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French Revolution Chapter 7

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1 French Revolution 1789-1815 Chapter 7
Standard Compare the major ideas of philosophers and their effects on the democratic revolutions. Standard List the principles of the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen Standard Explain how the ideology of the French Revolution led France to develop from constitutional monarchy to democratic despotism to the Napoleonic empire.

2 What is an unjust government?

3 What would lead you to take part in a violent revolution?

4 Why study the French Revolution?
Enlightenment ideals of “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity”

5 Why study the French Revolution?
Declaration of Rights of Man and of the Citizen

6 Why study the French Revolution?
The Reign of Terror is a warning of democratic despotism!

7 Why study the French Revolution?
The storming of the Bastille is a symbol of the power of popular resistance

8 Why study the French Revolution?
Spread the ideas of Democracy and Nationalism                                   

9 Why study the French Revolution?
The Spanish used guerrilla warfare against the French

10 Why study the French Revolution?
The Napoleonic Code influenced the legal systems of Europe and South America

11 The French Revolution Begins
Section 1 The French Revolution Begins

12 Causes of French Revolution

13 Terms and Names Old Regime Estate Louis XVI Marie Antoinette
Estates-General National Assembly Tennis Court Oath Great Fear

14 The Old Order Under the Old Regime, France was divided into 3 estates

15 The Privileged Estates
1st Estate- Roman Catholic Church 2nd Estate- Nobles They don’t have to pay taxes They get the best jobs!

16 3rd Estate (97% of the population)
Bourgeoisie- middle class Bankers, merchants, skilled artisans. They are wealthy and educated yet, still had to pay taxes! City Workers- laborers, servants Peasants- poor farmers. They pay taxes to the nobles, king and the Church.

17 I. Enlightenment Ideas II. Economic Troubles III. A Weak Leader
Forces of Change I. Enlightenment Ideas II. Economic Troubles III. A Weak Leader

18 I. Enlightenment Ideas Success of American Revolution
Ideas of Rousseau, Voltaire Equality, Liberty, Democracy (Which Estate do you think would embrace these ideas?)

19 II. Economic Troubles Taxes, taxes, taxes……
Shortage of grain, the price of bread doubles! Government spends too much Government borrowed money to help the American Revolution.

20 III. A Weak Leader Tax the Nobility ! Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette
They spent too much money and made poor government decisions His solution was to Tax the Nobility !

21 Estates-General An assembly of representatives of all three estates.
Each estate gets one vote. (Do you see a problem with this?) They met on May 5, 1789 for the first time in 175 years.

22 Meeting of Estates-General
What was the purpose of this 1st meeting?

23 I. The National Assembly II. Storming the Bastille
Dawn of the Revolution I. The National Assembly II. Storming the Bastille

24 I. National Assembly The 3rd estate wanted all representatives to each have one vote King says “NO” Speech by Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyes June 17, 1789 they rename themselves the National Assembly

25 National Assembly, cont.
They agree to pass laws and reforms for France The king locks them out of their meeting room. This leads to the Tennis Court Oath- promise to create a constitution                                  

26 Bastille Day July 14, 1789

27 July-August 1789 Peasants attack homes of nobles Great Fear

28 October 1789 women riot over the price of bread and demand that Louis and Marie return to Paris!!!

29 Sec. I Review [DO NOW] List the 3 estates
Why did the King call a meeting of the 3 estates? What was unfair about the voting process? What was the Tennis Court Oath? What happened on Bastille Day? Why did the women riot?

30 Revolution Brings Reform and Terror
                                                    Section 2 Revolution Brings Reform and Terror

31 Terms and Names Legislative Assembly Émigré Sans-culotte Jacobin
Guillotine Robespierre Reign of Terror

32 The Assembly Reforms France
Rights of Man State Controlled Church Louis Tries to Escape

33 I. The Rights of Man Declaration of Rights of Man and of the Citizen.
August 4, 1789 – nobles join the National Assembly and make the common people of France equal to the 1st and 2nd estate. What made the 1st and 2nd estate change their minds? This joining of forces leads to the Declaration of Rights of Man and of the Citizen.

34 Declaration of Rights of Man

35 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
“Men are born and remain free and equal” “liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression” Freedom of speech and religion Slogan of the French Revolution is Liberty, Equality, Fraternity

36 Does the Declaration apply to Women?
Olympe de Gouges- publishes a declaration of the rights of women Her ideas are rejected Executed in 1793                      

37 II. State-Controlled Church
Assembly takes over Church property Priests were to be elected and paid by the state Church land sold to pay off debt These actions towards the Roman Catholic Church offends many of the peasants and they refuse to join the Revolution

38 III. Louis Tries to Escape
                                                       III. Louis Tries to Escape June Louis and his family tried to escape to the Austrian Netherlands. However, he is caught and this further enrages the revolutionaries

39 A Limited Monarchy Factions Split France
Divisions Develop A Limited Monarchy Factions Split France

40 Limited Monarchy September new Constitution is written. France is now a constitutional monarchy! Legislative Assembly is created which has the power to pass laws and declare war. The king’s job is to enforce the laws

41 II. Factions Split France
Radicals (sit on the left)- oppose monarchy Moderates (sit in center)- desire some changes Conservatives (sit on the right)- desire very few changes The terms we use today to describe where people stand politically comes from the French Legislative Assembly

42 II. Factions, continued Émigrés- nobles who fled France and hope to restore the monarchy Sans-culottes are workers from Paris who wanted extreme change

43 France at War Jacobins Take Control War Continues
Liberty, Equality, Fraternity War and Execution France at War Jacobins Take Control War Continues

44 I. France at War France declares war on Austria and Prussia A mob kills guards and imprisons the royal family September Massacres- radicals kill priests, nobles and anyone against revolution National Convention- abolishes the monarchy, declares France a republic, and all adult males can vote. Sorry, ladies are still left out.

45 Map of Europe

46 September Massacres

47 II. Jacobins Take Control
Jean Paul Marat George Danton

48 Louis XVI found guilty of treason and sentenced to the guillotine July 21, 1793

49 Louis XVI Executed !

50 III. War Continues Great French victory at Battle of Valmy
Britain, Holland, and Spain join the war against France France needs soldiers and institutes a military draft of all men between 18 and 40

51 The Terror Grips France
I. Robespierre Assumes Control

52 Liberty, Equality, Fraternity
I. Robespierre Committee of Public Safety- to protect the Revolution from enemies Reign of Terror ( ) 40,000 people executed 85% were low or middle class Liberty, Equality, Fraternity

53 End of the Terror July 28, 1794 Robespierre sent to the guillotine Another new government is formed …. Directory- led by moderate upper middle class. 2 house legislature

54 Sec. 2 review What is the slogan of the Revolution?
Name the 3 factions of the Legislative Assembly. The name of the citizens of Paris who wanted extreme change. Who was the leader of the Committee Public Safety? And what was the goal of the committee? The name of the political organization that abolished the monarchy.

55 Napoleon Forges an Empire
Section 3 Napoleon Forges an Empire

56 Famous Napoleons

57 Terms and Names Napoleon Bonaparte Coup d’etat Plebiscite lycee
Concordat Napoleonic Code Battle of Trafalgar

58 Hero of the Hour Coup d’etat
Napoleon Seizes Power Hero of the Hour Coup d’etat

59 I. Hero of the Hour October 1795 Napoleon defends National Convention against royalist rebels 1796- led army against Austria and Sardinia

60 II. Coup d’etat Consulate November 1799 Napoleon returns from Egypt
Another new government called the Consulate Named “1st Consul” (Can you name all the governments of the French Revolution so far?)

61 Restoring Order at Home Napoleon Crowned Emperor
Napoleon Rules France Restoring Order at Home Napoleon Crowned Emperor

62 I. Restoring Order at Home
1800 a plebiscite was held and a new constitution was created Centralization New tax laws, national banks, fired corrupt officials and started lycees Agreement with Catholic Church -concordat

63 I. Restoring Order, cont. Napoleonic Code Uniform set of laws
Limited liberty and promoted order and authority over individual rights Freedom of speech and press restricted

64 II. Crowned as Emperor December 2, 1804 Napoleon takes the crown from the Pope and places it on his own head! What is the significance of this act?

65 Napoleon Creates an Empire
Loss of American Territories Conquering Europe Battle of Trafalgar French Empire

66 Napoleonic wars

67 I. Loss of American Territories
Toussaint L’Ouverture leads slave revolt in Haiti Napoleon sends forces to retake the island however French are defeated.

68 I. Loss of American Territories, cont.
Sold Louisiana Territory to the United States for $15 million.

69 II. Conquering Europe Britain, Russia, Austria, Sweden join forces (map p.232) Battle of Austerlitz (Austria) 1805 Only Britain is left!

70 III. Battle of Trafalgar
1805 naval battle off the coast of Spain (p.232) Napoleon loses and is forced to give up his plans to invade Britain. He must find another way to defeat Britain! (Horatio Nelson)

71 The French Empire Britain Free of French Control Portugal Sweden
Ottoman Empire Under French Control or Allied Spain Warsaw (Poland) Germany Russia Prussia Austria

72 Sec. 3 Review Define coup d’etat, plebiscite, concordat, and lycees
How was the Napoleonic Code an example of Enlightenment ideas? What freedoms were restricted under Napoleon. Who lead the slave revolt in Haiti? Why did Napoleon sell Louisiana to the United States? Where did Napoleon suffer his first major military defeat?

73 Napoleon’s Empire Collapses
Ch. 7 Sec. 4

74 Napoleon’s Costly Mistakes
The Continental System – blockade The Peninsular War- guerrillas Invasion of Russia- scorched-earth policy

75 Napoleon Suffers defeat The Hundred Days
Napoleon’s Downfall Napoleon Suffers defeat The Hundred Days

76 I. Napoleon Suffers Defeat
October 1813 Battle at Leipzig (Germany) Allied Army consists of Britain, Russia, Prussia, Sweden French are defeated

77 I. Defeat, continued Frederick William of Prussia and Czar Alexander I of Russia enter Paris

78 I. Defeat, continued April 1814 the French surrender and Napoleon is banished to Elba

79 II. Hundred Days Can you seriously believe that the French brought back a king after all these years of Revolution! Louis XVIII

80 II. Hundred Days Napoleon escapes Elba and on March 1, 1815 arrives in France. The British and Prussian armies meet Napoleon near Waterloo (Belgium) under the guidance of Duke of Wellington

81 II. Hundred Days The British send Napoleon to the island of St. Helena in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean He dies in 1821

82 Sec. 4 review What was the Continental System?
What is guerrilla warfare? Who used it against Napoleon? How did the Russians defeat Napoleon? What does the “Hundred Days” refer to? Where was Napoleon’s final battle?

83 Section 5 Congress of Vienna Metternich’s Plan for Europe
Political Changes

84 I. Metternich’s Plan Congress of Vienna (1814-1815)
Led by 5 great powers Russia, Prussia, Britain, France, Austria Klemens von Metternich

85 I. Metternich’s Plan 3 Goals at the Congress of Vienna
Prevent future French aggression by surrounding France with strong nations- containment Restore a balance of power Restore Europe’s royal families to the thrones they held before Napoleon’s conquests – legitimacy

86 Comparing Peace Plans Congress of Vienna 1814-1815
After Napoleonic Wars To bring stability and a balance of power back to Europe Paris Peace Conference 1919 After WWI To punish Germany WWII – 20 years later Peace for 40 years

87 Political Changes Beyond Vienna
Conservative Europe Revolution in Latin America Long-Term Legacy

88 I. Conservative Europe Holy Alliance- Russia, Austria, Prussia join together to prevent future revolutions Concert of Europe- alliances and future meetings in order to ensure stability

89 Legacy of the French Revolution
Even though conservatives controlled the government of most European nations, they could not stop the ideas that emerged during the Fr. Rev. There were many democratic revolutions in 1830 and 1848 (we will study this in the next unit)

90 II. Revolution in Latin America
Mexico, Brazil, and other Latin American countries declare their independence from Spain and Brazil (this will be our next unit)

91 III. Long-Term Legacy Nationalism Power of Britain, Prussia increases
Latin America declares independence The French Revolution gave Europe its first experiment with Democracy. Although it appeared to fail in France, it led to future democratic revolutions around the world.

92 Sec. 5 review What were the 3 goals at the Congress of Vienna?
Which countries were at the meeting? Who was the leader? How did the Congress make sure that there would continue to be stability in Europe? What was the legacy of the French Revolution?

93 Ch. 7 sec. 1 Why was there “great unrest” in France? Define Old Regime
Define estates Who belonged to the First Estate? Who belonged to the Second Estate? Did the First and Second Estate agree or disagree with Enlightenment ideas. Explain your decision. Which 3 groups made up the Third Estate? What effect did the American Revolution have on the French Revolution? Why was France’s government in debt? Give specific examples of how King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette provided weak leadership. What is the Estates General? What was the purpose of the first meeting of the Estates General in 175 years? Why was the voting system of the Estates General unfair? What was the purpose of the National Assembly? What happened on June 17, 1789? What was the Tennis Court Oath? What happened on July 14, 1789? What was the Great Fear? In October of 1789, why did the women of Paris march to the king’s palace at Versailles? What did the women demand from the king? Copy questions, answer in complete sentences, use pen

94 Ch. 7 sec. 2 Describe what happened on August 4, 1789.
List the rights and freedoms guaranteed by the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. What was the slogan of the French Revolution? Who is Olympe de Gouges and why was she executed? How did the reforms of the National Assembly affect the Catholic Church? Why did the National Assembly lose the support of many of the peasants? Why did King Louis XVI attempt to escape from France? Was he successful? In September of 1791, the National Assembly wrote a new constitution. Which type of government did this constitution create? What caused the Legislative Assembly to split into 3 groups? Name and describe the 3 groups in the Legislative Assembly. Who were the emigres? Who were the sans-culottes? Why were the countries of Austria and Prussia fearful of the French Revolution? What was the September Massacres? What caused the massacres? How did the National Convention change the French political system? Copy questions, answer in Complete sentences, use pen

95 Ch. 7 sec. 2 continued Who were the Jacobins?
According to the National Convention, what crime did Louis XVI commit? What was his punishment? What is a guillotine? By early 1793, which European countries were at war with France? Inside of France, which groups opposed the Jacobins? What was the Committee of Public Safety and who was its’ leader? What was the Reign of Terror? How, when, and why did the Reign of Terror end? Describe the Directory. “The king must die so that the country can live.” Explain the meaning of this quote by Robespierre.

96 California State Standards 10.2.4, 10.2.5
Ch. 7 sec. 3 When and where was Napoleon Bonaparte born? Why was Napoleon seen as “the savior of the French republic?” What happened in November of 1799? Define coup d’etat What was Napoleon’s first title? Define plebiscite What actions did Napoleon take to improve France’s economy? How did Napoleon end the corruption in government? What are lycees? How did Napoleon establish a new relationship with the Catholic Church? What was the Napoleonic Code? Which freedoms were limited under the Code? Why did Napoleon take the crown from the Pope and place it on his own head? Copy questions, answer in Complete sentences, use pen California State Standards ,

97 Ch. 7 sec. 3 How did the French Revolution affect the slaves of Saint Domingue? How did the sale of Louisiana to the United States benefit France? Which countries united with Britain to stop France from conquering Europe? What were the 2 results of France losing the Battle of Trafalgar? Which areas of Europe were not controlled by Napoleon? Overall, did Napoleon strengthen or weaken the French government? Be specific Which of Napoleon’s actions had the most significant impact on France? Explain

98 California State Standard 10.2.4
Ch. 7 sec. 4 What is a blockade? What was the Continental System? What was the purpose of the Continental System? Why was the Continental System a failure? Why did the United States declare war on Britain in 1812? Why did Napoleon choose to attack Portugal? Why did the Spanish rebel against Napoleon? Who were the Spanish guerillas? Why did the French lose the Peninsular War? What is nationalism? Give two reasons why Napoleon chose to attack Russia. Define scorched earth policy What did Napoleon’s Grand Army find when they arrived in Moscow? Why was it a mistake for Napoleon’s troops to stay in Moscow until October? After Napoleon’s defeat in Russia, which countries joined forces to attack France? Where and why did the French suffer defeat in October of 1813? What happened in April of 1814? Copy questions, answer in Complete sentences, use pen California State Standard

99 Ch. 7 sec. 4 Who came to the throne after Napoleon?
Why do you think the citizens of France welcomed Napoleon’s return on March 1, 1815? How did Europe respond to the return of Napoleon? Where did Napoleon suffer his final military defeat? What happened to Napoleon after his Hundred Days rule? Answer the following questions in a paragraph. Please have an introductory sentence, at least 3 body sentences, and a conclusion. A. What caused the French Revolution? Explain at least 3 causes. B. How was the Reign or Terror an example of democratic despotism? C. Was Napoleon’s rule a success or failure? Explain your decision.

100 Ch. 7 sec. 5 What was the Congress of Vienna?
Who were the 5 great powers? Who was the most influential of the representatives? What were Metternich’s 3 goals? How did the Congress of Vienna make the weak countries around France stronger? How come the Congress of Vienna did not want to completely weaken France? What is the principle of legitimacy? Give examples of how the Congress of Vienna was more successful than other peace meetings in history. After the Congress of Vienna, which countries were constitutional monarchies? Which countries were absolute monarchies? What was the Holy Alliance? What was the Concert of Europe? In the long term, was the French revolution a success or a failure? Explain. How did the French Revolution affect Latin America? What was the long term legacy of the French Revolution? Give 2 examples. This section ends with the sentence “a new era had begun.” Explain what this means. Copy questions, answer in complete sentences, use pen

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