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PSSA ELA Item Type Training Text-Dependent Analysis

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1 PSSA ELA Item Type Training Text-Dependent Analysis
Created by: Jeri Thompson, Ed.D. Senior Associate, Center for Assessment Diane Simaska, Pennsylvania Department of Education Presented by: Andrew Coonradt, Cindy Kruse, and Laurie Newsome .

2 The ABCs of Professional Expectations
Attend to Personal Needs Eat, drink, and use restroom as needed. Be Present Everyone participates equally. Limit sidebar conversations. Be respectful of technology use. Introductions Who is in the room? We will take a morning & afternoon break as well as an hour break for lunch Choose a Positive Attitude Honor opposing viewpoints. Embrace a “Growth Mindset”

3 Meeting Your Needs Today…
Questions on “The Parking Lot”

4 Agenda: Overview of PSSA Changes
Understanding Text-Dependent Analysis Questions Analyzing a Text-Dependent Analysis (TDA) Question Developing TDAs Analyzing the Text-Dependent Analysis Rubric Scoring student work using the state TDA scoring guidelines

5 Text-Dependent Analysis Questions
Before we begin… Text-Dependent Analysis Questions 1. Record your understanding of Text-Dependent Analysis Questions by explaining what a student is expected to do when responding to a Text-Dependent Analysis Question. 2. Write down any questions you have about Text-Dependent Analysis Questions. Take 5 minutes to discuss your understandings and questions with an elbow partner to gain additional understanding. Be prepared to share your discussion with the entire group. Record on page 2 - box in notes *Animated Slide – 3 Clicks

6 English Language Arts Test
2015 PSSA Changes English Language Arts Test These are the changes that are coming this spring. Our focus today is on the last bullet. If you are here today and don’t work directly with 4-8 grade, this will have implications for the grades before and after those grades. The SATs are going to be changing in 2016, with essays that will reflect TDA. ESBR=Evidence Based Selected Response TDA= Text Dependent Analysis

7 ELA Reporting Framework
2015 PSSA Changes ELA Reporting Framework ELA Reporting Framework, Clusters, and Categories Reporting Category Code Reading Genre Literature Text A Informational Text B Core Competencies Key Ideas and Details [Key Ideas] A–K/B–K Craft and Structure, and Integration of Knowledge and Ideas [CSI] A–C/B–C Vocabulary Acquisition and Use [Vocabulary] A–V/B–V Writing C Language D Text Dependent Analysis E TDA is its own reporting category for student performance. This elevates the importance of teaching students how to analyze text.

8 Grades 4-8 Format 2015 PSSA Changes Section Content Emphasis
Number of MC/EBSR Number of WP/TDA Estimated Number of Passages Estimated Section Testing Time (in minutes) 1 Writing and Language 20 MC 60 2 Reading 15–18 MC 4–5 EBSR 3 58–69 Reading and Text Dependent Analysis 14 MC 2 EBSR 73 4 5–8 MC 1–2 EBSR 48–57 Section 1 will be about writing and language and will have 20 Multiple Choice and 1 writing prompt (not connected to a text that is read) Section 2 will have Multiple Choice plus 4-5 Evidence Based Selected Response questions (2 part multiple choice, taking the place of the old Constructed Response questions) with an estimated 3 passages. Section 3 will have 14 Multiple Choice and 2 Evidence Based Selected Response questions PLUS 1 Text Dependent Analysis question with an estimated 2 passages Section 4 will have 5-8 Multiple Choice and 1-2 Evidence Based Selected Response questions PLUS 1 Text Dependent Analysis question with an estimated 1 passage Please note- the testing times are recommended- PSSA is an untimed test *Note- each section is not weighted evenly.

9 Item Types and Points 2015 PSSA Changes Grades 4-8
23 core passage MC items 23 points 18 core standalone MC items 18 points 3 core 2 pt EBSR items 6 points 3 core 3 pt EBSR items 9 points 1 core 4 pt TDA (weighted x4) 16 points 1 core 4 pt WP (weighted x3) 12 points Total 84 points As you can see, the TDA is weighted 4 times for a total of 16 points.

10 How Are TDA Responses Scored?
2015 PSSA Changes How Are TDA Responses Scored? REFER PARTICIPANTS TO SEPARATE TDA RUBRIC ON COLORED PAPER – also page 20 in their packets Holistic Rubric – the focus is on overall quality or proficiency…better for consistency and increased reliability (Analytic Rubric provides more useful feedback because it shows specific strengths and weaknessses) *This is a brief survey of the rubric- we are going to come back to it in more depth.

11 What does each task demand?
PSSA 2014 The drama focuses on events in the life of Florence Nightingale. Write an essay analyzing how the three-scene structure of the drama emphasizes certain characteristics of Florence. Use evidence from the drama to support your response. PSSA 2010 Give at least two reasons that Dr. Ebbesmeyer probably wants to continue receiving information about these shoes. Explain why this information would be helpful. Use details from the passage to support your response. 7th grade samples Pair/Share discussion: What does the old CR (2010) demand of students? Sample responses- you must go back in and find an answer, then find details to explain your answer. It is not an essay, and requires the student to have a surface level understanding. What does the new TDA (2014) demand of students? Sample responses- you must analyze the structure of the drama and compare it with how the author used that structure to demonstrate certain characteristics of Florence. You must still use evidence, but in addition to the evidence from the passage, you are now examining more closely the writing style, structure, and use of language. You are using the evidence to create your own analysis. You are going beyond explanation to analysis, which is a higher level skill.

12 Eligible Content At your tables are copies of your grade level Assessment Anchors. Find the section that identifies the Descriptor and Eligible Content for Text-Dependent Analysis. Discuss how the current anchor expectations are the same and/or different from how students have previously been assessed for reading on the PSSA. Be prepared to share. Have 1-2 groups share.

13 What are Text-Dependent Analysis Questions?
Text-dependent questions requires close reading of a text. These questions require students to provide evidence from the text and to draw inferences based on what the text says in order to support an analysis. This is different from reading comprehension questions which require students to read to get the “gist” of the text. Connect this info back to what participants saw in the 2014 example from slide 10. Pennsylvania Core Standards (PCS) identifies text-dependent analysis as the ability to “draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research”. Prompts to measure the PCS will move beyond general reading comprehension to specific questions that require the use of text-dependent evidence

14 Text-Dependent Analysis Questions:
Expects students to construct a well-written essay to demonstrate analysis of the text, moving beyond answering and generating questions about explicit and implicit information, summarizing, and being aware of vocabulary or text structure

15 Text-Dependent Analysis Questions…
May begin with a literal check for understanding but must also require analysis, synthesis, evaluation Emphasize the use of explicit and implicit information from the text to support reasoning and analysis (detailed examination of the elements or structure of something, typically as a basis for discussion or interpretation) May focus on the word level, sentence level, paragraph level, segment, whole text, or across texts Fisher & Frey model – triangle is a good graphic to represent this

16 Text-Dependent Analysis Questions could ask students to do any of the following…
Analyze paragraphs on a sentence-by-sentence basis and sentences on a word-by-word basis to determine the role played by individual paragraphs, sentences, phrases, or words Investigate how meaning can be altered by changing key words and why an author may have chosen one word over another Probe each argument in persuasive text, each idea in informational text, each key detail in literary text, and observe how these build to a whole Examine how shifts in the direction of an argument or explanation are achieved and the impact of those shifts Question why authors choose to begin and end when they do Note and assess patterns of writing and what they achieve Consider what the text leaves uncertain or unstated TDAs may ask any of these or other tasks that require analysis (We will talk more about this when we talk about close reading- any of these would be good starting places for Close Reading.) Animated Slide – 6 clicks Print as a HO as well

17 Non-Examples and Examples
Not Text-Dependent Analysis Questions Text-Dependent Analysis Questions In the text there once was a curious bird who says to Tortoise, “And you sowed yourself, too”. Describe a time when you showed yourself you could do something. The text begins with: There once was a curious bird who wondered, What can a small bird be? Write an essay that analyzes why the authors chose to begin the text with this question. Use evidence from the text to support your response. Amelia Earhart has been depicted as a daring, courageous person. Identify at least three events that demonstrate these traits. Then write a summary of Amelia Earhart’s life. The authors of each of the two texts about Amelia Earhart have stated that she was a daring, courageous person. Consider the argument each author made to demonstrate her bravery. Write an essay that analyzes the strength of the arguments using textual evidence to support your ideas. In “Casey at the Bat”, Casey strikes out. Compare yourself to Casey by describing a time when you failed at something. The author of “Casey at the Bat” uses humor to describe Casey’s experiences. Write an essay analyzing the author’s techniques. Be sure to use textual evidence to support your analysis. Amelia Earhart is the best example/non-example here, since non-example looks most like what we are used to seeing in a constructed response.

18 Depth-of-Knowledge and TDA Questions
Depth-of-Knowledge Level 1: Recall and Reproduction Basic recall of concepts, definitions, facts, and processes Simple skills and abilities or recall of one right answer Answering a Level 1 item can involve following a simple, well-known procedure or formula Depth-of-Knowledge Level 2: Basic Application of Skills and Concepts Includes the engagement of some mental processing beyond recalling or reproducing a response Items require students to make some decisions as to how to approach the question or problem – acting on the information These actions imply more than one mental or cognitive process/step, but there is still one right answer DOK Level 3: Strategic Thinking Requires deep understanding as exhibited through planning or sequencing of steps Requires some decision making with justification with evidence Assessment items have more than one possible answer and are abstract, complex, or non-routine DOK Level 4: Extended Thinking Requires high cognitive demand and is very complex An investigation or application that requires time to research, think or process multiple conditions of the problem Non-routine manipulations or connections across disciplines/content areas/multiple sources How many of you are familiar with Webb’s DOK? (Explain 4 levels for those that don’t have knowldege) TDAS on PSSAs are written at DOK 3. Point out the red highlighted row, which describes what that requires.

19 Cognitive Rigor Matrix
Examine the Analyze row of the “Cognitive Rigor Matrix for ELA” What do you notice about how analysis changes between DOK Levels 1, 2, and 3? Locate in HO (separate sheet of paper in handouts – blue) *Stand and find a partner across the room to discuss Stress that on the CRM, analyze goes across DOK 1-3. Point out how analysis changes from one DOK level to the next. TDAs are written at the DOK 3 level of analysis.

20 Developing TDA Questions- a 4 step process
Step 1: Read the text and identify the essential understanding(s) and key supporting details from the text Step 2: Return to the text to locate and annotate key structures, writer’s craft, and vocabulary that are connected to the essential understandings and key ideas Step 3: Use the standards to assist you in proposing a culminating text-dependent analysis question Step 4: Identify the expected proficient-level response This is an overview of the entire process. Participants will watch the facilitator model the entire process next. Animated Slide – 3 Clicks

21 Mood & Tone Mood and Tone Youtube video by Barabara McClure (2:40 sec): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C3TZGZn5VwA There are instructional implications based on TDAs. Here is a brief video introducing the analysis of one aspect of writer’s craft- how a writer uses words to create tone and mood (word choice). We’ll need this background knowledge when analyzing in a few minutes Instructional implications will be addressed in other sessions- teaching analysis is a complex process. This afternoon we are going to student work to get a clearer understanding of what a proficient student response is.

22 Developing TDA Questions: Essential Understandings
Possible Essential Understandings by text type: Literature: essential understandings and big ideas can focus on theme, interactions of characters, events in the story, important events, or any other features that are central Informational Text: essential understandings and big ideas can be closely aligned to the important ideas, the author’s purpose, claims, or arguments. These are possible types of essential understandings for different texts when developing TDA questions. Animated Slide – 1 click

23 Let’s Practice I’ll Model…
Example from Because of Winn Dixie, by Kate DiCamillo Synopsis of Story: Opal has just moved to a new town in a new state and has no friends yet. Through a series of comic mishaps inadvertently started by her very special dog, Winn-Dixie, Opal meets Miss Franny, the town librarian. Opal realizes that they have much in common and a friendship is ignited. Read the excerpt from “Because of Winn-Dixie.” State synopsis for participants, then direct them to read the excerpt, which are in the HO on the pages that are marked 11-15 *Allow 10 min for this activity **Note: Because of Winn Dixie is a 610 Lexile – probably used in the beginning of 4th grade (4th grade CCSS ) It is the first story for Reading Street Anthology

24 Let’s Practice, I’ll Model…
Steps 1-2: 1: Read the text and identify the essential understanding(s) and key supporting details from the text 2: Return to the text to locate and annotate key structures, writer’s craft, and vocabulary that are connected to the essential understandings and key ideas Review steps 1 and 2 in the process…recall the video about mood & tone earlier and the slide regarding essential questions Animated Slide – 1 Click

25 Because of Winn Dixie- excerpts
Here, the author identifies the first encounter of Miss Franny and Winn-Dixie. The following slides show how I (the presenter) might have annotated the text. (Read annotations).

26 Because of Winn Dixie- excerpt
Here, the author chooses specific words to show how Opal and Miss Franny are feeling just before they meet

27 Because of Winn Dixie- excerpt
Shows that Miss Franny is beginning to like Winn- Dixie.

28 Because of Winn Dixie Explicitly shows that they have become friends.

29 Because of Winn Dixie Shows how they were both lonely.

30 Because of Winn Dixie Shows a progression of Miss Franny and Opal be-
coming friends. These words emphasize the progression of Opal and Miss Franny becoming friends.

31 Example from Because of Winn Dixie, by Kate DiCamillo
Let’s Practice… Example from Because of Winn Dixie, by Kate DiCamillo Essential Understanding Two people of very different ages may still have much in common and become friends. So, I (the facilitator) might have come up with this essential understanding, based on what I noticed in the text.

32 Because of Winn Dixie, by Kate DiCamillo
Based on the structures, craft, and vocabulary that lead you to the Essential Understanding… Step 3: What Text-Dependent Analysis Question could you ask about this text? (Use the eligible content to determine what students are responsible for knowing and demonstrating at your grade level.) We use our annotations to locate the support for the Essential Understanding in the text. At step 3, we determine What TDA we could ask about this text, based on our Essential Understanding and annotations. (You are still modeling here. Participants are not expected to do this yet.)

33 Because of Winn Dixie, by Kate DiCamillo
Based on the Essential Understanding what Text- Dependent Analysis Question could you ask about this text? The author of “Because of Winn Dixie” uses a dog to introduce two people. Write an essay to analyze why “Because of Winn Dixie” is an appropriate title for the passage. Be sure to use evidence from the text to support your analysis. Here is an TDA I might create, based on my essential understanding of the text.

34 Because of Winn Dixie, by Kate DiCamillo
Step 4: What would you expect to see in a proficient student response? Consider: Does your question require analysis? If not, revise your question. REFER PARTICIPANTS TO TDA RUBRIC ON SEPARATE COLORED SHEET AND HAVE THEM LOOK AT THE BULLETS FOR A 3- PROFICIENT THEN REVIEW NEXT TWO SLIDES RELATED TO WHAT YOU WOULD EXPECT TO SEE IN A PROFICENT PIECE (Participants are not expected to respond with what they would see in a proficient student response at this point. We are still just modeling the 4 step process.)

35 Because of Winn Dixie, by Kate DiCamillo
Step 4: What would you expect to see in a proficient student response? Students should explain, using explicit and implicit evidence from the text, including: how Winn-Dixie looking into the library was the cause of Miss Franny falling, which in turn led to the story about the bear and Opal’s realization that she and Miss Franny were both lonely. relating how Winn-Dixie’s response to Miss Franny (“That dog is smiling at me”) endeared her to Winn-Dixie and led Opal to suggest that they could be friends. showing a clear understanding of how this progression of events led to the three characters becoming friends using text evidence including words and phrases, such as “talent” and “huge heart” were traits that made all this possible. an explanation of how the student knows that this text evidence is relevant. This is what I as a teacher would expect to see in a proficient student’s analysis *Animated Slide – 3 Clicks (Next Slide – more)

36 Because of Winn Dixie, by Kate DiCamillo
Step 4: What would you expect to see in a proficient student response? Students should have a clearly written essay that includes an introduction and conclusion that demonstrates an understanding of the question, focus, and purpose. Students should include an organizational structure that supports the controlling ideas and details, examples, quotes, and/or facts Students should include grade level transitions and language The essay should include grade level grammar, usage, and conventions. This is what I as the teacher would expect to see in a student’s proficient written product. Referring to the bullet points Animated Slide – 3 Clicks

37 Let’s Practice #2 – “We” do…
Example from Life in the Limbs, by Heather Kaufman-Peters Read the text in your Notes and Resources packet. Steps 1-2: 1: Read the text and identify the essential understanding(s) and key supporting details from the text 2: Return to the text to locate and annotate key structures, writer’s craft, and vocabulary that are connected to the essential understandings and key ideas Discuss these at your table Approx 10 min- Refer participants to pages marked in HO. *NOTE THAT THIS IS ALL ONE TEXT, NOT TWO SEPARATE TEXTS- THE INTERVIEW IS PART OF THE ARTICLE. (THIS WAS CONFUSING FOR US WHEN WE WERE TRYING TO CREATE ESSENTIAL UNDERSTANDINGS.) First, read and annotate the text individually – work with a partner to reread and complete steps 1 and 2 using the green Designing TDA Q worksheet. Each fill in their own, working together Have tables discuss and share out the essential understandings they determined and some structures, craft, or vocabulary that supported your essential understandings.

38 Let’s Practice #2 – “We” do…
Example from Life in the Limbs, by Heather Kaufman-Peters Based on the structures, craft, and vocabulary that led you to the Essential Understanding… Step 3: What Text-Dependent Analysis Question could you ask about this text? (Use the eligible content to determine what students are responsible for knowing and demonstrating at your grade level.) Consider: Does your question require analysis (refer to Cognitive Rigor Matrix DOK Level 3)? If not, revise your question. Discuss at your table and be prepared to share. Approx 10 min. As a table group, write on green paper **Presenters check in with groups – ask them to identify/clarify what the students are being asked to analyze (going beyond citing evidence). Share with a partner from the table next to you Table 1 – find a partner at table 2

39 Let’s Practice #2 – “We” do…
Example from Life in the Limbs, by Heather Kaufman-Peters Step 4: What would you expect to see in a proficient student response? (Refer to the TDA rubric for support in answering the question above.) Confirm: Does your question require analysis? If not, revise your question. Approx 10 min As table groups are working, circulate and probe for analysis (going beyond the text). Have groups write it on large chart paper after completing step 4 and check in with presenter. Provide time to do a carousel walk (take blue and yellow HOs ) – choose at least one to read and determine the level of analysis and a proficient student response.

40 Each Table Group: Write on Poster Paper
1. Identify the essential understandings: 2. Locate and identify: Academic vocabulary - Writer’s Craft - Key Text Structures - 3. Write a text-dependent analysis question: 4. Identify the expected proficient-level response: Table Groups switch: With your partner, take your green sheet with you read the TDAQ and compare and contrast with your own TDAQ. Look specifically for (Click to show arrow) Does the TDAQ relate to the EU? 1-2 3-4 5-6 7-8

41 Let’s Practice #2 – “We” do…
Example from Life in the Limbs, by Heather Kaufman-Peters Essential Understanding The shape of the trees determine the shape of the tree house to be built. You might have said… (on slide).

42 Let’s Practice #2 – “We” do…
Example from Life in the Limbs, by Heather Kaufman-Peters Based on the Essential Understanding what Text- Dependent Analysis Question what could you ask about this text? Authors choose their words carefully to help readers understand the information. Write an essay explaining how the author used specific language to communicate the main idea. Be sure to clearly cite evidence from the text to support your answer. One question could be…. (on slide).

43 Let’s Practice #2 – “We” do…
Example from Life in the Limbs, by Heather Kaufman-Peters What would you expect to see in a proficient student response? Students should consider the author’s language, such as “letting the trees decide the designs”, “never harm a tree”, and “build a tree house so it helps the tree” as a means to understand that the trees themselves determine the shape of the tree house to be built. The author uses other language that should be stronger than “hint” or “suggest” since the context makes it clear that the trees are deciding the shape not understanding it. Based on the information above, the sentence “The trees will dictate how a floor plan lays out” will help them understand the meaning of the main idea and the author’s language because the shape is determined or decided by the tree, not by what a person wants. Turn and talk…share, then …. Animated : 3 Clicks through each “This slide shows the level of analysis you would expect from a proficient student”. Notice - These are all related to analysis… (More on next slide)

44 Let’s Practice #2 – “We” do…
Example from Life in the Limbs, by Heather Kaufman-Peters What would you expect to see in a proficient student response? Students should have a clearly written essay that includes an introduction and conclusion that demonstrates an understanding of the question, focus, and purpose. Students should include an organizational structure that supports the controlling ideas and details, examples, quotes, and/or facts Students should include grade level transitions and language The essay should include grade level grammar, usage, and conventions. This slide shows the level of writing quality you would expect from a proficient student. Animated – 3 clicks

45 Let’s Practice #3 – “You” do…
Grade Level Examples Develop your TDA Within a group use the grade level text provided. Steps 1-2: 1: Read the text and identify the essential understanding(s) and key supporting details from the text 2: Return to the text to locate and annotate key structures, writer’s craft, and vocabulary that are connected to the essential understandings and key ideas Discuss these as a group. Assign each table a grade level passage so that there are 2 assigned to each grade level. Use the pink “Designing TDAQ” and Approaching the Design of Text Dependent Analysis questions HO – page 9 to guide them in this process. They will work together as a table group. *Animated Slide – Click for Step 2

46 Let’s Practice #3 – “You” do…
Grade Level Examples Based on the structures, craft, and vocabulary that lead you to the Essential Understanding… 3: What Text-Dependent Analysis Question could you ask about this text? (Use the eligible content to determine what students are responsible for knowing and demonstrating at your grade level.) 4: What would you expect to see in a proficient student response? Consider: Does your question require analysis? If not, revise your question. Animated Slide – Click for step 4

47 Each Table Group: Write on Poster Paper
1. Identify the essential understandings: 2. Locate and identify: Academic vocabulary - Writer’s Craft - Key Text Structures - 3. Write a text-dependent analysis question: 4. Identify the expected proficient-level response: Table Groups switch (Note: they should have read the same passage): With your partner, take your green sheet with you read the TDAQ and compare and contrast with your own TDAQ. Look specifically for (Click to show arrow) Does the TDAQ relate to the EU? 1-2 (4th grade) 3-4 (5th grade) 5-6 (6th grade) 7-8 (7th grade) 9-10 (8th grade) Direct Participants back to their seats – show them possible answers (next 5 slides)

48 TDA Developed Questions…
Grade Level Examples Grade 4 Question: At the end of the passage, Drawing Horses, Marisa states, “But I already know that when this drawing is finished, I’ll be signing it Marisa.” Write an essay analyzing why she makes this statement. Use evidence from the passage to support your response. The samples were developed with teacher groups who were trained by the Center for Assessment.

49 TDA Developed Questions…
Grade Level Examples Grade 5 Question: The passage “Little by Little Piece by Piece,” is about three brothers who each experience a change in life. Write an essay analyzing which of the three brothers undergoes the most meaningful change in the passage. Use evidence from the passage to support your response.

50 TDA Developed Questions…
Grade Level Examples Grade 6 Question: Skye’s emotions change throughout “The Perfect Swim.” Write an essay analyzing how the shifts in Skye’s emotions are revealed in the passage. Use evidence from the passage to support your analysis.

51 TDA Developed Questions…
Grade Level Examples Grade 7 Question: Authors often use figurative language to describe objects, characters, and situations in their stories. Write an essay analyzing the role that figurative language plays in revealing the significance of the bottled ships in the passage. Use evidence from the passage to support your response.

52 TDA Developed Questions…
Grade Level Examples Grade 8 Question: Authors use various techniques when developing and explaining the motivations of characters. Write an essay analyzing how the author of “The Raft” reveals Dewey’s character and his motivations throughout the passage. Use evidence from the passage to support your response.

53 We will begin again in one hour….

54 Expectations in Student Responses
ELA Grades 4-8 Text Dependent Analysis Scoring Guidelines Examine all 4 levels of the TDA rubric Discuss the differences between each level. Be prepared to share. Do a whole group share. Pages 9 & 10 in HO shows 6 steps – same as the 4 steps we’ve been using

55 Text-Dependent Analysis Questions:
Expects students to construct a well-written essay to demonstrate analysis of the text, moving beyond answering and generating questions about explicit and implicit information, summarizing, and being aware of vocabulary or text structure These next 4 slides are a review of what TDAs require (we saw them in the morning as well)

56 What are Text-Dependent Analysis Questions?
Analysis: These questions require students to provide evidence from the text and to draw inferences based on what the text says in order to support an analysis. The overall intent of asking TDA Qs is to build a habit of critical thinking….critical thinking should lead to thoughtful analysis

57 Responding to Text-Dependent Analysis Questions
Analysis is not just what a text SAYS… and what a text DOES…. It’s about interpreting the text and asserting a meaning for the text as a whole. (putting the message in a larger context and determine theme). See HO – page 21 What a test says – summary “what’ What a text does – description “so what” What a text means – interprets the text and asserts a meaning as a whole “now what”

58 Responding to Text-Dependent Analysis Questions
Written Essay Expectations Introduction: compelling introduction or “hook” (e.g., quote, action, personal remark, question) Development: clear focus and controlling idea throughout the essay; includes a short summary plus analysis or reflection Conclusion: relevant statement/section; extends beyond a restatement of introduction Organization: coherence – introduction, body, and conclusion support the focus; sequences and groups related ideas Transitions: connects ideas and reasons Language: appropriate use of vocabulary; authoritative voice; variety of sentence structure Conventions of Standard English The previous slides are about the level of ANALYSIS required by a text, this slide reminds us that there are expectations about the written product as well. *Print as a HO as well

59 Scoring Sample Student Responses TDA Questions
Read (or re-read) Grade 4 Text Examine Grade 4 Text-Dependent Analysis Question At the end of the passage, Drawing Horses, Marisa states, “But I already know that when this drawing is finished, I’ll be signing it Marisa.” Write an essay analyzing why she makes this statement. Use evidence from the passage to support your response Allow 15 min for reading and discussion on next slide.

60 Scoring Sample Student Responses TDA Questions
Discuss as a group: what you would expect to see in the proficient-level response for this TDA question? Think, Pair, Share

61 Scoring Sample Student Responses TDA Questions
What you would expect to see in the proficient-level response? Marissa kept trying to draw the horse Signing her name to the drawing shows that she is pleased with her work Marissa doesn’t give up despite negative comments from friends and family You might have said… (slide content)

62 Student Sample Responses TDA Question: #1
Read the first student response (starting, “Here are a few reasons why…”) Score the student response Discuss the scores at your table and come to consensus as to why you gave it the score Be prepared to share

63 Scoring Sample Student Responses TDA Questions
Student Work starting “Here are a few reasons why…” - Score: 3 Analysis: tried hard to make a perfect horse did not give up Understood her picture was not as good as Euphemia’s picture, but still liked it First good drawing of a horse even if standing still Writing: Introduction and conclusion to support analysis Reference to text Transitions to link ideas Errors in conventions do not interfere with meaning KEEP ASKING THE QUESTIONS- DID THE STUDENT ANALYZE THE TEXT? DID THE COMMUNICATE THEIR ANALYSIS EFFECTIVELY? Ask- how many people gave this a 4? 3? 2? 1? Did the student analyze the text and communicate their analysis effectively? That’s the first big question. Then, did you go back into the rubric and look at the bullets for evidence? Vetting process for these samples- Center for Assessment scored it (with the teacher group who created these tasks), then had an expert scorer score it, then sent it to DRC and had them score it. It may not be the most perfect 3, but it is definitely a 3. Note about conventions- no number of errors stated. The key is do the errors present interfere with meaning?

64 Scoring Sample Student Responses TDA Questions
What you would expect to see in the proficient-level response? Marissa kept trying to draw the horse Signing her name to the drawing shows that she is pleased with her work Marissa doesn’t give up despite negative comments from friends and family You might have said… (slide content)

65 Student Sample Responses TDA Question: #2
Read the second student response (starting, “This story is about a girl…” Score the student response Discuss the scores at your table and come to consensus as to why you gave it the score Be prepared to share

66 Scoring Sample Student Responses TDA Questions
Student Work “This story is about a girl…” - Score: 1 Analysis: Does not address the prompt Insufficient analysis Evidence doesn’t support the question Writing: Introduction and conclusion to support analysis Reference to text but does not support analysis Inconsistent transitions Errors in conventions do not interfere with meaning KEEP ASKING THE QUESTIONS- DID THE STUDENT ANALYZE THE TEXT? DID THE COMMUNICATE THEIR ANALYSIS EFFECTIVELY? Was there analysis? There was a whiff of analysis about Marissa getting called Messy, but it is not about the prompt. You have to be careful here- if you were going bullet by bullet, you could almost score this a 2, but it does not analyze.

67 Scoring Sample Student Responses TDA Questions
What you would expect to see in the proficient-level response? Marissa kept trying to draw the horse Signing her name to the drawing shows that she is pleased with her work Marissa doesn’t give up despite negative comments from friends and family You might have said… (slide content)

68 Student Sample Responses TDA Question: #3
Read the third student response (starting, “This passage is about how….”) Score the student response Discuss the scores at your table and come to consensus as to why you gave it the score Be prepared to share

69 Scoring Sample Student Responses TDA Questions
Student Work “This passage is about how…”- Score: 2 Analysis: Attempts to address the question, but does not have a clear understanding Weak analysis focuses more on being called “Messy” Superficial evidence in an attempt to support the question Writing: Introduction and conclusion provided Reference to text but does not support analysis Uses transitions Errors in conventions do not interfere with meaning One thing that can help- is it clear to me or do I have to work really hard to pull out meaning from it? This one felt like I had to work hard to figure out the meaning, which means the analysis wasn’t conveyed with sufficient clarity. Two words to keep in mind- consistent and clear. We never give plusses or minuses, or half points on standardized assessment. In the world of assessment, you’ve got to commit to a number. However, there’s a difference between assessment and instructional prompts. There’s nothing stopping you from using half points or plus/minus for instructional purposes- it tells you whether students are close or not.

70 Scoring Sample Student Responses TDA Questions
What you would expect to see in the proficient-level response? Marissa kept trying to draw the horse Signing her name to the drawing shows that she is pleased with her work Marissa doesn’t give up despite negative comments from friends and family You might have said… (slide content)

71 Scoring Student Work Samples using Protocols
Calibration Protocol and Student Work Analysis Protocol Read (or reread the text) Read the Text-Dependent Analysis question Discuss as a group what you would expect to see in the proficient-level response? Read the student response and place in groups (high, average, low) Score the student responses Discuss the scores at your table and come to consensus as to why you gave it the score Be prepared to share We are not going to actually do these protocols today, but the point with this is that you have to have some calibration and an analysis process before doing this work in a district. It can be these or another one, but everyone must go into the responses with the same lens of what a proficient response would be. Refer participants to pages labeled in handout

72 Close Reading and TDA How is close reading connected to Text- Dependent Analysis Questions? Jigsaw Reading –A Primer on “Close Reading of Text” Count off by 4’s Refer to pages 4-8 in HO.

73 Close Reading and TDA Expert groups- read your section and discuss key ideas Group 1. Introduction Group 2. Close Reading Defined & Attributes of Close Reading Lessons Group 3. Background Knowledge and Close Reading & Additional Considerations When Implementing Close Reading in Practice, 1st Bullet Group 4: Additional Considerations, 2nd and 3rd Bullets Form a group with 1,2,3, and 4. Share about your section. Discuss the following questions: What is necessary in classrooms, schools, and districts for students to successfully respond to Text-Dependent Analysis Questions? Use evidence from the text to substantiate your claims. What professional development will need to accompany the understanding of Text-Dependent Analysis? 30 min to do this slide, then have groups share highlights of their discussions.

74 Close Reading Encourage teachers to:
Prompt students to reread text frequently for various text-dependent questions Students refer to evidence from the text when responding Questions can be varied and might include a combination of formal and informal responses Use a variety of teaching methods Use a variety of grouping configurations These next few slides are a summary of close reading info that might have arisen during your conversations.

75 Close Reading Avoid conducting pre-reading activities; allow students to experience the text on their own Give brief definitions of words in which context clues do not reveal meanings Set the stage for the lesson by posing an essential guiding question and stating the title and author Prepare students for grade level text complexity

76 REMEMBER: Text-dependent analysis questions generally call on students to employ close reading strategies. Strategies should not be taught in isolation. The text and the readers’ need to comprehend the text should determine what strategies are activated – not the other way around. The search for text evidence should activate key strategies such as re-reading and monitoring comprehension. End of day- how do we teach this? Animated – 3 clicks

77 Text-Dependent Analysis Questions
There is no one right way to have students work with text-dependent analysis questions. Providing for the differing needs of students means providing and scaffolding supports differentially – not asking easier questions or substituting simpler text. Listening and speaking should be built into any sequence of activities along with reading and writing. “Re-read it, think it talk it, write it” The standards require ALL students to read and engage with grade appropriate complex text regularly. This requires new ways of working in our classrooms. Animated – 4 Clicks

78 What does this look like in the classroom?
Classroom experiences stay deeply connected to the text on the page Students develop habits for locating evidence in both conversations, as well as in writing, to demonstrate analysis of a text Teaching elements of well-written essays Development of text-dependent analysis questions on a consistent basis

79 Application and Reflection...
Consider the following questions. Discuss at your table and share final thoughts. What resources and structures are necessary at a classroom/school/district level to support the shift toward evidence-based reading and writing through the use of text- dependent analysis questions? What does a classroom/school/district look like when evidence- based reading and writing is a priority? What are the opportunities and challenges related to the shift toward evidence-based reading and writing? Refer participant to last page in HO just before close reading article – can do this as a Maitre ‘D or Inside/Outside Circle if there is enough time Have a brief share of next steps to end the day. Remind participants that the PPT and tools for TOT will be available at

80 Reflecting on today’s workshop


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