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Reconstruction ( ) What was Reconstruction?

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1 Reconstruction (1863-1877) What was Reconstruction?
What did Reconstruction mean in 1863 – 1877?

2 Basic Question Was secession illegal?
Was the Constitution a compact among peoples of different political societies, as peoples of the several states? Had the colonies – as a union – thrown off the dependence and in turn made the states? Members of the Congress (including the 1st and 2nd Continental Congresses) were present as agents of existing political societies and thus the political societies of the states existed prior to the adoption of either the Articles of Confederation or the Constitution. No one had ever questioned the right of a state to secede prior to the debate concerning the secession of the southern states and reconstruction.

3 What did Reconstruction Mean?
Originally it meant simply reunification. By the end of the war it had come to mean a fundament reconstruction of the South. Reconstruct Southern political life Reconstruct Southern economic life Reconstruct Southern social life

4 Central Questions of Reconstruction
On what terms should Southern states be readmitted? Should Congress or the President establish those terms? What system of labor should replace plantation slavery? (slavery had been, first and foremost, a system of labor) What should be the place of blacks in the political, economic, and social life of the South and the nation?

5 Groups in Conflict 1. President v. Congress
2. Republicans v. Southern Democrats 3. Radical Republicans v. Moderate Republicans 4. Blacks v. Whites (Blacks were not passive bystanders) Each group had their own answers to the questions posed by Reconstruction

6 Phases of Reconstruction
1. Rehearsal for Reconstruction ( ) 2. Presidential Reconstruction ( ) 3. Congressional Reconstruction ( ) (also known as Radical Reconstruction)

7 Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction The “Ten Percent Plan” (Dec, 1863)
Full pardon for those who took an oath of allegiance Restored property (except slaves) Prominent military & civilian leaders excluded Became known as the “Ten percent Plan” because: When those taking oath = 10% of voters in 1860, could establish a new state government Reconstructed state governments had to accept abolition As soon as first two were complied with, states could be readmitted

8 The Radical Republican Response
Wanted tougher stance toward Confederates Saw Reconstruction as a chance to fundamentally transform Southern society Refused to seat new reps from Arkansas & Louisiana Passed Wade-Davis Bill Required 50% loyalty oath Oath was much stricter than Lincoln’s (called the Ironclad Oath) Bill was pocket vetoed by Lincoln - felt it would damage his efforts to win over moderates (in both camps)

9 End of the Confederacy April 9, Lee surrenders to Grant in Virginia April 14, Lincoln assassinated in Washington DC April 26, Johnston surrenders to Sherman in North Carolina May 4, 1865 – Taylor surrenders to Canby in Alabama May 10, Davis captured while fleeing to Texas May 12 & 13, 1865 – Battle at Palmetto Ranch in South Texas May 26, 1865 – Buckner (for Smith) surrenders to Canby in Trans-Mississippi June 23, 1865 – following Winchester Colbert of the Chickasaws and P.P. Pitchlynn of the Choctaws, Stand Watie of the Cherokees surrenders to Matthews in Indian Territory

10 Andrew Johnson’s “Restoration” Plan
Wanted to restore the Union as quickly as possible Blamed individuals (specifically planter elite), not states for secession Spring, granted amnesty and pardon to Confederates who took loyalty oath and supported emancipation Confederate officers & wealthy landowners had to apply for Presidential pardon - freely granted States must hold constitutional conventions Delegates elected by those who took oath or were pardoned (only whites could participate) New constitutions must: a) repudiate secession b) Acknowledge abolition c) Void state war debts

11 Civil Rights Act of 1866 1. Bestowed full citizen ship on African-Americans 2. Overturned black codes 3. Overturned 1857 Dred Scott decision

12 AMENDMENT XIV (Ratified July 9, 1868)
Defined citizens as ALL natural born or naturalized persons. Set Congressional Representation based on number of citizens. Made former Confederates ineligible to hold office. Made debt caused by “suppressing insurrection or rebellion” legal while those incurred by the southern states “incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States … illegal and void.”

13 AMENDMENT XIV (Ratified July 9, 1868)
Designed to incorporate reconstruction principals in Constitution Was a specific response to Johnson’s policies Made passage of amendment part of 1866 Congressional campaign

14 Doom of Johnson’s Plan By 1867 Republicans controlled both Houses of Congress Completely controlled the Northern States Were not only prepared but were capable of directly challenging the president and seizing control of Reconstruction

15 First Reconstruction Act (March, 1867)
Divided the South into 5 military districts Established martial law Required new state constitutional conventions Elected by universal manhood suffrage Had to guarantee voting rights to African-Americans Had to ratify 14th amendment Supporting legislation Invalidated provisional governments created under Johnson’s plan Military to conduct voter registration Required strict loyalty oath

16 The Impeachment Crisis
Johnson tries to impede Radical Reconstruction February, Congress impeaches Uses Tenure Act as an excuse Real cause is differences over Reconstruction Senate refuses to convict Johnson Radical Republicans seen as subversive of Constitution, lose publics support

17 The Election of 1868 <= Horatio Seymour Northern Democrat
Ulysses S. Grant => Republican

18 Democratic Party Campaign Poster from 1868

19 Early Members of the Ku Klux Klan (c. 1866)

20 AMENDMENT XV (Ratified February 3, 1870)
SECTION 1: The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.


22 Election of 1876 Rutherford B. Hayes Republican Samuel J. Tilden
Democrat Peter Cooper Greenback

23 Election of 1876 Contested States: Florida Louisiana South Carolina

24 Compromise of 1877 Democrats agreed that Hayes would be president
Republicans agreed to allocate more federal money for Southern internal improvements Republicans agreed that federal government would not intervene in Southern affairs Republicans agreed to appoint 1 Democrat to cabinet

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