3Fall of Rome 476 AD Rome invaded Adios to: centralized gov’t Loss of Greek and Roman learningcommon languageTransportation and communication halts
4Long-Term Effects Constant warfare and invasions Cities abandoned as economic and political centersPopulation becomes mostly ruralPolitical, economic, and cultural face of Europe changesFeudalism develops
5The 4 Stages of Middle Ages in Europe Several smaller kingdoms form after Rome:Franks in FranceVisigoths in SpainSaxons in GermanyNo unity.Stage 2 ( ) – Holy Roman Empire under Charlemagne defeats Muslims who had invaded France through Spain.
6Stage 3 and 4 Stage 3 (815-1050) – Stage 4 (1050-1300) – Carolingian Empire falls apartFeudal system.Stage 4 ( ) –Rise of national monarchsFirst agricultural revolution allows for population increase.Trade resumesCities repopulated.
7Origins of European Feudal System Central economic feature of Medieval Europe: strong agricultural base for a warrior societyCharles Martel (Carolingian Dynasty)grants nobles rights over tracts of land, to yield the income with which they can provide fighting men for his armyrequires an oath of loyalty in return (8th C)Full-fledged European system by the end of the 10th C.
8What exactly is Feudalism anyway? System of land holding that dominated Western EuropeEssential part of the political organization: militarily and economicallyAppears to have origins in Germanic tribesFrankish?
9European Feudal System System at the top:King owned the land (manors); contracted to noblemen (lords/vassals)Fielty (aka Oath of Fidelity)Fief
10Feudalism for the Uppercrust Relationship based on:Regular supply of troops (Castle Guard)Financial aid in exchange for the lands (from the vassals to the lord)Advice and participation in judgments (court service to the lord)
11ManorialismLarge estates that were able to meet all of their own needsSmaller farmers ceded land to nobles for protectionMade up of fields, a small town with a mill and workshops, a church, and a castle
12Feudalism for the masses Seignoralism: Relationship between vassals and serfsThey worked the vassal’s land and owed him a percentage of their food. Sometimes, they had to work 1-5 weeks a year in the manor, among other duties.He provided military protection.
13Feudal Social PyramidAbove all these, is the POPE
14Growth of Towns Late Middle Ages Developed near monasteries Formed by artisans, craftsmen, merchants (beginning of guilds): protectionFormed near junctions of: rivers, roads, portsTRADECreated the Bourgeoisie
15NOT THE DARK AGES!Purse cover, from the Sutton Hoo ship burial in Suffolk, England, ca. 625Chi-rho-iota page, folio 34 recto of the Book of Kells, 8th or 9th century
16NOT THE DARK AGES!Gospel of St. John title page, Lindisfarne Gospels, Northumbria, England, caInitial R with knight fighting a dragon, folio 4 verso of the Moralia in Job, Citeaux, France, caSaint Matthew, folio 18 verso of the Ebbo Gospels, Hautvillers, France, ca
17NOT THE DARK AGES!Scene One, Bayeux Tapestry, Bayeux Cathedral, Bayeux, France, caAmbrogio, Lorenzetti, Peaceful City, Palazzo Pubblico, Siena, Italy,
19In Japan Not much is known about Japan until around the 5th C. CE The evolution of SHINTO (the way of the spirits)—native Japanese religion; name adopted to distinguish it from Chinese influencesAround the 5th/6th C, rapid adoption of Chinese influences in JapanBeginning around 1165, the feudal epochShogun Period (Kamakura Period)
20Feudal Japan DECLINE of centralized government by the 11th C BakufuEmperors still reigned, but didn’t rule: provincial lords named shoguns had power
21More about feudal Japan After the 11th C, the warrior-elite gave out land in exchange for gathering groups of retainers who owed loyalty & service to the lordsSamurai
22Shogunates Controlled the ineffective/puppet emperors Regional leaders’ families; hereditary titlesReciprocal relationships with daimyos b/c of loyalty oaths and obligations
23Three Successive Shogunates 1st (Kamakura Bakufu) was weakened by Mongolians & fell2nd (Ashikaga Bakufu) became weakened by regional wars from3rd (Tokugawa) after initial strengthening fell into total decline and ended by the 18th C.