Presentation on theme: "Reconstruction ( ) What was Reconstruction?"— Presentation transcript:
1Reconstruction (1863-1877) What was Reconstruction? What did Reconstruction mean in 1863 – 1877?
2Basic Question Was secession illegal? Was the Constitution a compact among peoples of different political societies, as peoples of the several states?Had the colonies – as a union – thrown off the dependence and in turn made the states?Members of the Congress (including the 1st and 2nd Continental Congresses) were present as agents of existing political societies and thus the political societies of the states existed prior to the adoption of either the Articles of Confederation or the Constitution.No one had ever questioned the right of a state to secede prior to the debate concerning the secession of the southern states and reconstruction.
3What did Reconstruction Mean? Originally it meant simply reunification.By the end of the war it had come to mean a fundament reconstruction of the South.Reconstruct Southern political lifeReconstruct Southern economic lifeReconstruct Southern social life
4Central Questions of Reconstruction On what terms should Southern states be readmitted?Should Congress or the President establish those terms?What system of labor should replace plantation slavery?(slavery had been, first and foremost, a system of labor)What should be the place of blacks in the political, economic, and social life of the South and the nation?
5Groups in Conflict 1. President v. Congress 2. Republicans v. Southern Democrats3. Radical Republicans v. Moderate Republicans4. Blacks v. Whites(Blacks were not passive bystanders)Each group had their own answers to the questions posed by Reconstruction
6Phases of Reconstruction 1. Rehearsal for Reconstruction ( )2. Presidential Reconstruction ( )3. Congressional Reconstruction ( )(also known as Radical Reconstruction)
7Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction The “Ten Percent Plan” (Dec, 1863) Full pardon for those who took an oath of allegianceRestored property (except slaves)Prominent military & civilian leaders excludedBecame known as the “Ten percent Plan” because:When those taking oath = 10% of voters in 1860, could establish a new state governmentReconstructed state governments had to accept abolitionAs soon as first two were complied with, states could be readmitted
8The Radical Republican Response Wanted tougher stance toward ConfederatesSaw Reconstruction as a chance to fundamentally transform Southern societyRefused to seat new reps from Arkansas & LouisianaPassed Wade-Davis BillRequired 50% loyalty oathOath was much stricter than Lincoln’s (called the Ironclad Oath)Bill was pocket vetoed by Lincoln - felt it would damage his efforts to win over moderates (in both camps)
9End of the ConfederacyApril 9, Lee surrenders to Grant in VirginiaApril 14, Lincoln assassinated in Washington DCApril 26, Johnston surrenders to Sherman in North CarolinaMay 4, 1865 – Taylor surrenders to Canby in AlabamaMay 10, Davis captured while fleeing to TexasMay 12 & 13, 1865 – Battle at Palmetto Ranch in South TexasMay 26, 1865 – Buckner (for Smith) surrenders to Canby in Trans-MississippiJune 23, 1865 – following Winchester Colbert of the Chickasaws and P.P. Pitchlynn of the Choctaws, Stand Watie of the Cherokees surrenders to Matthews in Indian Territory
10Andrew Johnson’s “Restoration” Plan Wanted to restore the Union as quickly as possibleBlamed individuals (specifically planter elite), not states for secessionSpring, granted amnesty and pardon to Confederates who took loyalty oath and supported emancipationConfederate officers & wealthy landowners had to apply for Presidential pardon - freely grantedStates must hold constitutional conventionsDelegates elected by those who took oath or were pardoned (only whites could participate)New constitutions must:a) repudiate secessionb) Acknowledge abolitionc) Void state war debts
11Civil Rights Act of 18661. Bestowed full citizen ship on African-Americans2. Overturned black codes3. Overturned 1857 Dred Scott decision
12AMENDMENT XIV (Ratified July 9, 1868) Defined citizens as ALL natural born or naturalized persons.Set Congressional Representation based on number of citizens.Made former Confederates ineligible to hold office.Made debt caused by “suppressing insurrection or rebellion” legal while those incurred by the southern states “incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States … illegal and void.”
13AMENDMENT XIV (Ratified July 9, 1868) Designed to incorporate reconstruction principals in ConstitutionWas a specific response to Johnson’s policiesMade passage of amendment part of 1866 Congressional campaign
14Doom of Johnson’s PlanBy 1867 Republicans controlled both Houses of CongressCompletely controlled the Northern StatesWere not only prepared but were capable of directly challenging the president and seizing control of Reconstruction
15First Reconstruction Act (March, 1867) Divided the South into 5 military districtsEstablished martial lawRequired new state constitutional conventionsElected by universal manhood suffrageHad to guarantee voting rights to African-AmericansHad to ratify 14th amendmentSupporting legislationInvalidated provisional governments created under Johnson’s planMilitary to conduct voter registrationRequired strict loyalty oath
16The Impeachment Crisis Johnson tries to impede Radical ReconstructionFebruary, Congress impeachesUses Tenure Act as an excuseReal cause is differences over ReconstructionSenate refuses to convict JohnsonRadical Republicans seen as subversive of Constitution, lose publics support
17The Election of 1868 <= Horatio Seymour Northern Democrat Ulysses S. Grant =>Republican
20AMENDMENT XV (Ratified February 3, 1870) SECTION 1: The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
22Election of 1876 Rutherford B. Hayes Republican Samuel J. Tilden DemocratPeter CooperGreenback
23Election of 1876 Contested States: Florida Louisiana South Carolina Oregon
24Compromise of 1877 Democrats agreed that Hayes would be president Republicans agreed to allocate more federal money for Southern internal improvementsRepublicans agreed that federal government would not intervene in Southern affairsRepublicans agreed to appoint 1 Democrat to cabinet