Presentation on theme: "French Revolution Chapter 7"— Presentation transcript:
1French Revolution 1789-1815 Chapter 7 Standard Compare the major ideas of philosophers and their effects on the democratic revolutions.Standard List the principles of the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and the CitizenStandard Explain how the ideology of the French Revolution led France to develop from constitutional monarchy to democratic despotism to the Napoleonic empire.
13Terms and Names Old Regime Estate Louis XVI Marie Antoinette Estates-GeneralNational AssemblyTennis Court OathGreat Fear
14The Old OrderUnder the Old Regime, France was divided into 3 estates
15The Privileged Estates 1st Estate- Roman Catholic Church2nd Estate- NoblesThey don’t have to pay taxesThey get the best jobs!
163rd Estate (97% of the population) Bourgeoisie- middle class Bankers, merchants, skilled artisans. They are wealthy and educated yet, still had to pay taxes!City Workers- laborers, servantsPeasants- poor farmers. They pay taxes to the nobles, king and the Church.
17I. Enlightenment Ideas II. Economic Troubles III. A Weak Leader Forces of ChangeI. Enlightenment IdeasII. Economic TroublesIII. A Weak Leader
18I. Enlightenment Ideas Success of American Revolution Ideas of Rousseau, VoltaireEquality, Liberty, Democracy(Which Estate do you think would embrace these ideas?)
19II. Economic Troubles Taxes, taxes, taxes…… Shortage of grain, the price of bread doubles!Government spends too muchGovernment borrowed money to help the American Revolution.
20III. A Weak Leader Tax the Nobility ! Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette They spent too much money and made poor government decisionsHis solution was toTax the Nobility !
21Estates-General An assembly of representatives of all three estates. Each estate gets one vote. (Do you see a problem with this?)They met on May 5, 1789 for the first time in 175 years.
22Meeting of Estates-General What was the purpose of this 1st meeting?
23I. The National Assembly II. Storming the Bastille Dawn of the RevolutionI. The National AssemblyII. Storming the Bastille
24I. National AssemblyThe 3rd estate wanted all representatives to each have one voteKing says “NO”Speech by Emmanuel-Joseph SieyesJune 17, 1789 they rename themselves the National Assembly
25National Assembly, cont. They agree to pass laws and reforms for FranceThe king locks them out of their meeting room. This leads to the Tennis Court Oath- promise to create a constitution
27July-August 1789Peasants attack homes of noblesGreat Fear
28October 1789 women riot over the price of bread and demand that Louis and Marie return to Paris!!!
29Sec. I Review [DO NOW] List the 3 estates Why did the King call a meeting of the 3 estates?What was unfair about the voting process?What was the Tennis Court Oath?What happened on Bastille Day?Why did the women riot?
30Revolution Brings Reform and Terror Section 2Revolution Brings Reform and Terror
31Terms and Names Legislative Assembly Émigré Sans-culotte Jacobin GuillotineRobespierreReign of Terror
32The Assembly Reforms France Rights of ManState Controlled ChurchLouis Tries to Escape
33I. The Rights of Man Declaration of Rights of Man and of the Citizen. August 4, 1789 – nobles join the National Assembly and make the common people of France equal to the 1st and 2nd estate.What made the 1st and 2nd estate change their minds?This joining of forces leads to theDeclaration of Rights of Man and of the Citizen.
35Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen “Men are born and remain free and equal”“liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression”Freedom of speech and religionSlogan of the French Revolution isLiberty, Equality, Fraternity
36Does the Declaration apply to Women? Olympe de Gouges- publishes a declaration of the rights of womenHer ideas are rejectedExecuted in 1793
37II. State-Controlled Church Assembly takes over Church propertyPriests were to be elected and paid by the stateChurch land sold to pay off debtThese actions towards the Roman Catholic Church offends many of the peasants and they refuse to join the Revolution
38III. Louis Tries to Escape III. Louis Tries to EscapeJune Louis and his family tried to escape to the Austrian Netherlands.However, he is caught and this further enrages the revolutionaries
39A Limited Monarchy Factions Split France Divisions DevelopA Limited MonarchyFactions Split France
40Limited MonarchySeptember new Constitution is written.France is now a constitutional monarchy!Legislative Assembly is created which has the power to pass laws and declare war.The king’s job is to enforce the laws
41II. Factions Split France Radicals (sit on the left)- oppose monarchyModerates (sit in center)- desire some changesConservatives (sit on the right)- desire very few changesThe terms we use today to describe where people stand politically comes from the French Legislative Assembly
42II. Factions, continuedÉmigrés- nobles who fled France and hope to restore the monarchySans-culottes are workers from Paris who wanted extreme change
43France at War Jacobins Take Control War Continues Liberty, Equality, FraternityWar and ExecutionFrance at WarJacobins Take ControlWar Continues
44I. France at WarFrance declares war on Austria and PrussiaA mob kills guards and imprisons the royal familySeptember Massacres- radicals kill priests, nobles and anyone against revolutionNational Convention- abolishes the monarchy, declares France a republic, and all adult males can vote. Sorry, ladies are still left out.
50III. War Continues Great French victory at Battle of Valmy Britain, Holland, and Spain join the war against FranceFrance needs soldiers and institutes a military draft of all men between 18 and 40
51The Terror Grips France I. Robespierre Assumes Control
52Liberty, Equality, Fraternity I. RobespierreCommittee of Public Safety- to protect the Revolution from enemiesReign of Terror ( )40,000 people executed85% were low or middle classLiberty, Equality, Fraternity
53End of the TerrorJuly 28, 1794 Robespierre sent to the guillotineAnother new government is formed ….Directory- led by moderate upper middle class. 2 house legislature
54Sec. 2 review What is the slogan of the Revolution? Name the 3 factions of the Legislative Assembly.The name of the citizens of Paris who wanted extreme change.Who was the leader of the Committee Public Safety? And what was the goal of the committee?The name of the political organization that abolished the monarchy.
55Napoleon Forges an Empire Section 3Napoleon Forges an Empire
57Terms and Names Napoleon Bonaparte Coup d’etat Plebiscite lycee ConcordatNapoleonic CodeBattle of Trafalgar
58Hero of the Hour Coup d’etat Napoleon Seizes PowerHero of the HourCoup d’etat
59I. Hero of the HourOctober 1795 Napoleon defends National Convention against royalist rebels1796- led army against Austria and Sardinia
60II. Coup d’etat Consulate November 1799 Napoleon returns from Egypt Another new government called theConsulateNamed “1st Consul”(Can you name all the governments of the French Revolution so far?)
61Restoring Order at Home Napoleon Crowned Emperor Napoleon Rules FranceRestoring Order at HomeNapoleon Crowned Emperor
62I. Restoring Order at Home 1800 a plebiscite was held and a new constitution was createdCentralizationNew tax laws, national banks, fired corrupt officials and started lyceesAgreement with Catholic Church -concordat
63I. Restoring Order, cont. Napoleonic Code Uniform set of laws Limited liberty and promoted order and authority over individual rightsFreedom of speech and press restricted
64II. Crowned as EmperorDecember 2, 1804 Napoleon takes the crown from the Pope and places it on his own head! What is the significance of this act?
65Napoleon Creates an Empire Loss of American TerritoriesConquering EuropeBattle of TrafalgarFrench Empire
67I. Loss of American Territories Toussaint L’Ouverture leads slave revolt in HaitiNapoleon sends forces to retake the island however French are defeated.
68I. Loss of American Territories, cont. Sold Louisiana Territory to the United States for $15 million.
69II. Conquering EuropeBritain, Russia, Austria, Sweden join forces (map p.232)Battle of Austerlitz (Austria) 1805Only Britain is left!
70III. Battle of Trafalgar 1805 naval battle off the coast of Spain (p.232)Napoleon loses and is forced to give up his plans to invade Britain. He must find another way to defeat Britain!(Horatio Nelson)
71The French Empire Britain Free of French Control Portugal Sweden Ottoman EmpireUnder French Control or AlliedSpainWarsaw (Poland)GermanyRussiaPrussiaAustria
72Sec. 3 Review Define coup d’etat, plebiscite, concordat, and lycees How was the Napoleonic Code an example of Enlightenment ideas?What freedoms were restricted under Napoleon.Who lead the slave revolt in Haiti?Why did Napoleon sell Louisiana to the United States?Where did Napoleon suffer his first major military defeat?
74Napoleon’s Costly Mistakes The Continental System – blockadeThe Peninsular War- guerrillasInvasion of Russia- scorched-earth policy
75Napoleon Suffers defeat The Hundred Days Napoleon’s DownfallNapoleon Suffers defeatThe Hundred Days
76I. Napoleon Suffers Defeat October 1813 Battle at Leipzig (Germany)Allied Army consists of Britain, Russia, Prussia, SwedenFrench are defeated
77I. Defeat, continuedFrederick William of Prussia and Czar Alexander I of Russia enter Paris
78I. Defeat, continuedApril 1814 the French surrender and Napoleon is banished to Elba
79II. Hundred DaysCan you seriously believe that the French brought back a king after all these years of Revolution!Louis XVIII
80II. Hundred DaysNapoleon escapes Elba and on March 1, 1815 arrives in France.The British and Prussian armies meet Napoleon near Waterloo (Belgium) under the guidance of Duke of Wellington
81II. Hundred DaysThe British send Napoleon to the island of St. Helena in the middle of the Atlantic OceanHe dies in 1821
82Sec. 4 review What was the Continental System? What is guerrilla warfare? Who used it against Napoleon?How did the Russians defeat Napoleon?What does the “Hundred Days” refer to?Where was Napoleon’s final battle?
83Section 5 Congress of Vienna Metternich’s Plan for Europe Political Changes
84I. Metternich’s Plan Congress of Vienna (1814-1815) Led by 5 great powersRussia, Prussia, Britain, France, AustriaKlemens von Metternich
85I. Metternich’s Plan 3 Goals at the Congress of Vienna Prevent future French aggression by surrounding France with strong nations- containmentRestore a balance of powerRestore Europe’s royal families to the thrones they held before Napoleon’s conquests – legitimacy
86Comparing Peace Plans Congress of Vienna 1814-1815 After Napoleonic WarsTo bring stability and a balance of power back to EuropeParis Peace Conference1919After WWITo punish GermanyWWII – 20 years laterPeace for 40 years
87Political Changes Beyond Vienna Conservative EuropeRevolution in Latin AmericaLong-Term Legacy
88I. Conservative EuropeHoly Alliance- Russia, Austria, Prussia join together to prevent future revolutionsConcert of Europe- alliances and future meetings in order to ensure stability
89Legacy of the French Revolution Even though conservatives controlled the government of most European nations, they could not stop the ideas that emerged during the Fr. Rev.There were many democratic revolutions in 1830 and 1848 (we will study this in the next unit)
90II. Revolution in Latin America Mexico, Brazil, and other Latin American countries declare their independence from Spain and Brazil (this will be our next unit)
91III. Long-Term Legacy Nationalism Power of Britain, Prussia increases Latin America declares independenceThe French Revolution gave Europe its first experiment with Democracy. Although it appeared to fail in France, it led to future democratic revolutions around the world.
92Sec. 5 review What were the 3 goals at the Congress of Vienna? Which countries were at the meeting? Who was the leader?How did the Congress make sure that there would continue to be stability in Europe?What was the legacy of the French Revolution?
93Ch. 7 sec. 1 Why was there “great unrest” in France? Define Old Regime Define estatesWho belonged to the First Estate?Who belonged to the Second Estate?Did the First and Second Estate agree or disagree with Enlightenment ideas. Explain your decision.Which 3 groups made up the Third Estate?What effect did the American Revolution have on the French Revolution?Why was France’s government in debt?Give specific examples of how King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette provided weak leadership.What is the Estates General?What was the purpose of the first meeting of the Estates General in 175 years?Why was the voting system of the Estates General unfair?What was the purpose of the National Assembly?What happened on June 17, 1789?What was the Tennis Court Oath?What happened on July 14, 1789?What was the Great Fear?In October of 1789, why did the women of Paris march to the king’s palace at Versailles?What did the women demand from the king?Copy questions, answer in completesentences, use pen
94Ch. 7 sec. 2 Describe what happened on August 4, 1789. List the rights and freedoms guaranteed by the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.What was the slogan of the French Revolution?Who is Olympe de Gouges and why was she executed?How did the reforms of the National Assembly affect the Catholic Church?Why did the National Assembly lose the support of many of the peasants?Why did King Louis XVI attempt to escape from France? Was he successful?In September of 1791, the National Assembly wrote a new constitution. Which type of government did this constitution create?What caused the Legislative Assembly to split into 3 groups?Name and describe the 3 groups in the Legislative Assembly.Who were the emigres?Who were the sans-culottes?Why were the countries of Austria and Prussia fearful of the French Revolution?What was the September Massacres? What caused the massacres?How did the National Convention change the French political system?Copy questions, answer inComplete sentences, use pen
95Ch. 7 sec. 2 continued Who were the Jacobins? According to the National Convention, what crime did Louis XVI commit? What was his punishment?What is a guillotine?By early 1793, which European countries were at war with France?Inside of France, which groups opposed the Jacobins?What was the Committee of Public Safety and who was its’ leader?What was the Reign of Terror?How, when, and why did the Reign of Terror end?Describe the Directory.“The king must die so that the country can live.” Explain the meaning of this quote by Robespierre.
96California State Standards 10.2.4, 10.2.5 Ch. 7 sec. 3When and where was Napoleon Bonaparte born?Why was Napoleon seen as “the savior of the French republic?”What happened in November of 1799?Define coup d’etatWhat was Napoleon’s first title?Define plebisciteWhat actions did Napoleon take to improve France’s economy?How did Napoleon end the corruption in government?What are lycees?How did Napoleon establish a new relationship with the Catholic Church?What was the Napoleonic Code?Which freedoms were limited under the Code?Why did Napoleon take the crown from the Pope and place it on his own head?Copy questions, answer inComplete sentences, use penCalifornia State Standards ,
97Ch. 7 sec. 3How did the French Revolution affect the slaves of Saint Domingue?How did the sale of Louisiana to the United States benefit France?Which countries united with Britain to stop France from conquering Europe?What were the 2 results of France losing the Battle of Trafalgar?Which areas of Europe were not controlled by Napoleon?Overall, did Napoleon strengthen or weaken the French government? Be specificWhich of Napoleon’s actions had the most significant impact on France? Explain
98California State Standard 10.2.4 Ch. 7 sec. 4What is a blockade?What was the Continental System? What was the purpose of the Continental System?Why was the Continental System a failure?Why did the United States declare war on Britain in 1812?Why did Napoleon choose to attack Portugal?Why did the Spanish rebel against Napoleon?Who were the Spanish guerillas?Why did the French lose the Peninsular War?What is nationalism?Give two reasons why Napoleon chose to attack Russia.Define scorched earth policyWhat did Napoleon’s Grand Army find when they arrived in Moscow?Why was it a mistake for Napoleon’s troops to stay in Moscow until October?After Napoleon’s defeat in Russia, which countries joined forces to attack France?Where and why did the French suffer defeat in October of 1813?What happened in April of 1814?Copy questions, answer inComplete sentences, use penCalifornia State Standard
99Ch. 7 sec. 4 Who came to the throne after Napoleon? Why do you think the citizens of France welcomed Napoleon’s return on March 1, 1815?How did Europe respond to the return of Napoleon?Where did Napoleon suffer his final military defeat?What happened to Napoleon after his Hundred Days rule?Answer the following questions in a paragraph. Please have an introductory sentence, at least 3 body sentences, and a conclusion.A. What caused the French Revolution? Explain at least 3 causes.B. How was the Reign or Terror an example of democratic despotism?C. Was Napoleon’s rule a success or failure? Explain your decision.
100Ch. 7 sec. 5 What was the Congress of Vienna? Who were the 5 great powers?Who was the most influential of the representatives?What were Metternich’s 3 goals?How did the Congress of Vienna make the weak countries around France stronger?How come the Congress of Vienna did not want to completely weaken France?What is the principle of legitimacy?Give examples of how the Congress of Vienna was more successful than other peace meetings in history.After the Congress of Vienna, which countries were constitutional monarchies? Which countries were absolute monarchies?What was the Holy Alliance?What was the Concert of Europe?In the long term, was the French revolution a success or a failure? Explain.How did the French Revolution affect Latin America?What was the long term legacy of the French Revolution? Give 2 examples.This section ends with the sentence “a new era had begun.” Explain what this means.Copy questions, answer in completesentences, use pen