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Chapter Sixteen The Eighteen Century: From Rococo to Revolution.

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1 Chapter Sixteen The Eighteen Century: From Rococo to Revolution

2 Age of Diversity Unqualified optimism, extreme discontent Trust in science and human reason Conscious engagement with social issues Revolutionaries and conservatives Enlightened despots  Welfare of citizenry  Duty and responsibility

3 Above: David’s “Oath of the Horatii” Right: Gainsborough’s “Haymaker And Sleeping Girl”

4 The Rococo fantasy life of the last European aristocrats

5 The Visual Arts in the Eighteenth Century The Rococo Style Escapism, anti-baroque  Frivolity, lightheartedness  Art as entertainment for aristocracy  Eroticism, voluptuous beauty (a la Rubens) Jean Antoine Watteau (1684-1721)  Fetes galantes  Return from Cythera (1717)

6 Watteau, Return from Cythera (1717)

7 Boucher, Cupid a Captive (1754)

8 Fragonard, Love Letters (1773)

9 Fragonard’s “The Bolt” Note how the hunky fellow in short pants is bolting the door. What will happen next???

10 Carriera, Anna Sofia d’Este, Princess of Modena (1730) The use of pastels makes this rococo portrait look especially dreamy

11 The Englishman Gainesborough’s “Mrs. Peter William Baker”

12 The tres rococo Salon de la Princesse, Hotel de Soubise, Paris

13 The ultra rococo nave and high altar of Vierzehnheiligen Pilgrim Church, Bamberg, Germany (1743-1772)

14 The Visual Arts in the Eighteenth Century Neo-Classical Art Archeological inspiration  New awareness of classical art  Inspired by discoveries at Pompeii and Herculaneum  Appealed to revolutionaries in France and America Roman Republic, French Revolution  Jacques-Louis David (1748-1825)  United opposition to tyranny  Modeled on ideals of Roman Republic Austere poses, orderly decoration  Sir Joshua Reynolds (1723-1792)

15 David’s neo-classical Oath of the Horatii (1784)

16 David’s Napoleon Crossing the Alps (1800)

17 The Visual Arts in the Eighteenth Century Neo-Classical Architecture Classical models of architecture  Austere public buildings  Thomas Jefferson’s State Capitol (1785- 1796)

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19 Literature in the Eighteenth Century Intellectual Developments Systematic examination of society  Pessimistic views vs. Optimistic views Renewed interest in Classical culture  Translations, themes, forms, references Rise of Feminism  Mary Wollstonecraft, “Vindication of the Rights of Women” (1792)

20 Literature in the Eighteenth Century Jonathan Swift (1667-1745) Hatred for human race “Savage indignation”  Animals capable of reason Gulliver’s Travels  Satire of human behavior A Modest Proposal  “Man’s inhumanity to man”  Inevitability of human suffering

21 Literature in the Eighteenth Century Rational Humanism: The Encyclopedists Encyclopédie  Denis Diderot (1713-1784)  System for the classification of knowledge  Compendium of human rationality  Freedom of conscience and belief

22 The Late Eighteenth Century: Time of Revolution Technological improvements Increased literacy, circulation of ideas Governmental abuses  Louis XV: “Après moi le déluge” The Reign of Terror  Maximilien Robespierre (1758-1794)  Essentiality of constitutional government

23 The Late Eighteenth Century: Time of Revolution American Revolution  Inspired revolution in France Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence  Optimistic, rational view  Political and social freedom  Equality and justice  Universality of man and nature

24 The Feminist Revolution Mary Wollstonecraft (1739-1797) “Vindication of the Rights of Women” Similar sentiments to French declaration of rights of man and American declaration of independence, both of which excluded women First statement of women’s inherent rights  Women not subservient objects for men, but free, rational beings possessed of strength and dignity and deserving of respect

25 Here ends our lecture upon the 18 th Century This is George Washington, sculpted in 1778 and looking very neo-classical. He is standing next to a fasces, a bundle of rods bound together around an ax with the blade projecting. Fasces were carried before ancient Roman magistrates as an emblem of authority. Note the symbolism of how Washington has covered and softened the ax blade with his hand and a piece of cloth..


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