Presentation on theme: "Feudal Europe and Japan Post-Classical period. Feudal Europe."— Presentation transcript:
Feudal Europe and Japan Post-Classical period
Fall of Rome 476 AD Rome invaded Adios to: –centralized gov’t –Loss of Greek and Roman learning –common language –Transportation and communication halts
Long-Term Effects Constant warfare and invasions Cities abandoned as economic and political centers Population becomes mostly rural Political, economic, and cultural face of Europe changes Feudalism develops
The 4 Stages of Middle Ages in Europe Stage 1 (476-750) – –Several smaller kingdoms form after Rome: Franks in France Visigoths in Spain Saxons in Germany –No unity. Stage 2 (750-814) – Holy Roman Empire under Charlemagne defeats Muslims who had invaded France through Spain.
Stage 3 and 4 Stage 3 (815-1050) – –Carolingian Empire falls apart –Feudal system. Stage 4 (1050-1300) – –Rise of national monarchs –First agricultural revolution allows for population increase. –Trade resumes –Cities repopulated.
Origins of European Feudal System Central economic feature of Medieval Europe: strong agricultural base for a warrior society Charles Martel (Carolingian Dynasty) –grants nobles rights over tracts of land, to yield the income with which they can provide fighting men for his army –requires an oath of loyalty in return (8 th C) Full-fledged European system by the end of the 10 th C.
What exactly is Feudalism anyway? System of land holding that dominated Western Europe Essential part of the political organization: militarily and economically Appears to have origins in Germanic tribes Frankish?
European Feudal System System at the top: King owned the land (manors); contracted to noblemen (lords/vassals) –Fielty (aka Oath of Fidelity) –Fief
Feudalism for the Uppercrust Relationship based on: 1.Regular supply of troops (Castle Guard) 2.Financial aid in exchange for the lands (from the vassals to the lord) 3.Advice and participation in judgments (court service to the lord)
Manorialism Large estates that were able to meet all of their own needs Smaller farmers ceded land to nobles for protection Made up of fields, a small town with a mill and workshops, a church, and a castle
Feudalism for the masses Seignoralism: Relationship between vassals and serfs –They worked the vassal’s land and owed him a percentage of their food. Sometimes, they had to work 1-5 weeks a year in the manor, among other duties. –He provided military protection.
Feudal Social Pyramid Above all these, is the POPE
Growth of Towns Late Middle Ages Developed near monasteries Formed by artisans, craftsmen, merchants (beginning of guilds): protection Formed near junctions of: rivers, roads, ports TRADE Created the Bourgeoisie
NOT THE DARK AGES! Purse cover, from the Sutton Hoo ship burial in Suffolk, England, ca. 625 Chi-rho-iota page, folio 34 recto of the Book of Kells, 8 th or 9 th century
NOT THE DARK AGES! Gospel of St. John title page, Lindisfarne Gospels, Northumbria, England, ca. 698-721Lindisfarne Gospels Saint Matthew, folio 18 verso of the Ebbo Gospels, Hautvillers, France, ca. 816-835 Initial R with knight fighting a dragon, folio 4 verso of the Moralia in Job, Citeaux, France, ca. 1115-1125
NOT THE DARK AGES! Scene One, Bayeux Tapestry, Bayeux Cathedral, Bayeux, France, ca. 1070-1080. Ambrogio, Lorenzetti, Peaceful City, Palazzo Pubblico, Siena, Italy, 1338-1339
In Japan Not much is known about Japan until around the 5 th C. CE The evolution of SHINTO (the way of the spirits)—native Japanese religion; name adopted to distinguish it from Chinese influences Around the 5 th /6 th C, rapid adoption of Chinese influences in Japan Beginning around 1165, the feudal epoch Shogun Period (Kamakura Period)
Feudal Japan DECLINE of centralized government by the 11 th C –Bakufu Emperors still reigned, but didn’t rule: provincial lords named shoguns had power
More about feudal Japan After the 11 th C, the warrior-elite gave out land in exchange for gathering groups of retainers who owed loyalty & service to the lords –Samurai
Shogunates Controlled the ineffective/puppet emperors Regional leaders’ families; hereditary titles Reciprocal relationships with daimyos b/c of loyalty oaths and obligations
Three Successive Shogunates 1 st (Kamakura Bakufu) was weakened by Mongolians & fell 2 nd (Ashikaga Bakufu) became weakened by regional wars from 1467-1568 3 rd (Tokugawa) after initial strengthening fell into total decline and ended by the 18 th C.
Feudal Codes Bushido (Japan) –Stressed: Self-denial Indifference to adversity Generosity to the less fortunate Chivalry (Europe) –Stressed: Honesty Courtesy Defense of the helpless
What are similarities between the two regions? Europe: Japan: