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Presentation on theme: "Reconstruction."— Presentation transcript:

1 Reconstruction

2 The Destruction of the War

3 Presidential Reconstruction
Abraham Lincoln Wartime acts Emancipation Proclamation* War still in doubt Fugitive slaves Slaves boost Confed. Cause Northern morale Public opinion France and Britain Morality

4 Presidential Reconstruction
Lincoln - 10% Plan* 10% loyalty oath Abolish slavery Northern opposition Wade-Davis Bill* 50% Ironclad oath 13th Amendment

5 Presidential Reconstruction
Andrew Johnson* General pardon Col. M.F. Pleasants* Voting = state issue Secession illegal Repudiate Confed. debt Abolish slavery

6 Black Codes* Why? Examples: Control Disregard federal govt.
Fear black retaliation Labor supply Racism Examples: Freedmen no testify vs. whites Vagrancy laws Taxes Whipped Blacks called “servant”, whites called “master”

7 Johnson’s declining popularity
Memphis riot* Disputes with Congress Freedmen’s Bureau Civil Rights bill 14th Amendment 1866 Civil Rights Act th Amendment Citizenship for all persons - regardless of race - born or naturalized in US Forbade states from abridging privileges of citizens Guaranteed due process of the law Equal protection of the law “Swing Around the Circle”*, 1866

8 Congressional Reconstruction
Radical Republicans Who were they? Thaddeus Stevens, PA Charles Sumner, MA What were their goals? Protection of freedmen and supporters Full citizenship of freedmen Win conservative support Some extreme views Strip Southerners of citizenship Confiscate land

9 Congressional Reconstruction
The Stevens Plan* Federal officials supervise elections Blacks vote Whites stripped of citizenship

10 Congressional Reconstruction
1867 Congressional Reconstruction Act 5 military districts Military make arrests, trials Military directs constitutions Not extremely radical

11 Johnson Impeachment Impeachment of Johnson Failure: Radical crusade
Bring down presidential office Lack of clear crime Successor = Ben Wade Lawyers Johnson quiet

12 Reconstruction Laws & Acts
th Amendment Forbade states to deny any citizen the right to vote on grounds of race, color, or previous condition of servitude

13 Decline of the Radicals
Small in number Johnson quiet Radicals divided Trouble staying in office Death U.S. Grant Scandals: political appointments, favors to businessmen and railroads

14 New Leadership in the South
Grant presidency Northern military Freedmen’s Bureau Carpetbaggers, scalawags, black politicians 1870, Union restored Black politicians 22 Congressmen Too few for great impact

15 Republican Reconstruction
Positive aspects: Public education Efficiency of government Public buildings, roads, manufacturing Social services (orphanages, hospitals, welfare) Capital/investment Political democracy

16 Republican Reconstruction
Decline 1870s Other concerns Corruption, depression Colfax Massacre U.S. v. Cruikshank “Compromise of 1877” Dem. – Samuel J. Tilden, NY Rep. – Rutherford B. Hayes, OH Hayes wins, Republicans withdraw N support Legacy of Reconstruction “America’s unfinished revolution”

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