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SEARCH AND SEIZURE A REASONABLE TEST Created by the Ohio State Bar Foundation.

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Presentation on theme: "SEARCH AND SEIZURE A REASONABLE TEST Created by the Ohio State Bar Foundation."— Presentation transcript:

1 SEARCH AND SEIZURE A REASONABLE TEST Created by the Ohio State Bar Foundation

2 Redding v. Stafford United School District (2009) Created by the Ohio State Bar Foundation Search and Seizure

3 Background Story Savana Redding (13 years old) Zero tolerance drug policy Accused of giving others prescription drug Vice principal searches backpack No pills found

4 Background Story Strip searched down to underwear Had to shake out bra and underwear No pills Humiliation and lawsuit

5 Background Story Fourth Amendments Rights: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

6 Legal Problem Were Savana’s Fourth Amendment rights violated? Can schools strip search for drugs?

7 Arguments for Redding No evidence of dangerous concealed drugs Invasion of young girl unreasonable Inability to return to school Zero tolerance went too far

8 Arguments for School Can act on school policies Objectively reasonable- area can conceal Reduced privacy in schools Uphold policies as they occur Cannot act if afraid of lawsuit

9 Outcome Supreme Court ruled 8-1 for Savanna Constitutional rights violated Officials went too far (quantum leap) No danger Unreasonable

10 Outcome One dissenting vote Judges should not second- guess Ruling vague about drug searches –Specific accusations –Danger of drugs

11 SEARCH AND SEIZURE A REASONABLE TEST Created by the Ohio State Bar Foundation

12 New Jersey v. T.L.O. (1985) Created by the Ohio State Bar Foundation

13 Background Story Girl caught smoking (T.L.O.) Denied she had been smoking Searched purse Found cigarettes and more

14 Background Story Was dealing in school Police brought charges T.L.O. confessed Appealed conviction

15 Background Story Argued search was illegal Argued confession was invalid Appealed to the Supreme Court

16 Background Story Fourth Amendment Rights: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

17 Legal Problem Do students have the same Fourth Amendment rights as adults? Was the principal’s search unreasonable? Should the evidence have been thrown out?

18 Arguments for T.L.O. School officials cannot act like parents Must respect student right to privacy No warrant-no probable cause Unreasonable search led to confession ≠

19 Arguments for New Jersey Schools can act in place of parents Schools have broad powers T.L.O.’s behavior gave reasonable cause =

20 Outcome Supreme Court ruled 6- 3 in favor of New Jersey Officials must maintain school discipline

21 Outcome Search can be reasonable without probable cause Metal detectors and protective searches now allowed

22 SEARCH AND SEIZURE A REASONABLE TEST Created by the Ohio State Bar Foundation

23 Present Day Realities Judging the Fourth Amendment Created by the Ohio State Bar Foundation

24 Fourth Amendment The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

25 Background Story Constitution over 220 years old Colonists wanted: –A castle and a fortress –Limits and definitions

26 Background Story Our Founding Fathers could not have predicted: Terrorism Drugs Social media and Internet Organized crime School shootings Mass media and electronics Over 300 million people

27 Asking Fourth Amendment Questions What can police do? –Police officer stops a car –Pat someone down for suspicious behavior –Park or open field

28 Asking Fourth Amendment Questions Searches a friend at a house Searches garbage can on the curb Taps someone’s phone line Searches Facebook

29 Asking Fourth Amendment Questions Reads school Internet or s Profiles person from known terrorist country

30 Asking Fourth Amendment Questions Search someone’s computer files Search at a border crossing

31 Asking Fourth Amendment Questions Search a non-English speaking person Put a GPS tracker on a car?

32 Asking More Fourth Amendment Questions Can parents put a GPS tracker on their children’s cars?

33 Asking More Fourth Amendment Questions Can a school system tag certain words such as suicide or drugs or hit list on its computer server and identify students who write about these topics? Does the school have the right to check the context of how the words are being used

34 Asking More Fourth Amendment Questions Can government officials read someone’s ? Can evidence obtained, without a warrant, be used against a person at a trial?

35 Asking More Fourth Amendment Questions Can evidence be used at a trial if the defendant gave permission for a search without a warrant? What questions would you want answered if a police officer breaks into your bedroom and takes your journals?

36 Asking More Fourth Amendment Questions How important in today’s society is it to protect Fourth Amendment rights? Who is responsible for the protection afforded under the Fourth Amendment if it is important? Is enough being done?

37 Asking More Fourth Amendment Questions What can you do to protect your rights?


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