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Warren Court 2 (March 28, 1955 – Oct. 15, 1956 1.55 years) Warren Court 3 (Oct. 16, 1956 to March 24, 1957 0.44 years) Warren Court 4 (March 25, 1957 to Oct. 13, 1958 1.55 years) Warren Court 5 (Oct. 14, 1958 to April 15, 1962 3.50 years) Warren Court 6 (April 16, 1962 to Sept. 30, 1962 0.46 years) Chief Justice Fred M. Vinson died Sept. 8, 1953 Chief Justice Earl Warren (Eisenhower appointee) oath Oct. 5, 1953 Warren Court 1 (Oct. 5, 1953 – March 27, 1955 1.47 years) Robert H. Jackson died Oct. 9, 1954 John Marshall Harlan II (Eisenhower appointee) oath March 28, 1955 Sherman Minton retired Oct. 15, 1956 William J. Brennan, Jr. (Eisenhower appointee) oath Oct. 16, 1956 Stanley F. Reed retired Feb. 25, 1957 Charles E. Whittaker (Eisenhower appointee) oath March 25, 1957 Harold Burton retired Oct. 13, 1958 Potter Stewart (Eisenhower appointee) oath Oct. 14, 1958 Charles E. Whittaker retired March 31, 1962 Byron R. White (Kennedy appointee) oath April 16, 1962 Warren Court 7 (Oct. 1, 1962 to Oct. 3, 1965 3.01 years) Felix Frankfurter retired Aug. 28, 1962 Arthur J. Goldberg (Kennedy appointee) oath Oct. 1, 1962 Warren Court 8 (Oct. 4, 1965 to Oct. 1, 1967 1.99 years) Arthur J. Goldberg retired July 25, 1965 Abe Fortas (Johnson appointee) oath Oct. 4, 1965 Warren Court 9 (Oct. 2, 1967 to June 22, 1969 1.72 years) Tom C. Clark retired June 12, 1967 Thurgood Marshall (Johnson appointee) oath Oct. 2, 1967 Abe Fortas retired May 14, 1969 Burger Court 1 (June 23, 1969 to June 8, 1970 0.96 years) Chief Justice Earl Warren retired June 23, 1969 Chief Justice Warren E. Burger (Nixon appointee) oath June 23, 1969 Burger Court 2 (June 9, 1970 to Jan. 6, 1972 2.58 years) Harry Andrew Blackmun (Nixon appointee) oath June 9, 1970 Burger Court 3 (Jan. 7, 1972 to Dec. 18, 1975 3.95 years) Hugo L. Black retired Sept. 17, 1971 John Marshall Harlan II retired Sept. 23, 1971 Lewis Franklin Powell Jr. (Nixon appointee) oath Jan. 7, 1972 William Hubbs Rehnquist (Nixon appointee) oath Jan. 7, 1972 Burger Court 4 (Dec. 19, 1975 to Sept. 24, 1981 5.77 years) William Orville Douglas retired Nov. 12, 1975 John Paul Stevens (Ford appointee) oath Dec. 19, 1975 Burger Court 5 (Sept. 25, 1981 to Sept. 25, 1986 5 years) Potter Stewart retired July 3, 1981 Sandra Day O’Connor (Reagan appointee) oath Sept. 25, 1981 Rehnquist Court 1 (Sept. 26, 1986 to Feb. 17, 1988 1.39 years) Chief Justice Warren E. Burger retired Sept. 26, 1986 Chief Justice William Hubbs Rehnquist (Reagan appointee) oath Sept. 26, 1981 Antonin Scalia (Reagan appointee) oath Sept. 26., 1986 Rehnquist Court 2 (Feb. 18, 1988 to Oct. 8, 1990 2.64 years) Lewis Franklin Powell Jr. retired June 26, 1987 Anthony Kennedy (Reagan appointee) oath Feb. 18., 1988 Rehnquist Court 3 (Oct. 9, 1990 to Oct. 22, 1991 1.03 years) William Joseph Brennan Jr. retired July 20, 1990 David Hackett Souter (G.H.W. Bush appointee) oath Oct. 9, 1990 Rehnquist Court 4 (Oct. 23, 1991 to Aug. 9, 1993 1.80 years) Thurgood Marshall retired Oct. 1, 1991 Clarence Thomas (G.H.W. Bush appointee) oath Oct. 23, 1991 Rehnquist Court 5 (Aug. 10, 1993 to Aug. 2, 1994 0.98 years) Byron R. White retired July 1, 1993 Ruth Bader Ginsburg (Clinton appointee) oath Aug. 10, 1993 Rehnquist Court 6 (Aug. 3, 1994 to Sept. 28, 2005 11.15 years) Harry Andrew Blackmun retired Aug. 3, 1994 Stephen Gerald Breyer (Clinton appointee) oath Aug. 3, 1994 Roberts Court 1 (Sept. 29, 2005 to Jan. 30, 2006 0.34 years) Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist died Sept. 3, 2005 Chief Justice John G. Roberts, Jr. (G.W. Bush appointee) oath Sept. 29, 2005 Roberts Court 2 (Jan. 31, 2006 to present) Sandra Day O’Connor retired Jan. 31, 2006 Samuel Anthony Alito Jr. (G.W. Bush appointee) oath Jan. 31, 2006 WARREN COURT BURGER COURT REHNQUIST COURT Ideological Alliances on the Supreme Court: Visualizing Co-Voting Data Justice 1Justice 2% # Cases Together WarrenMarshall88178 ReedClark8540 FortasMarshall85132 WarrenBrennan821406 WarrenFortas80391 BrennanFortas79394 BrennanGoldberg77308 RehnquistKennedy771670 BurgerO'Connor76790 WarrenGoldberg76308 10 Highest Cumulative Voting Percentages (1956 – 2004 Terms) 12 Lowest Cumulative Voting Percentages (1956 – 2004 Terms) Justice 1Justice 2% # Cases Together DouglasRehnquist28513 DouglasBurger35792 DouglasBlackmun36695 DouglasPowell37495 FrankfurterDouglas38588 DouglasHarlan391633 MarshallRehnquist412819 DouglasBurton41231 BlackHarlan411628 BlackmunThomas42284 BrennanRehnquist422706 DouglasWhittaker42523 © 2006 Peter A. Hook – Spatial distribution based on the percentage of co-voting in Supreme Court opinions. Source: Harvard Law Review (O Method). Rendered with Pajek. Blue border color = appointed by a Democrat. Red border color = appointed by a Republican. Justices of the United States Supreme Court (1956 – 2004 Terms) Rehnquist Court 6 (Aug. 3, 1994 to Sept. 28, 2005) (6 th different composition of nine Justices during the tenure of Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist.) Frequency of Voting Blocks in 5-4 Cases (1994 -2003 Supreme Court Terms) ALL OTHER GROUPINGS OF 5 (34 different groupings) (Highest repetition – 3 times) Total 5 to 4 Cases = 175 Source: Statistics harvested from the Harvard Law Review 47% 16% 8% 29% Swing Vote Status of O’Connor and Kennedy Voting Together > 50% (Non-Unanimous Cases) Voting Together > 49% (Non-Unanimous Cases) Peter A. Hook, JD, MSLIS Doctoral Student Indiana University--Bloomington School of Library and Information Science http://ella.slis.indiana.edu/~pahook President Dwight D. Eisenhower (January 20, 1953 – January 20, 1961) President John F. Kennedy (January 20, 1961 – November 22, 1963) President Lyndon B. Johnson (November 22, 1963 – January 20, 1969) President Richard M. Nixon (January 20, 1969 – August 9, 1974) President Gerald Ford (August 9, 1974 – January 20, 1977) President Ronald W. Reagan (January 20, 1981 – January 20, 1989) President George H.W. Bush (January 20, 1989 – January 20, 1993) President William J. Clinton (January 20, 1993 – January 20, 2001) President George W. Bush (January 20, 2001 – ) Justice 1Justice 2Agreement % # Cases Together BrennanWhite593786 RehnquistStevens513432 WhiteMarshall543285 WhiteBlackmun643257 BrennanMarshall613140 Most Cases Heard Together (1956 – 2004 Terms) Mean Voting Agreement (1956 – 2004 Terms) – 59%
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