Presentation on theme: "Reconstruction: An Unfinished Revolution (1865-1877) Chapter 16."— Presentation transcript:
Reconstruction: An Unfinished Revolution (1865-1877) Chapter 16
I.Assimilation of Former Slaves and States 1.Reestablish state governments. 2.10% of the voting pop.; swear an oath of loyalty to the U.S. 3.Lincoln’s 10 Percent Plan 4.Complete pardons; if they took an oath of agreement; eliminate slavery
Assimilation of Former States and Slaves (cont’d) 5. Wade Davis Bill, 1864 6.50% of southern voters; must take oath 7.Non-active members/supporters of Conf. can approve new state constitutions. 8.Vetoed… 9.Freedman’s Bureau, 1865 10. Help: food, shelter, medical aid 11. Establish schools 12. Funding ceased; expired in 1872
II.Uneasy Rule of Andrew Johnson 1.Kept 10% plan 2.Disenfranchisement of former Conf. leaders; those with $250,000 or more 3.Many Conf. leaders back by 1865!!! 4.Refused to support blacks 5.Rep. Congressmen feared S. Dems. 6.“Waving the Bloody Shirt”
Uneasy Rule of Andrew Johnson (cont’d) 7.Black Codes 8.Restricted movement of blacks; can’t own land 9.Sharecropping—leased land 10. Borrow supplies to work; give large part of harvest as a “loan” payment
III. 14 th Amendment 1.Rad. Rep. protect African Americans 2.Civil Rights Bill of 1866—destroy black codes; Blacks get full citizenship 3.Johnson vetoes; congress overturns 4.14 th Amendment, 1868 1.Protect Rights of all U.S. citizens 2.Due process & equal protection 3.No state/fed. office; Conf. officers
More Troubles for Johnson (cont’d) 4. Impeachment? 5. Tenure of Office Act 6.Pres. can’t discharge a fed. appointee w/out Senate approval 7.Sec. of War: Edwin Stanton fired!! 8.Impeached; but not removed
V. 15 th Amendment 1.1868, Pres. Ulysses S. Grant (R) 2.States can’t prevent citizens from voting based on: race, color, or previous servitude 3.Enforcement?
VI. Southern Governments 1.Scalawags-S. Rep. 2.Carpetbaggers-N. Rep; went to the S. 3.Military Reconst. Successes 1.Public Education 2.Infrastructure 3.Tax codes; collection 4.Military Reconstruction Failures 1.Accusations of N. corruption
VII. “Reedemers” 1.Rid the S. of Reps. 2.Won S. Seats 3.Low taxes, small gov., white power 4.1870-Rep. dead in the S.
VIII. Freedmen 1.Some stayed; some left 2.1878-1880@25,000 left for KS 3.Exodusters 4.Church; Center for Freedmen 5.Freedman’s Bureau 1.Struggled to stay alive 6.“40 Acres & a Mule”—Pres. Johnson never approved
IX. Compromise of 1877 1.Election of 1876 1.Rutherford B. Hayes (R) vs. Samuel Tilden (D) 2.Dispute in S. votes 3.Rep. gave it to Hayes 4.Compromise of 1877 5.End of Recon.!!
X. Failures Lack of passion and motivation from republicans No education for most No land redistributed No voting ex: poll taxes, literacy tests, etc. Sharecropping KKK-racial hostility Lack of enforcement of 14 th and 15 th Corruption and greed Poverty and homeless Land was not rebuilt Fiscal problems to rebuild south Segregation now became the norm in the south
XI. Successes Some got educated; land; voting Black senators and congressmen Citizenship established Slavery dead 13, 14, and 15 th Amendments radically altered the federal government Individual rights were now federally protected Increase in federal power and responsibilities Stronger nationalism-sense of a nation Unprecedented federal intervention