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A Brief History of Human Anatomy

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1 A Brief History of Human Anatomy
by John Cornell I. The Influence of the Ancient Greeks II. The Roman Empire, 50 to 1050 III. Arabian Medicine, 800 to 1100 IV. The Middle Ages and Renaissance, 1050 to V. Modern Anatomy, 1543 to Present VI. The Problem of Not Enough Cadavers VII. Anatomy Today VIII. Conclusions 1

2 I. The Influence of the Ancient Greeks
A. Apollo and Asclepius B. The Staff of Asclepius versus the Caduceus of Hermes C. Hippocrates: Plato and Aristotle D. Herophilus and Erasistratus of Alexandria 2

3 Apollo Belvedere (Apollo, n.d.) 3

4 Asclepius (Asclepius, 2000; Picture Gallery, 2009; Inner journeys mythic, 2009) 4

5 V Credit: Wellcome Library, London A surgeon extracting a guinea worm from a man's leg, in the background is a similar scene after a successful operation, a surgeon is holding a long worm. Photograph of a halftone after an engraving by J. Luyken after himself. By: Jan Luyken Size: image 30.4 x 23.4 cm. Collection: Iconographic Collections Library reference no.: ICV No Full Bibliographic Record Link to Wellcome Library Catalogue Dracunculis sp., the guinea worm, is found in the middle east, Africa, and India. (Luvken, n.d.) 5


7 Hippocrates (ca B.C.E.) “... anatomy is the foundation of medicine ... and should be based on the form of the human body.” (Hippocrates 2009 and Persaud, 1984, p.33) 7

8 The Hippocratic Oath I swear by Apollo the physician, and Aesculapius, and Health, and All-heal, and all the gods and goddesses, that, according to my ability and judgment, I will keep this Oath and this stipulation- to reckon him who taught me this Art equally dear to me as my parents, to share my substance with him, and relieve his necessities if required; to look upon his offspring in the same footing as my own brothers, and to teach them this art, if they shall wish to learn it, without fee or stipulation; and that by precept, lecture, and every other mode of instruction, I will impart knowledge of the Art to my own sons, and those of my teachers, and to disciples bound by a stipulation and oath according to the law of medicine, but to none others. I will follow that system of regimen which, according to my ability and judgment, I consider for the benefit of my patients, and abstain from whatever is deleterious and mischievous. I will give no deadly medicine to any one if asked, nor suggest any such counsel; and in like manner I will not give to a woman a pessary to produce abortion. With purity and with holiness I will pass my life and practice my Art. I will not cut persons laboring under the stone, but will leave this to be done by men who are practitioners of this work. Into whatever houses I enter, I will go into them for the benefit of the sick, and will abstain from every voluntary act of mischief and corruption; and, further from the seduction of females or males, of freemen and slaves. Whatever, in connection with my professional practice or not, in connection with it, I see or hear, in the life of men, which ought not to be spoken of abroad, I will not divulge, as reckoning that all such should be kept secret. While I continue to keep this Oath unviolated, may it be granted to me to enjoy life and the practice of the art, respected by all men, in all times! But should I trespass and violate this Oath, may the reverse be my lot! (Oath of Hippocrates)

9 Aristotle Contemplating the Bust of Homer, 1668
Rembrandt and Matt Groening Aristotle ( B.C.E.) Aristotle Contemplating the Bust of Homer, 1668 9

10 Historia animalium, De partibus animalium, De generatione animalium
Historia animalium, De partibus animalium, De generatione animalium. Translated into Latin by Theodore of Gaza in the 15th Century. (“Medicine and Biology”) 10

11 Antiochus et Stratonice, 1774, by Jacques-Louis David
Erasistratus (ca. 250 B.C.E.) (“Erasistratus, 2010)

12 II. The Roman Empire, 50 to 1050 A.D.
A. Claudius Galen (130 to 201 A.D.)

13 Claudius Galen ( ) (Persaud, 1984, p.58) (Singer, 1957, p.61) 13

14 III. Arabian Medicine, 800 to 1100 A.D.
A. Avicenna

15 Avicenna (980-1037) A page from The Cannon of Medicine
M Credit: Wellcome Library, London Portrait of Avicenna Half-tone Collection: Iconographic Collections Library reference no.: Slide number 3048 Avicenna ( ) ALI AL-HUSAYN IBN 'ABD ALLAH IBN SINA A page from The Cannon of Medicine (Cannon on Medicine, n.d.) (Avicenna, n.d.)

16 IV. The Middle Ages and the Renaissance, 1050 to 1543
A. Uroscopy B. Blood Letting C. Surgery D. Dissection of Animals and Cadavers E. Leonardo da Vinci 16

17 A university classroom in 14th Century Germany
/ A university classroom in 14th Century Germany (University classroom, n.d.) 17

18 Collection of samples for uroscopy

19 (Urine wheel, complete, 1364)
“One circular diagram or "color wheel" for uroscopy, labeled "Tabula urinarum," showing 20 jordans or urine flasks containing urines of various colors indicating different states of "digestion" (in the understanding of humoral physiology). Each flask is attached by a line to a balloon of text inscribed with a summary of the state of digestion and often the prognosis. The captions of the two flasks which face each other at 12 o'clock, for example, read "reddish color of urine, or beautiful gold" and "pinkish color of urine, or oriental crocus." The "balloon" to which the left flask is attached reads "These two urines signify completion of digestion, while the right one belongs to a group linked to a "balloon" reading "these four urines signify exessive digestion." In contrast to these relatively favorable prognoses, the dark colored jordans at five o'clock are linked to a balloon reading, "these urines signify death." Adj. text: 14th century physician's belt book in Latin. [Abstract]” Germany, ca. 1350 England, 1364 (Urine flasks in text, 1350) (Urine wheel, complete, 1364) 19

20 Blood letting Points England, 1364
“One diagrammatic human figure on points for bloodletting, labeled "Imago phlebotomiae." A rudimentary figure, male, outlined in black, hair colored brown, lips and cheeks red. Face, torso, hands and feet detailed in black ink. 15 circles surround the figure, each containing the names of particular veins in black and/or red ink, one in black. Each circle or "balloon" also mentions the condition or disease which calls for bloodletting at that sight. A red line joins each "balloon" to the site of the respective vein. Adj. text: 14th century physician's belt book in Latin. [Abstract]” (Bloodletting figure or phlebotomy man, 1364) 20

21 The Blessings of Surgery from Practica chiurgiae (c
The Blessings of Surgery from Practica chiurgiae (c. 1170): hot water to soften broken ribs, removal of arrows, opening the chest and abdomen, a lung operation, an operation on the intestines, and a man suffering from a phlegmatic abscess. (Blessings of surgery, 1170) 21

22 Dissection scene from Mondino’s Anathomia, Venice, c. 1493

23 Leonardo da Vinci ( ) (Leonardo da vinci, n.d.) 23

24 (Leonardo da vinci drawings, 2010)
Leonardo da Vinci, from the Anatomical Notebooks, c. 1510 (Leonardo da vinci drawings, 2010) 24

25 Gerssdorf’s Feldtbuch der Wundtartzney, 1517
(Persaud, 1984, p.146) 25

26 V. Modern Anatomy, 1543 to present
A. Andreas Vesalius B. Other modern Anatomists include Fallopius, Fabricus, Harvey, and Cheseldon 26

27 Andreas Vesalius ( ) (Vesalius, 1973, p.2) 27

28 The title page of the 1543 edition of De Humani Corporis Fabrica by Andreas Vesalius
(Vesalius, 1973, p. 45) 28

29 (Title page to the special edition of the fabrica, n.d.)

30 (Vesalius, 1973, pp. 85 & 87) 30

31 First Plate Eleventh Plate (Vesalius, 1973, pp. 93 & 113) 31

32 The Fifth Plate (Vesalius, 1973, p. 101) 32

33 A panarama of Pauda may be seen in the background of the Muscle Men.
(Vesalius, 1973, pp. 105, 103, 101, 99, 97, 95, 93, 119, 117, 115, 113, 111, 109 & 107) 33

34 Da Vinci Vesalius Netter
Vesalius, 1973; Netter, 1998 & Leonardo da Vinci drawings, 2010) 34

35 Table 3 of the Tabulae Sex shows the where the natural spirit is sweated through to the left ventricle. Pneuma from the lungs combines with natural spirits to produce vital spirits. The vital spirits are converted by the rete mirabile into animal spirits. (Vesalius, 1973, p. 241) 35

36 (Dissection of a pig. n.d.)
L Credit: Wellcome Library, London Detail: dissection of a pig. Woodcut From: Opera omnia By: Galen Published: Heirs of L. A. JuntaVenice volume 2titlepage Collection: Rare Books Library reference no.: EPB 2520 Galen’s Dissection of a Pig (Dissection of a pig. n.d.)

37 University of Padua in 1654 (University of Padua, 2010) 37

38 (Anatomical theater, n.d.)

39 This 20th century painting of Vesalius by an unknown artist was auctioned by Christies and sold to an American Medical School. Note the colors. 39

40 The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp, painted in 1632 by Rembrandt

41 The anatomical theater at the University of Padua
(Teatro anatomico, 2010) 41

42 Gabriele Fallopius (1523 - 1562)
M Credit: Wellcome Library, London Portrait of Gabriello Fallopio ( ) Collection: Wellcome Images Gabriele Fallopius ( ) (Portrait of Gabriello Fallopio, n.d.) 42

43 Hieronymous Fabricius
( ) The Blocker History of Medicine Collections The Moody Medical Library The University of Texas Medical Branch Galveston, TX Hieronymus Fabricius, ab Aquapendente.... Line engraving; 24.3 x 15.5 cm. n.p., n.d. Call No: I F12683 A2. (Hieronymus Fabricius, ab Aquapendente, n.d.) 43

44 (Fabricus of Aquapendente, Hieronymus, 1967)

45 L Credit: Wellcome Library, London Valves in forearm From: Exercitatio anatomica de motu cordis et sanguinis in animalibus By: William Harvey Published: G. FitzerFrankfurt 1628 William Harvey’s discovery of the circulation of the blood was probably based on Fabricius’ description of the valves in the veins. (Valves in arm, n.d.) 45

46 (Rare anatomical texts – 18th century, 2010)
“CHESELDON, William. Osteographica, or, The Anatomy of the Bones . . London: [1733?] William Cheseldon ( ) was distinguished as a surgeon in several large hospitals in London. The title page of this work illustrates the camera obscura technique that he employed. The concept, a forerunner of the modern camera, dates back to antiquity. The image of the object being drawn is projected through a small hole onto a canvas where it can be traced at its natural size.” William Cheseldon ( ) (Rare anatomical texts – 18th century, 2010)

47 VI. The Problem of Finding Enough Cadavers

48 Histriated initial from the Fabrica showing cupids at a resurrection party.
(Singer, 1957, p.118) 48

49 William Burke and William Hare, Edinburgh, 1828
(Burke & Hare, 2009) 49

50 VII. Anatomy Today 50

51 (Netter, 1998) 51

52 A Computerized Cadaver Adam Interactive A Computerized Atlas
The Visible Human A Computerized Cadaver Adam Interactive A Computerized Atlas (Sawday, p. 329) (Adam interactive, 2010)

53 Clockwise from upper left, High Resolution Doppler, MRI,
MR Angiography with Gadolinium, and CAT scan (High resolution doppler, 2010; Magnetic resonance imaging , 2010; CAT scan, 2010)

54 VIII. Conclusions A. Western Anatomy retains traditions that originated in the ancient Greek and Roman Empires. B. The Dark Ages produced few significant developments in Anatomy. C. Modern Anatomy began with the work of Andreas Vesalius in 1543. D. New teaching methods in Anatomy produced shortages in cadavers. E. Changes in thinking in religious beliefs lead to increased donations of cadavers for medical education. F. Improvements in illustration, the use of the computers, and the application of NMR, Radiography, and Ultrasound techniques have revolutionized, our approaches to the study of anatomy.

55 Citations



58 The End

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