Oath 1.Understand the event that lead to the Tennis Court Oath 2.Understand what oath was made and why this was significant 3.Understand Louis XVI’s reaction to the Tennis Court Oath and how this contributed to a revolutionary situation
THE TENNIS COURT OATH JUNE With many in France experiencing famine through food shortages, a devastating storm on July further lessoned the food supply. The meeting of the Estates-General was hoped by many to be an opportunity for France to resolve its economic and political problems. However, it further complicated the existing tensions and thrust France into Revolution. A revolutionary pamphlet by Abbe Sieyes, ‘What is the Third Estate?’, was among the many thousands circulating at the time that questioned the ancien regime, giving the Third Estate a strong, subversive voice. The possibility of the Estates-General helping easing these tensions was complicated by debate over the structure of the meeting: Would they meet to vote by order (or estate) as had been done at the 1614 meeting, or would they vote by head, as had been done in some provincial parlements? Suggestions to double the Third Estate’s representation was implemented in the meeting. However, the parlements’ support of voting by order meant they rapidly lost support of the populace. As the Estates-General proceeded, it was clear the aristocracy and King were apprehensive to accept voting by head. A deadlock ensued, and the Third Estate declared themselves a National Assembly. Consequently they were locked out the hall they had been meeting in. Adjourning to the a nearby ‘tennis court’ they made an oath not to separate until they had given their nation a constitution. Louis XVI’s seemingly despotic reaction to this would thrust the country into violent Revolution
TENNIS, ANYONE?! June 20, 1789: After a five week deadlock over the issue of voting by head or by order, the deputies of the newly formed National Assembly arrive to find the chamber in Versailles they had been meeting in locked They march to the only open building big enough to house them: a commercial ‘tennis’ court The only picture I could find of the actual ‘Tennis’ court Interestingly, the French have not turned this into a tourist money spinner
THE TENNIS COURT OATH JUNE Under the leadership of Bailly, they swore to remain here until the nation had been given a constitution Meanwhile, the First Estate (the clergy) had met and voted to join the new assembly: A few days later 150 of them led by two archbishops, joined the National Assembly
THE TENNIS COURT OATH JUNE ‘THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY, CONSIDERING THAT IT HAS BEEN SUMMONED TO ESTABLISH THE CONSTITUTION OF THE KINGDOM, TO EFFECT THE REGENERATION OF PUBLIC ORDER, AND TO MAINTAIN THE TRUE PRINCIPLES OF MONARCHY; THAT NOTHING CAN PREVENT IT FROM CONTINUING ITS DELIBERATIONS IN WHATEVER PLACE IT MAY BE FORCED TO ESTABLISH ITSELF; AND,FINALLY THAT WHERESOEVER ITS MEMBERS ARE ASSEMBLED, THERE IS THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY….. …DECREES THAT ALL MEMBERS OF THIS ASSEMBLY SHALL IMMEDIATELY TAKE A SOLEMN OATH NOT TO SEPARATE, AND TO REASSEMBLE WHEREVER CIRCUMSTANCES REQUIRE UNTIL THE CONSTITUTION OF THE KINGDOM IS ESTABLISHED UPON FIRM FOUNDATIONS; AND THAT, THE SAID OATH BEING TAKEN, ALL MEMBERS AND EACH ONE INDIVIDUALLY SHALL RATIFY THIS STEADFAST RESOLUTION BY SIGNATURE’
THE TENNIS COURT OATH: IN ART
THE TENNIS COURT OATH JUNE Sieyés had suggested this in his pamphlet This departure from the existing government and defiance of the King is seen by many as the beginning of the Revolution
THE KING’S RESPONSE TO THE TENNIS COURT OATH Necker had been encouraging Louis to gather all estates to tell them they would meet together discuss things relating to the nation. By June 20, it was too late Louis then ordered the estates to a royal session and surrounded the hall with armed troops He declared all National Assembly’s decrees null and void, said he would permit some reforms, but that the social structure of the old regime would remain intact
THE REVOLUTION HEATS UP! When Louis’ response was made public, along with rumours he was going to dismiss Necker, crowds of people walked to Versailles and surrounded the hall Deputies refused to leave the hall. 830 members remained inside, surrounded by a large and protective crowd outside
EXTENDED ANSWER RESPOSNE: ACTIONS OF GOVT. AT ESTATES GENERAL FORMATION OF NATIONAL ASSEMBLY TENNIS COURT OATH THE REACTION OF LOUIS XVI Evidence = Dates, names and secondary or primary source quotes
THE TENNIS COURT OATH (20 June 1789): HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES Alan Forrest “ The deputies who assembled at Versailles were not all obsessed with the interest and status of their order; what united and divided them was often ideology, the way in which they regarded institutions and social structures…” In your own words...
THE TENNIS COURT OATH (20 June 1789): HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES Simon Schama “ Here they were, as Rousseau intended, stripped down to elemental citizenship and brotherhood.. A simple pine table was requisitioned from the next door tailor...spectators crammed into the lower galleries and thrust their heads through gallery windows….” In your own words...
THE TENNIS COURT OATH (20 June 1789): HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES William Doyle “ And there took an oath never to separate until they had given France a constitution. It was one more assertion that they were subject to no other power in France..” In your own words...
THE TENNIS COURT OATH (20 June 1789) “ the delegates came forward, their arms raise din dramatic salute, to take the oath before the tall figure of …Bailly who stood on a table made from a door wrenched off its hinges..” (Forrest)
Class discussion 1.What events lead to the Tennis Court Oath? 2.Why was the oath at the Tennis Court so significant? 3.What was Louis’ XVI’s reaction to the Tennis Court Oath?