The BIG concept ► ► EFFECTS OF CIVIL WAR [1865-1877] Nationalism won out over sectionalism.
There were 3 plans for Reconstruction Abraham Lincoln had thought about the process of restoring the Union from the earliest days of the war. His guiding principles were to accomplish the task as rapidly as possible and ignored calls for punishing the South. 1) Lincoln’s plan more lenient (assassinated) A general amnesty would be granted to all who would take an oath of loyalty to the United States and pledge to obey all federal laws pertaining to slavery
High Confederate officials and military leaders were to be temporarily excluded from the process When one tenth of the number of voters who had participated in the 1860 election had taken the oath within a particular state, then that state could launch a new government and elect representatives to Congress. The states of Louisiana, Arkansas and Tennessee rapidly acted to comply with these terms. However, the Lincoln plan was not acceptable to Congress.
2) Johnson’s Plan ► Johnson from Tennessee ► Pardons would be granted to those taking a loyalty oath ► No pardons would be available to high Confederate officials and persons owning property valued in excess of $20,000 ► A state needed to abolish slavery before being readmitted ► ► ratification of 13th Amendment (abolished slavery)
► A state was required to repeal its secession ordinance before being readmitted. ► Most of the seceded states began compliance with the president’s program. Congress was not in session, so there was no immediate objection. However, Congress reconvened in December and refused to seat the Southern representatives. ► Reconstruction had produced another deadlock between the president and Congress.
3) Radical Republican plan-much more harsh. ► ► They blamed South for war. 1-South divided into five occupied military districts 2-each state had to ratify 14th (citizenship) and 15 th (voting rights) Amendments (13,14,15 often called Civil War Amendments) 3-had to write new constitution giving black males the right to vote
The Slavery Amendments ► 13 th : slavery abolished ► 14 th : former slaves allowed to be citizens; all rights granted ► 15 th : black males given the right to vote
The Impeachment of Andrew Johnson ► The Radical Republicans organized an effort in Congress to impeach the president as a payback for resisting their programs. violating of the Tenure of Office Act Pardoning of traitors (presumably Confederate officials) Impeding the ratification of the 14 th Amendment Conspiring in the assassination of Lincoln ► The vote in the Senate was 35-19 for conviction, one vote short of the necessary two- thirds.
Reconstruction Act of 1867 ► ► Creation of five military districts in the seceded states ► ► Each district was to be headed by a military official empowered to appoint and remove state officials ► ► Voters were to be registered; all freedmen were to be included as well as those white men who took an extended loyalty oath ► ► State constitutional conventions, comprising elected delegates, were to draft new governing documents providing for black male suffrage ► ► States were required to ratify the 14th Amendment prior to readmission.
Life in the South ► Loss of life and property ($4 billion) ► Economic devastation of the South Interior of Fort Sumter after the war
Poverty ► What are some of the interesting details you see in this picture? ► What does poverty mean?
1876 Election Rutherford B. Hayes (OH) Republican Samuel J. Tilden (NY) Democrat Peter Cooper (NY) Greenback
Election of 1876 Candidates Party Electoral Vote Popular Vote Rutherford B. Hayes (OH) William A. Wheeler (NY) Republican1854,034,311 Samuel J. Tilden (NY) Thomas A. Hendricks (IN) Democratic1844,288,546 Peter Cooper (NY) Samuel F. Cary (OH) Greenback075,973
Controversy Erupts ► Each of the states with disputed votes had submitted two sets of electoral ballots, one favoring Tilden, the other Hayes. ► The Constitution had not foreseen this event and offered no remedy. ► Possibility of war. ► Congress opted to appoint an "impartial" Electoral Commission to find a solution. Electoral Commission Electoral Commission
Compromise of 1877 ► An informal agreement between the two parties, sometimes called the "Compromise of 1877," convinced the Democrats that they should accept the Commission's 8-7 vote, which made Hayes the new president. Compromise of 1877Compromise of 1877
Black Codes aka Jim Crow Laws ► Systematic practice of promoting the separation of African Americans from white society ► Why would this happen in the South during Reconstruction? ► Why would it be ignored? ► Civil Rights Act of 1964 ► Voting Rights Act of 1965 Martin Luther King, Jr.