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A Brief History of Human Anatomy by John Cornell I. The Influence of the Ancient Greeks II. The Roman Empire, 50 to 1050 III. Arabian Medicine, 800 to.

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Presentation on theme: "A Brief History of Human Anatomy by John Cornell I. The Influence of the Ancient Greeks II. The Roman Empire, 50 to 1050 III. Arabian Medicine, 800 to."— Presentation transcript:

1 A Brief History of Human Anatomy by John Cornell I. The Influence of the Ancient Greeks II. The Roman Empire, 50 to 1050 III. Arabian Medicine, 800 to 1100 IV. The Middle Ages and Renaissance, 1050 to 1543 V. Modern Anatomy, 1543 to Present VI. The Problem of Not Enough Cadavers VII. Anatomy Today VIII. Conclusions

2 I. The Influence of the Ancient Greeks A. Apollo and Asclepius B. The Staff of Asclepius versus the Caduceus of Hermes C. Hippocrates: Plato and Aristotle D. Herophilus and Erasistratus of Alexandria

3 Apollo Belvedere (Apollo, n.d.)

4 Asclepius (Asclepius, 2000; Picture Gallery, 2009; Inner journeys mythic, 2009)

5 Dracunculis sp., the guinea worm, is found in the middle east, Africa, and India. (Luvken, n.d.)


7 Hippocrates (ca. 460 - 377 B.C.E.) “... anatomy is the foundation of medicine... and should be based on the form of the human body.” (Hippocrates 2009 and Persaud, 1984, p.33)

8 The Hippocratic Oath I swear by Apollo the physician, and Aesculapius, and Health, and All-heal, and all the gods and goddesses, that, according to my ability and judgment, I will keep this Oath and this stipulation- to reckon him who taught me this Art equally dear to me as my parents, to share my substance with him, and relieve his necessities if required; to look upon his offspring in the same footing as my own brothers, and to teach them this art, if they shall wish to learn it, without fee or stipulation; and that by precept, lecture, and every other mode of instruction, I will impart knowledge of the Art to my own sons, and those of my teachers, and to disciples bound by a stipulation and oath according to the law of medicine, but to none others. I will follow that system of regimen which, according to my ability and judgment, I consider for the benefit of my patients, and abstain from whatever is deleterious and mischievous. I will give no deadly medicine to any one if asked, nor suggest any such counsel; and in like manner I will not give to a woman a pessary to produce abortion. With purity and with holiness I will pass my life and practice my Art. I will not cut persons laboring under the stone, but will leave this to be done by men who are practitioners of this work. Into whatever houses I enter, I will go into them for the benefit of the sick, and will abstain from every voluntary act of mischief and corruption; and, further from the seduction of females or males, of freemen and slaves. Whatever, in connection with my professional practice or not, in connection with it, I see or hear, in the life of men, which ought not to be spoken of abroad, I will not divulge, as reckoning that all such should be kept secret. While I continue to keep this Oath unviolated, may it be granted to me to enjoy life and the practice of the art, respected by all men, in all times! But should I trespass and violate this Oath, may the reverse be my lot! (Oath of Hippocrates)

9 Aristotle (384-322 B.C.E.) Aristotle Contemplating the Bust of Homer, 1668

10 Historia animalium, De partibus animalium, De generatione animalium. Translated into Latin by Theodore of Gaza in the 15th Century. (“Medicine and Biology”)

11 Erasistratus (ca. 250 B.C.E.) (“Erasistratus, 2010) Antiochus et Stratonice, 1774, by Jacques-Louis David

12 II. The Roman Empire, 50 to 1050 A.D. A. Claudius Galen (130 to 201 A.D.)

13 Claudius Galen (131-201) (Persaud, 1984, p.58) (Singer, 1957, p.61)

14 III. Arabian Medicine, 800 to 1100 A.D. A. Avicenna

15 Avicenna (980-1037) ALI AL-HUSAYN IBN 'ABD ALLAH IBN SINA A page from The Cannon of Medicine (Avicenna, n.d.) (Cannon on Medicine, n.d.)

16 IV. The Middle Ages and the Renaissance, 1050 to 1543 A. Uroscopy B. Blood Letting C. Surgery D. Dissection of Animals and Cadavers E. Leonardo da Vinci

17 A university classroom in 14th Century Germany (University classroom, n.d.)

18 Collection of samples for uroscopy (Uroscopy, 2010)

19 England, 1364 Germany, ca. 1350 (Urine wheel, complete, 1364)(Urine flasks in text, 1350)

20 Blood letting Points England, 1364 (Bloodletting figure or phlebotomy man, 1364)

21 The Blessings of Surgery from Practica chiurgiae (c. 1170): hot water to soften broken ribs, removal of arrows, opening the chest and abdomen, a lung operation, an operation on the intestines, and a man suffering from a phlegmatic abscess. (Blessings of surgery, 1170)

22 Dissection scene from Mondino’s Anathomia, Venice, c. 1493 (Dissection scene, 1493)

23 Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1518) (Leonardo da vinci, n.d.)

24 (Leonardo da vinci drawings, 2010) Leonardo da Vinci, from the Anatomical Notebooks, c. 1510

25 Gerssdorf’s Feldtbuch der Wundtartzney, 1517 (Persaud, 1984, p.146)

26 V. Modern Anatomy, 1543 to present A. Andreas Vesalius B. Other modern Anatomists include Fallopius, Fabricus, Harvey, and Cheseldon

27 Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) (Vesalius, 1973, p.2)

28 The title page of the 1543 edition of De Humani Corporis Fabrica by Andreas Vesalius (Vesalius, 1973, p. 45)

29 (Title page to the special edition of the fabrica, n.d.)

30 (Vesalius, 1973, pp. 85 & 87)

31 First PlateEleventh Plate (Vesalius, 1973, pp. 93 & 113)

32 The Fifth Plate (Vesalius, 1973, p. 101)

33 (Vesalius, 1973, pp. 105, 103, 101, 99, 97, 95, 93, 119, 117, 115, 113, 111, 109 & 107) A panarama of Pauda may be seen in the background of the Muscle Men.

34 Vesalius Da Vinci Netter Vesalius, 1973; Netter, 1998 & Leonardo da Vinci drawings, 2010)

35 Table 3 of the Tabulae Sex shows the where the natural spirit is sweated through to the left ventricle. Pneuma from the lungs combines with natural spirits to produce vital spirits. The vital spirits are converted by the rete mirabile into animal spirits. (Vesalius, 1973, p. 241)

36 Galen’s Dissection of a Pig (Dissection of a pig. n.d.)

37 University of Padua in 1654 (University of Padua, 2010)

38 (Anatomical theater, n.d.)

39 This 20th century painting of Vesalius by an unknown artist was auctioned by Christies and sold to an American Medical School. Note the colors.

40 The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp, painted in 1632 by Rembrandt

41 (Teatro anatomico, 2010) The anatomical theater at the University of Padua

42 Gabriele Fallopius (1523 - 1562) (Portrait of Gabriello Fallopio, n.d.)

43 Hieronymous Fabricius (1533-1619) (Hieronymus Fabricius, ab Aquapendente, n.d.)

44 (Fabricus of Aquapendente, Hieronymus, 1967)

45 William Harvey’s discovery of the circulation of the blood was probably based on Fabricius’ description of the valves in the veins. (Valves in arm, n.d.)

46 William Cheseldon (1688 - 1752) (Rare anatomical texts – 18 th century, 2010)

47 VI. The Problem of Finding Enough Cadavers

48 Histriated initial from the Fabrica showing cupids at a resurrection party. (Singer, 1957, p.118)

49 William Burke and William Hare, Edinburgh, 1828 (Burke & Hare, 2009)

50 VII. Anatomy Today

51 (Netter, 1998)

52 Adam Interactive A Computerized Atlas The Visible Human A Computerized Cadaver (Adam interactive, 2010) (Sawday, 1996. p. 329)

53 Clockwise from upper left, High Resolution Doppler, MRI, MR Angiography with Gadolinium, and CAT scan (High resolution doppler, 2010; Magnetic resonance imaging, 2010; CAT scan, 2010)

54 VIII. Conclusions A. Western Anatomy retains traditions that originated in the ancient Greek and Roman Empires. B. The Dark Ages produced few significant developments in Anatomy. C. Modern Anatomy began with the work of Andreas Vesalius in 1543. D. New teaching methods in Anatomy produced shortages in cadavers. E. Changes in thinking in religious beliefs lead to increased donations of cadavers for medical education. F. Improvements in illustration, the use of the computers, and the application of NMR, Radiography, and Ultrasound techniques have revolutionized, our approaches to the study of anatomy.

55 Citations



58 The End

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