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The French Revolution 1789-1799. What were the causes of the French Revolution?

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Presentation on theme: "The French Revolution 1789-1799. What were the causes of the French Revolution?"— Presentation transcript:

1 The French Revolution

2 What were the causes of the French Revolution?

3 What were the causes? 1.Three estates –Unfair tax system –Social inequality 1 st 2 nd Estate Estate 3 rd Estate 1% of Pop. Owned 5-10% of Land Received 10% Tithe Paid no taxes 2% of Pop Owned 25% of land Held all govt. and military positions Paid no taxes Received Feudal Dues 97% of Population Paid all of the taxes No Voice in Government Inspired by Enlightenment Ideas Bourgeoisie Artisans Peasants

4 The Three Estates

5 What were the causes? 2. Enlightenment Ideas/American Rev. –Belief all men should have natural rights –Right to overthrow an unjust gov’t –Equality for all –American Revolution Dec. of Independence Constitution

6 What were the causes? 3. King Louis XVI’s Weak Leadership –19 years old –Indecisive

7 What were the Causes ? 4. Economic Problems  Wars: 7 Years War/French & Indian, American Revolution  Louis XVI lifestyle Economic Depression  Crop failures  Unemployment

8 Which of the following is not a cause of the French Revolution 1.Unfair class system 2.Unfair taxes 3.Ignoring the Magna Carta 4.Expenses from the American Revolution 5.Excessive spending by the King

9 France’s Situation France’s Government is in extreme debt. Half of France’s debt is contributed to war, especially money owed for helping the US gain independence. The Government is near bankruptcy and the banks are refusing to lend money to the troubled country. Recent crop failures have caused a shortage in food, making famine a real possibility. Yet the newspapers publish stories about King Louis’ lash parties and his wife’s extreme spending habits. Assuming the role you were assigned on Friday, what would you do to solve the problems in France?

10 King Called the Estates General to “convince” the 1 st and 2 nd Estate to pay taxes

11 What is the Estates General? –Legislative body, similar to parliament –Had not met since 1614 ( 179 years!) –Made up of members from all 3 Estates –Each Estate has one Vote

12 Estates General Voting 1 Vote First Estate Clergy 1 Vote Second Estate Nobles 1 Vote Third Estate Commoners

13 Situation. The Estates General has members from each Estate but each only has one vote regardless of the population. The Nobles and the clergy plan to force the third estate to pay even more taxes so they don’t have to. 2 votes against 1 Is there another alternative?

14 Is There Another Alternative? 1 Vote per Representative 300 Members 1 st Estate 300 Members 2 nd Estate 648 Members 3 rd Estate

15 Third Estate outvoted - what should they do? Established the National Assembly – a new legislative body –One vote per representative –Members of the 3 rd Estate, later joined by other estates Pledged the Tennis Court Oath Marks the beginning of the Moderate Phase of the Revolution

16 What is the Tennis Court Oath? National Assembly’s pledge to write a new constitution making France a ____________________

17 What are the stages of the French Revolution? Moderate – people want change to constitutional monarchy Radical – people want an end to any form of monarchy; want a republic Reactionary – people want to return to Absolute Monarchy

18 What was the Spark? King Mobilized Troops 3 rd Estate feared King would dissolve the National Assembly The Spark: The Bastille is stormed

19 What is the Storming of The Bastille? Bastille – a prison where weapons and prisoners were held A mob charged the prison to steal weapons and free 7 prisoners 97 rioters killed Symbol of French Independence –July 14, 1789

20 What is the Great Fear? Rumors spread of nobles killing peasants and stealing property In Fear, the peasants armed themselves Peasants broke into Manors, robbed and destroyed property

21 What Early Reforms did the National Assembly Make? Dismantled feudal system  No more Feudal dues  Nobles give up exemption from taxation  Abolished estates  Created a new social contract for France

22 What was the first social contract of France? Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen (Aug., 1789) –Focus on Individual Rights and equality –Influenced by the Declaration of Independence US Constitution and English Bill of Rights King Louise did not accept

23 What was the March on Versailles? Protest by French Women Food prices in France were soaring Wanted King to move to Paris and accept the National Assembly and Declaration of Rights

24 What was the Constitution of 1791? Constitution of 1791 Constitutional Monarchy Guaranteed basic rights Property owning males could vote

25 What actions can citizens take against their government? Protest – a public demonstration of disapproval (ex. ) Political action - Actions organized by citizens to bring about changes in law, or govt. conduct/policy (Ex. ) Revolution - A radical change in political organization, especially the overthrow of a government or ruler and the substitution of another by the governed ( )

26 Which of the following was not a citizen action against the govt. during the French Revolution? 1.Formation of the National Assembly 2.March on Versailles 3.Great Fear 4.Storming of the Bastille

27 Which of the following events is the symbolic beginning of the French Revolution? 1.Creation of the National Assembly 2.Tennis Court Oath 3.Storming of the Bastille 4.March on Versailles

28 Which of the following events is the best example of a protest against the government’s actions? 1.National Assembly 2.March on Versailles 3.Storming of the Bastille 4.Constitution of 1791?

29 In which of the following events did citizens vow to write a new constitution? 1.Constitution of Formation of the National Assembly 3.Declaration of the Rights of Man 4.Tennis Court Oath

30 Did everyone like the new Constitution? Political Parties formed in the newly elected Legislative Assembly The assembly was seated by their political views Political division led to unrest and violence LeftCenterRight RadicalModerateReactionary Support Republic want major change Known as Jacobins Support Constitutional Monarchy Want some change Support Absolute Monarchy Want to return to the old way

31 What is the flight of the nobles? Louis and Marie try to flee France, but are caught and returned to Paris. Émigrés (nobles, clergy an others) flee France and tell horror stories of the events there In fear that revolution will spread, European Monarchs condemn the revolution and begin to mass armies against a possible French threat.

32 Why did France become a Republic? Strong Distrust of the King and Queen Austria, Prussia and Sardinia declare war on France – fearful that Revolutions will spread to their own country Radicals voted for the King’s imprisonment

33 What was the French Republic? A government without a King Constitution limits the power of the leaders elected by the people. Every man could vote

34 What happened to King Louis XV1? He was tried and executed

35 What was the Reign of Terror? Beginning of the Radical Period of the Revolution Left Wing Radicals called Jacobins took control of the new Republic’s National Convention (legislature) Leader –Maximilien Robespierre

36 What was the Committee for Public Safety? Neighborhood watch committees that hunted down suspected traitors and turned them in 40,000 people executed

37 What Happened to Marie Antoinette? She is executed during the Reign of Terror

38 How does the Reign of Terror End? Robespierre is executed The Directory takes over –Committee of five conservative men –Still has many problems Napoleon Bonaparte stages coup d'état – quick seizure of power imposes new constitution - declares himself first emperor

39 What do you think is the Reaction Of the French?

40 Marks the beginning of the Reactionary Period I am Emperor Ooh la la Finally, we can have peace and stability again

41 Roman Empire French Empire

42 Napoleon Bonaparte

43 What are the top 5 facts to know about Napoleon Bonaparte? Became Dictator of France – people were tired of the Revolution & respected his leadership Conquered most of Europe –3 major losses contributed to his downfall Battle of Trafalgar against English Navy Invasion of Russia Battle of Waterloo against Prussia, Britain, Netherlands Created the Napoleonic Code – –New law code –Enlightenment ideas – equality, religious freedom Continental System – protected France’s industries at the expense of Great Britain (similar to Navigation Acts it was considered “protectionism” Exiled to Elba after defeat by foreign armies, but escaped to rule for 100 more days until his defeat at Waterloo

44 The purpose of the Continental System was to 1.Create a united Europe under the Leadership of France 2.Consolidate Europe under Napoleon’s leadership 3.Unify France 4.Defeat England through an Economic war

45 A major problem for Napoleon in his conquest of Europe was 1.The British Navy 2.The Russian Winter 3.The American colonists 4.All of the above 5.Both 1 and 2

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