Presentation on theme: "Chapter Sixteen The Eighteen Century: From Rococo to Revolution."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter Sixteen The Eighteen Century: From Rococo to Revolution
Age of Diversity Unqualified optimism, extreme discontent Trust in science and human reason Conscious engagement with social issues Revolutionaries and conservatives Enlightened despots Welfare of citizenry Duty and responsibility
Above: David’s “Oath of the Horatii” Right: Gainsborough’s “Haymaker And Sleeping Girl”
The Rococo fantasy life of the last European aristocrats
The Visual Arts in the Eighteenth Century The Rococo Style Escapism, anti-baroque Frivolity, lightheartedness Art as entertainment for aristocracy Eroticism, voluptuous beauty (a la Rubens) Jean Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) Fetes galantes Return from Cythera (1717)
Fragonard’s “The Bolt” Note how the hunky fellow in short pants is bolting the door. What will happen next???
Carriera, Anna Sofia d’Este, Princess of Modena (1730) The use of pastels makes this rococo portrait look especially dreamy
The Englishman Gainesborough’s “Mrs. Peter William Baker”
The tres rococo Salon de la Princesse, Hotel de Soubise, Paris
The ultra rococo nave and high altar of Vierzehnheiligen Pilgrim Church, Bamberg, Germany (1743-1772)
The Visual Arts in the Eighteenth Century Neo-Classical Art Archeological inspiration New awareness of classical art Inspired by discoveries at Pompeii and Herculaneum Appealed to revolutionaries in France and America Roman Republic, French Revolution Jacques-Louis David (1748-1825) United opposition to tyranny Modeled on ideals of Roman Republic Austere poses, orderly decoration Sir Joshua Reynolds (1723-1792)
David’s neo-classical Oath of the Horatii (1784)
Literature in the Eighteenth Century Intellectual Developments Systematic examination of society Pessimistic views vs. Optimistic views Renewed interest in Classical culture Translations, themes, forms, references Rise of Feminism Mary Wollstonecraft, “Vindication of the Rights of Women” (1792)
Literature in the Eighteenth Century Jonathan Swift (1667-1745) Hatred for human race “Savage indignation” Animals capable of reason Gulliver’s Travels Satire of human behavior A Modest Proposal “Man’s inhumanity to man” Inevitability of human suffering
Literature in the Eighteenth Century Rational Humanism: The Encyclopedists Encyclopédie Denis Diderot (1713-1784) System for the classification of knowledge Compendium of human rationality Freedom of conscience and belief
The Late Eighteenth Century: Time of Revolution Technological improvements Increased literacy, circulation of ideas Governmental abuses Louis XV: “Après moi le déluge” The Reign of Terror Maximilien Robespierre (1758-1794) Essentiality of constitutional government
The Late Eighteenth Century: Time of Revolution American Revolution Inspired revolution in France Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence Optimistic, rational view Political and social freedom Equality and justice Universality of man and nature
The Feminist Revolution Mary Wollstonecraft (1739-1797) “Vindication of the Rights of Women” Similar sentiments to French declaration of rights of man and American declaration of independence, both of which excluded women First statement of women’s inherent rights Women not subservient objects for men, but free, rational beings possessed of strength and dignity and deserving of respect
Here ends our lecture upon the 18 th Century This is George Washington, sculpted in 1778 and looking very neo-classical. He is standing next to a fasces, a bundle of rods bound together around an ax with the blade projecting. Fasces were carried before ancient Roman magistrates as an emblem of authority. Note the symbolism of how Washington has covered and softened the ax blade with his hand and a piece of cloth..
Your consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website.