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Holocaust and Human Behavior Unit 3: Nazi Control and Propaganda.

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1 Holocaust and Human Behavior Unit 3: Nazi Control and Propaganda

2 One month after Hitler became Chancellor, who became President of the United States? Franklin Delano Roosevelt served as President through the Great Depression and most of WWII. Franklin Delano Roosevelt served as President through the Great Depression and most of WWII. He maintained democracy, even though some countries drifted towards totalitarianism. He maintained democracy, even though some countries drifted towards totalitarianism. As such, his inaugural address contained the famous line, “The only thing we have to fear is fear itself.” He knew that the more people were afraid, the more powerful a government could become. As such, his inaugural address contained the famous line, “The only thing we have to fear is fear itself.” He knew that the more people were afraid, the more powerful a government could become.

3 What was fascism and who developed it? Benito Mussolini was the Prime Minister of Italy. Benito Mussolini was the Prime Minister of Italy. Due to the chaos created by the global depression, Mussolini developed fascism. Fascism is a dictatorship that demands complete control and obedience. Due to the chaos created by the global depression, Mussolini developed fascism. Fascism is a dictatorship that demands complete control and obedience. Due to their similar philosophies, Mussolini and Hitler eventually formed an alliance. Due to their similar philosophies, Mussolini and Hitler eventually formed an alliance.

4 What happened in February of 1933? A fire broke out in the Reichstag building. A fire broke out in the Reichstag building. The Nazis used this event to their advantage by blaming it on the Communists. The Nazis used this event to their advantage by blaming it on the Communists. As such, the KPD was banned and Communist leaders were rounded up, detained, and/or sent to prison camps. As such, the KPD was banned and Communist leaders were rounded up, detained, and/or sent to prison camps. Where was the first concentration camp? Who organized it? Where was the first concentration camp? Who organized it?

5 Who became the Minister of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda? Joseph Goebbels became Minister of Propaganda in Joseph Goebbels became Minister of Propaganda in He began to censor stories, eliminate privacy, and develop propaganda for every aspect of German society. He began to censor stories, eliminate privacy, and develop propaganda for every aspect of German society. Schools, churches, newspapers, radio addresses, movies, art installations, and rallies were all tailored to adopt Nazi ideas. Those that didn’t conform were destroyed or banned. Schools, churches, newspapers, radio addresses, movies, art installations, and rallies were all tailored to adopt Nazi ideas. Those that didn’t conform were destroyed or banned.

6 What was the Enabling Act? This piece of legislation allowed Hitler to legally dismantle the Weimar Republic and all the civil liberties contain therein. This piece of legislation allowed Hitler to legally dismantle the Weimar Republic and all the civil liberties contain therein. It also allowed Hitler to declare anyone an ‘enemy of the state.’ It also allowed Hitler to declare anyone an ‘enemy of the state.’ With the Enabling Act, Hitler could silence his opponents as well as erase the democracy. With the Enabling Act, Hitler could silence his opponents as well as erase the democracy.

7 How did Hitler begin to economically target the Jews? In 1933, Hitler organized a boycott of Jewish shops and businesses. In 1933, Hitler organized a boycott of Jewish shops and businesses. People were forced to choose if they would be ‘true loyal Germans’ or support the Jews. People were forced to choose if they would be ‘true loyal Germans’ or support the Jews. Subsequent laws also caused Jews to lose their jobs in the government, academia, and in other professions. Thus, Jews were being isolated economically. Subsequent laws also caused Jews to lose their jobs in the government, academia, and in other professions. Thus, Jews were being isolated economically.

8 What was the secret state police that the Nazis created? The Gestapo was created to investigate people. The Gestapo was created to investigate people. They could spy on people, search private homes, censor mail, listen in on private telephone conversations, as well as detain, torture, and interrogate ‘suspects.’ They could spy on people, search private homes, censor mail, listen in on private telephone conversations, as well as detain, torture, and interrogate ‘suspects.’ Heinrich Muller – Head of the Gestapo

9 In 1933, what did Hitler organize to eliminate materials that disagreed with Nazism? The Nazis organized book burnings. Anything that supposedly dishonored the Fatherland, promoted democracy, or showed Jews in a positive light were destroyed. The Nazis organized book burnings. Anything that supposedly dishonored the Fatherland, promoted democracy, or showed Jews in a positive light were destroyed. Hitler rekindled the idea from the German fraternities from the late 1800s, which destroyed materials that threatened the creation of a German nation. Hitler rekindled the idea from the German fraternities from the late 1800s, which destroyed materials that threatened the creation of a German nation.

10 What other groups did the Nazis target? Labor unions were replaced with the Nazi Labor Front. Labor unions were replaced with the Nazi Labor Front. Jehovah’s Witnesses consistently resisted the Nazis. Jehovah’s Witnesses consistently resisted the Nazis. Homosexuals were targeted and usually subjected to humiliating ‘punishments.’ Homosexuals were targeted and usually subjected to humiliating ‘punishments.’

11 Why was the ‘Law for the Prevention of Hereditary Diseased Offspring’ significant? This law allowed the forced sterilization of those deemed ‘inferior.’ This law allowed the forced sterilization of those deemed ‘inferior.’ Those targeted for sterilization included those with epilepsy, blindness, deafness, ‘feeble-mindedness,’ handicaps, and/or mental disabilities. Those targeted for sterilization included those with epilepsy, blindness, deafness, ‘feeble-mindedness,’ handicaps, and/or mental disabilities. They sterilized about three million women in an attempt to create a new ‘perfect’ Aryan society. They sterilized about three million women in an attempt to create a new ‘perfect’ Aryan society.

12 What happened during the Night of Long Knives? The Storm Troopers were eliminated. To replace them, Hitler created the SS. The SS were an elite group who were loyal solely to Hitler. The Storm Troopers were eliminated. To replace them, Hitler created the SS. The SS were an elite group who were loyal solely to Hitler. Who led them? He created the Einsatzgruppen and oversaw the construction of concentration camps. Who led them? He created the Einsatzgruppen and oversaw the construction of concentration camps.

13 Why was the oath Hitler had some people take important? The oath stated: The oath stated: –‘I swear by God this sacred oath, that I will render unconditional obedience to Adolf Hitler, Fuhrer of the German Reich and people, Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces, and will be ready as a brave soldier at any time to risk my life for this oath.’ –By taking this oath, people could blame Hitler for their actions, thus absolving them of personal responsibility for their actions.

14 Describe aspects of a Nazi rally. Nazi rallies were often held on designated holidays, such as the day Hitler became Chancellor or his birthday. Nazi rallies were often held on designated holidays, such as the day Hitler became Chancellor or his birthday. Rallies would often continue into the evening hours, contain dramatic music, fire, and speeches. Rallies would often continue into the evening hours, contain dramatic music, fire, and speeches. What piece of Nazi propaganda did Leni Riefenstahl create? Why was it so significant? What piece of Nazi propaganda did Leni Riefenstahl create? Why was it so significant?

15 What was the significance of the 1936 Olympics? Germany hosted the Olympics, hoping to demonstrate their ‘superiority’ to the world. Germany hosted the Olympics, hoping to demonstrate their ‘superiority’ to the world. However, not only did Jewish athletes win medals, but African American Jesse Owens dominated track events. However, not only did Jewish athletes win medals, but African American Jesse Owens dominated track events.

16 What was degenerate art? Art that criticized the Nazis, was abstract, was anti-war, or showed ‘inferior’ groups positively, was labeled ‘degenerate’ and was destroyed. Art that criticized the Nazis, was abstract, was anti-war, or showed ‘inferior’ groups positively, was labeled ‘degenerate’ and was destroyed. To replace it, Nazis created propaganda, like The Eternal Jew, which showed Jews as vermin, rats, and swindlers. To replace it, Nazis created propaganda, like The Eternal Jew, which showed Jews as vermin, rats, and swindlers.

17 What were some Nazi groups that children belonged to? The Hitler Jugend and the Jungmaedel were groups for boys and girls, respectively. The Hitler Jugend and the Jungmaedel were groups for boys and girls, respectively. By 1939, 90% of Aryan children belonged to a Nazi youth organization. By 1939, 90% of Aryan children belonged to a Nazi youth organization. They would have athletic events and parades, but also be expected to spy on each other. They would have athletic events and parades, but also be expected to spy on each other.

18 What were schools like under the Nazi regime? Boys were taught math and military science. Boys were taught math and military science. Girls’ instruction focused on eugenics and childrearing. Girls’ instruction focused on eugenics and childrearing. Obedience was stressed, and ‘proper’ features were measured. Obedience was stressed, and ‘proper’ features were measured.

19 What two groups of adolescents rebelled against the Nazis? The Edelweiss Pirates rejected the Nazi Party. They harassed the HJs, poured sugar into Nazis’ gas tanks, and supported Jews. The Edelweiss Pirates rejected the Nazi Party. They harassed the HJs, poured sugar into Nazis’ gas tanks, and supported Jews. –Eventually, the leaders were hanged. The Swing Kids celebrated swing music and American and British fashions. They were sent to concentration camps for criticizing the Nazis. The Swing Kids celebrated swing music and American and British fashions. They were sent to concentration camps for criticizing the Nazis.

20 What was the significance of Stanley Milgram’s psychological study? Milgram’s landmark study on obedience demonstrated that subjects would obey the directions of the experimenter, even if they were to physically hurt a protesting and innocent person. Milgram’s landmark study on obedience demonstrated that subjects would obey the directions of the experimenter, even if they were to physically hurt a protesting and innocent person. –Ninety percent complied with the experiment; 65% administered shocks up to 450 volts; however, 50% continued until the experimenter stopped him.

21 What was Zimbardo’s study? Philip Zimbardo conducted a ‘prison’ experiment, which analyzed authority and obedience. Philip Zimbardo conducted a ‘prison’ experiment, which analyzed authority and obedience. After just a few days, the experiment had to be called off due to the sadistic behavior that the ‘guards’ exhibited towards the ‘prisoners.’ After just a few days, the experiment had to be called off due to the sadistic behavior that the ‘guards’ exhibited towards the ‘prisoners.’ –The ‘guards’ and ‘prisoners’ adopted their assigned roles completely.

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