Presentation on theme: "War and British Conquest Chapter 5. Conquest of North America What is conquest When we speak of conquest of North America, do we speak of the land or."— Presentation transcript:
Conquest of North America What is conquest When we speak of conquest of North America, do we speak of the land or the peoples? Who are the peoples?
Acadia Acadia was the central location of the War between Britain and France for the Control of North America in North America Where is Acadia? Who originally settled here?
The Mi’kmaq Acadia was originally home to the Mi’kmaq They had established a trading partner with the French and allowed the French to settle on their lands The French settled in salt marshes they drained themselves and the Mi’kmaq did not use this land so it was of no consequence to them
Read page 141-143 Did France consider Acadia conquered? When they drew maps (page 61) did they label Acadia as French or Mi’kmaq territory? Did the French ever receive a surrender from the Mi’kmaq? How might have European ethnocentrism and imperialism contributed to this? Why did France never resolve this issue with the Mi’kmaq? How would First Nations world views have contributed to this problem?
British Conquest of Acadia France settled Acadia starting in 1604 By the 1700’s many generations of French lived in this area and called themselves Acadians They has intermarried and become friendly with the Mi’kmaq Britain won the War of Spanish Succession In the Treaty of Utrecht signed after the war Britain gained control of Acadia
The treaty did not end conflict over Acadia In 1720 France built the military base at Louisbourg on the Island of Cape Breton 1745 Britain captured Louisbourg 1748 France regains Louisbourg 1749 Britain builds military base at Halifax One of the worlds largest natural harbors and an excellent site for a military base, most of the coastland of eastern Canada contains few suitable natural harbors
1758 Britain captures Louisbourg during the Seven Year’s war, a war sparked by events in North America 1763 France cedes nearly all it’s claims in North America under the Treaty of Paris
If the conquest of Acadia is occurring in the mid 1700’s, which phase of the fur trade does this match?
This is happening in: Phase 3 and 4 The establishment of the HBC and the eventual take over of New France and the creation of the North West Fur Trade Company
New School Oath I am a student of St. Thomas Aquinas Catholic School, as such I am loyal. I will always wear my THUNDER uniform, I will always address my classmates as “cohorts” and my teachers as “Revered Ones”. I will not talk unless spoken too, I will not walk unless told too. I will follow all school rules or I will cease to be a member of the school.
If you do not recite the new school Oath, You will not be allowed to stay here. You will never be allowed to come back, you will not be allowed to take any of your belongings home with you and you will have to repeat grade 7 at some other school.
In 1713 Britain took control of Acadia and told everyone to move The Acadians refused to move In 1730 The British required the Acadians to take an oath of neutrality of war should occur in North America What is an oath?
In 1755 war seemed immanent between Britain and France. Acadia was in a strategic location and would be a major fighting spot in the war so the British required the Acadians to take an Oath of Allegiance Handout 5-7 on strategic position of Quebec
Oath of Allegiance Oath Taken by Acadians 31st May 1768 I do swear, that I will bear faithful and true Allegiance to His Most Sacred Britanick Majesty King GEORGE the Third, and him will defend to the utmost of my Power against all traitorous Conspiracies, and all Attempts whatsoever, against his Person, Crown and Dignity. And I will do my utmost Endeavors to disclose or make known to His Majesty, and his Successors, all Treasons and traitorous Conspiracies, or any Attempts whatever, which I shall [know to] be against him, or any of them. And these Things I do plainly and sincerely promise and swear, according to the express Words by me spoken, and according to the plain and Common Sense and Understanding of the same Words, without any Equivocation, mental Evasion, or secret Reservation whatsoever: And I do make this Acknowledgment and promise heartily, willingly, and truly, upon the true Faith [of a] Christian. So Help me G O D.
Did the Acadians accept the Oath, which meant that they would have to fight in a war against France?
The Acadians refused, some escaped to New France and others hid with the Mi’kmaq During 1755-1763 during “The Great Deportation” Britain captured and shipped 13 000 Acadians to the 13 Colonies, England or France This was how French speaking parts of the USA started in Louisiana (Cajun) and French parts of Carolina
The Great Deportation What are the two oaths and the dates of them which the Acadians are asked to accept? P. 148 How do they respond? What is the result? What is the name of the event and what years does it take place in? Explain the significance of the word “Cajun” Record in your notes.
Read and Respond 1. What is Lieutenant-Colonel John Wislow’s perspective on the order to deport the Acadians? What words suggest he disagrees with the order?
Read and Respond 2. Why do you think he followed the order? What aspects of his identity may have factored into his decision?
Read and Respond 3. How would you have acted if you were in his shoes? Why?
What factors contributed to Britain’s decision to deport the Acadians? Conflict and Identity
Why did Britain Chose to deport the Acadians? Acadia would be drawn into the war because of it’s central location Acadians were descendants of France, spoke French, and were catholic, more in common culturally with France than Britain In Acadia in 1755, there were 12 000 Acadian settlers and 6000 British settlers, even though it was in British rule for the past 50 years The Acadians refused to fight the French What would the British assume?
Seven Year’s War learn about the 7 years war, and the battle of the Plains of Abraham. By watching a movie However, while the movie is on you will be taking notes to answer the following question
Which does a better job of providing an adequate account of the Plains of Abraham, the textbook or the movie and why? TB pages 155-157 take notes during the movie background info conflict details (who won, casualties) results of the battle...what did it lead to?
Paragraph intro sentence (position statement) support for your position concluding sentence
Treaty of Paris England is winning the war but not longer wishes to fight France has been demolished, can still fight, but not a traditional war What are they going to agree to stop the fighting?
Treaty of Paris France agreed give up almost all it’s claims to North America They still “own” 2 islands still off of the coast of Labrador (Saint Pierre and Miquelon) The rest of North America belonged to Brittan France also negotiated that Britain not retaliate against French allies in North America and allow the people of New France to practice Catholicism
Uncertain times Now have British (protestant) rulers in New France and Acadia The peoples living there are Catholic peoples of European decent The First Nations living there are used to interacting with a tolerant group of peoples and have established a coexistence with the French
First Nations and the British Read Pages 159 – 160 answer questions 1-3 on page 160 what should we add to our chart?
How would Britain Control New France? Britain does not want further fighting How are they going to still dominate New France, but prevent fighting?
Royal Proclamation of 1763 Royal set of Laws for New France in 1763 following the attacks of Pontiac Assimilation of Canadians via: Establishment of the province of Quebec with a British style government similar to the 13 colonies governor, and appointed council elected assembly (took 30 years to happen even though it was promised) Catholics can not hold government offices
Abolished French civil law abolished relationships between seigneurs and habitants and taxes (which helped to support the church) Encouragement of settlers from the 13 colonies to move to Quebec would not allow settlers to move west into “Indian Territory” Proclamation aimed for peace with First Nations as well Identified a proclamation line which outlined “Indian Territory” and not allowing settlement into it
what goes into our chart? look at the map on page 164 and answer the 3 respond questions?
Quebec Act of 1774 The 13 colonies are rebelling conflicts between the British and French were occurring regularly starting in the 1770’s, and the American Revolutionary War started in 1776 The Royal Proclamation was move to force Canadian assimilation, the 13 colonies revolted, would the Canadiens?
Quebec Act of 1774 70 000 Canadians lived in New France, very few British people did The Canadiens still had no elected assembly Britain decided to give Canadiens some rights back in the Quebec Act
Quebec Act of 1774 Allowed the Catholic Church to resume operations Allowed Canadiens to hold government positions after taking oaths of loyalty to Britain Reinstated French civil law (still in effect today) Extended the boundaries of Quebec did not consult First Nations even though they where supposed to according to the Royal Proclamation
What do we have to add to our charts? How important is the Quebec Act in shaping what Canada’s identity is now?????????