I. The Arts The arts included sculpture, painting, architecture, and writings
A. Statues and Paintings 1.The ancient Greeks’ paintings and statues have been admired for hundreds of years. 2.Sculptors carefully studied the human body to make their statues look perfect. 3.Greek artists painted detailed scenes on vases, pots, and other vessels.
B. Greek Architecture 1.If you went to Greece today, you would see the ruins of many ancient buildings. 2.Rows of tall columns surrounded the temples, making the temples look stately and inspiring. -Greek architects made their columns bulge slightly in the middle to make them look perfectly straight.
B. Greek Architecture 3.The most impressive of all ancient Greek buildings was The Parthenon in Athens, built in the 400’s BC on the Athenian acropolis.
C. New Forms of Writing 1.Greek writers created many new writing forms, including drama and history. 2. The Greeks created dramas or plays as part of their religious ceremonies. These plays became popular forms of entertainment.
C. New Forms of Writing 3.Some writers produced tragedies, which described the hardships faced by Greek heroes. Ex. Aeschylus, Sophocles Other Greek dramatists focused on comedies—plays that made fun of people and ideas. Ex. Aristophanes
C. New Forms of Writing 4.The Greeks were among the first people to write about history—Thucydides--- wrote about the Peloponnesian War.
II. Philosophy * By around 500 BC, philosophers believed in the power of the human mind to think, explain, and understand life.
A. Socrates 1.Socrates believed that people must never stop looking for knowledge. 2.Socrates taught by asking questions—he challenged people’s answers with more questions (Socratic Method) 3.Socrates made people angry with his questions; he was arrested and condemned to death.
B. Plato 1.Plato was Socrates’ student---created a school, The Academy, to which students, philosophers, and scientists could come to discuss ideas. 2.To ensure fairness, Plato argued that society should be run by philosophers. -wrote The Republic—told about an ideal society.
C. Aristotle 1.Plato’s student, Aristotle, taught that people should live lives of moderation, or balance. 2.Aristotle believed that moderation was based on reason, or clear and ordered thinking—think about actions and how they will affect others. 3.Aristotle believed in using logic and making inferences to solve problems.
III. Science Aristotle’s works inspired many Greek scientists.
A. Mathematics 1.Euclid was interested in geometry, the study of lines, angles, and shapes. Many of today’s geometry rules come from his writings. 2.Geographer, Eratosthenes, used mathematics to accurately calculate the size of the earth.
B. Medicine and Engineering 1.Some Greek scientists studied medicine and engineering. 2.Greek doctors studied the human body to understand how it worked and to cure diseases. 3.Hippocrates is known for wanting to find out what caused diseases so he could better treat them.
Hippocratic Oath “Now being admitted to the profession of medicine, I solemnly pledge to consecrate my life to the service of humanity.” “I will give respect and gratitude to my deserving teachers.” “I will practice medicine with conscience and dignity.”
Hippocratic Oath “The health and life of my patients will be my first consideration.” “I will hold in confidence all that my patient confides in me.” “I will maintain the honor and noble traditions of the medical profession.”
Hippocratic Oath “My colleagues will be as my brothers and sisters.” “I will not permit consideration of race, religion, nationality, politics, or social standing to intervene between my duty and my patient.”
Hippocratic Oath “I will maintain the utmost respect of human life.” “Even under threat I will not use my knowledge contrary to the laws of humanity.” “These promises I make freely and upon my honor.”
B. Medicine and Engineering 4.Archimedes (200’s BC) invented a water screw for farmers to water their fields that brought water from a lower level to higher one. “Eureka!”