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Heather Dorsey Cheryl Vance

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Participants will: Explore SBAC Theory of Action Be Introduced to Evidence-Based Design and Assessment Claims Review Depth of Knowledge Goals

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“ Everyone is good at mathematics because everyone can think. And mathematics is about thinking.” -Yeap Ban Har National Institute of Education Singapore

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So the question is - What are they thinking… and how do we know if it is what we think they are thinking? And is it what we thought they were thinking about….

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Assessment – Assessment – in its many forms in its many forms And the answer is

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What is the purpose of assessment?... to gather evidence of learning.

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Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium – SBAC http://www.smarterbalanced.org/ http://www.smarterbalanced.org/ Partnership for Assessment of College and Career Readiness – PARCC http://www.parcconline.org / http://www.parcconline.org National Assessment Consortiums

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Implementation Timeline 2010-112011-122012-132013-142014-15 Phase 1: CCSS Exploration Phase 2: Build Awareness & Begin Building Statewide Capacity Phase 3: Build State & District Capacity and Classroom Transitions Phase 4: Statewide Application and Assessment Ongoing: Statewide Coordination and Collaboration to Support Implementation Gear Up - CCSS 6-27-128

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Smarter Balanced Assessment System: A National Consortium of States 27 states representing 43% of K-12 students 21 governing, 6 advisory states Washington state is fiscal agent WestEd provides project management services 9

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A Balanced Assessment System School Year Last 12 weeks of the year* DIGITAL CLEARINGHOUSE of formative tools, processes and exemplars; released items and tasks; model curriculum units; educator training; professional development tools and resources; scorer training modules; and teacher collaboration tools. English Language Arts/Literacy and Mathematics, Grades 3-8 and High School Computer Adaptive Assessment and Performance Tasks Computer Adaptive Assessment and Performance Tasks Scope, sequence, number and timing of interim assessments locally determined *Time windows may be adjusted based on results from the research agenda and final implementation decisions. PERFORMANCE TASKS ELA/Literacy Mathematics Re-take option COMPUTER ADAPTIVE TESTS ELA/Literacy Mathematics Optional Interim Assessment Optional Interim Assessment 10

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Time and format Summative: For each content area - ELA & Math – Computer Adaptive Testing (CAT) Selected response (MC), Constructed Response (open- ended), Technology enhanced (e.g., drag and drop, video clips, limited web-interface) – Performance Tasks (like our CBAs) Up to 2 per content area in grades 3-8 Up to 6 per content area in High School Gear Up - CCSS 6-27-1211

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Time and format Summative: - Administration window is last 12 weeks of school - For each content area - ELA & Math – Shorter option for states (~3 hours ELA, ~2 hours Math) Scale score on comprehensive test (met/not met determination) – Longer option for states (~5 hours ELA, ~3 hours Math) Able to report data on claims for individual students Gear Up - CCSS 6-27-1212

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Time and format Interim assessments – Can be used as often as needed – Can be customized by districts/schools To focus on selected strands To clone summative test – Will use Computer Adaptive Technology – Released items from summative item bank Gear Up - CCSS 6-27-1213

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Washington’s Testing System Transition Current Testing System Reading and Math: Grades 3–8 and 10 Writing: Grades 4, 7, 10 Science: Grades 5, 8, 10 SBAC/CCSS Testing System English/Language Arts and Math: Grade 3–8 and 11* Science exams are required under ESEA but are not included in SBAC * 11 th grade to measure college and career readiness. We are working with higher ed to explore the possible use of these measures as an alternative for college placement (or entrance). () Gear Up - CCSS 6-27-1214

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Washington’s Context… Proposed Summative Assessments in 2014–15 English/LAMathematicsScience Grade 3SBAC Grade 4SBAC Grade 5SBAC MSP Grade 6SBAC Grade 7SBAC Grade 8SBAC MSP Grades 9-10HSPE Reading & Writing ??? EOC Algebra/Geometry ??? EOC Grade 11SBAC SBAC=SMARTER Balanced Assessment Consortium MSP= Measurements of Student Progress HSPE = High School Proficiency Exams EOC= End of Course exams Gear Up - CCSS 6-27-12 15

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Will 11 th grade exam be used for graduation (exit exam) in Washington? If these exams are our exit exams what will the CAA options be? Will the Summative SBAC test replace our End of Course exams or will SBAC have End of Course exams too? How will Washington’s science tests mesh with these tests? Still to be worked out: Washington’s Policy Discussion… Gear Up - CCSS 6-27-1216

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Calculator Use At grades 3–5, all items should be written so they can be answered without using a calculator At grades 6-8, most items should be written so they can be answered without using a calculator. However, some targets may require the use of an online calculator tool in order to efficiently problem solve. In these cases, the calculator tool will appear in the specification table under “allowable tools.” Graphing and scientific calculators may be used for many items in high school mathematics assessments, even if unnecessary to solve the problem. An online version will be available for most items during the CAT portion of the assessment, except when specifically “turned off” because of the particular content of the item being assessed.

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Seven Key Principles SBAC: Theory of Action, pp. 1 & 2 1.An integrated system 2.Evidence-based approach 3.Teacher involvement 4.State-led with transparent governance 5.Focus: improving teaching and learning 6.Actionable information – multiple measures 7.Established professional standards

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On-line video course for item writing Understand and be able to use sample items and examples at a greater depth Increase ability to evaluate both instructional materials and assessment items Create own classroom items aligned to new standards 3. Teacher Involvement

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2. Evidence Based Design

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Traditional Approach to Item Development 1.2.2 1.3.2 2.1.3 2.1.5 2.1.7

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Introduction to Evidence-Centered Design Modern Approach to Designing Items and Tasks Traditional Item Development versus Evidence-Centered Design Keys to Evidence- Centered Design Task Models Claims Assessment Targets Evidence

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Traditional Approach to Item Development Item: Beth says that 2 + 4 = 6. Explain why Beth is correct. Content Standard 2.2.3: Perform addition accurately for single and two digit numbers.

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Applying Evidence-Centered Design to Item and Task Development Beth says that 2 + 4 = 6. Explain why Beth is correct. Content Standard 2.2.3: Perform addition accurately for single and two digit numbers. Weak Evidence

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Applying Evidence-Centered Design to Item and Task Development 2 + 4 = ____ Content Standard 2.2.3: Perform addition accurately for single and two digit numbers. Stronger Evidence

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Applying Evidence-Centered Design to Item and Task Development Beth says that 2 + 4 = 6. Explain why Beth is correct. 2 + 4 = ____ Content Standard 2.2.4: Perform mathematical operations and justify solutions. Content Standard 2.2.3: Perform addition accurately for single and two digit numbers.

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Review of Cognitive Demand Depth of Knowledge (DOK)

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Cognitive Rigor and Depth of Knowledge The level of complexity of the cognitive demand. – Level 1: Recall and Reproduction Requires eliciting information such as a fact, definition, term, or a simple procedure, as well as performing a simple algorithm or applying a formula. – Level 2: Basic Skills and Concepts Requires the engagement of some mental processing beyond a recall of information. – Level 3: Strategic Thinking and Reasoning Requires reasoning, planning, using evidence, and explanations of thinking. – Level 4: Extended Thinking Requires complex reasoning, planning, developing, and thinking most likely over an extended period of time.

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Level 1 Example Grade 8 Select all of the expressions that have a value between 0 and 1. 8 7 ∙ 8 –12 7 4 7 –3 1313 2 ∙ 1313 9 (–5) 6 (–5) 10

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Level 2 Example Grade 8 A cylindrical tank has a height of 10 feet and a radius of 4 feet. Jane fills this tank with water at a rate of 8 cubic feet per minute. How many minutes will it take Jane to completely fill the tank without overflowing at this rate? Round your answer to the nearest minute. A cylindrical tank has a height of 10 feet and a radius of 4 feet. Jane fills this tank with water at a rate of 8 cubic feet per minute. How many minutes will it take Jane to completely fill the tank without overflowing at this rate? Round your answer to the nearest minute.

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Level 3 Example Grade 8 The total cost for an order of shirts from a company consists of the cost for each shirt plus a one-time design fee. The cost for each shirt is the same no matter how many shirts are ordered. The company provides the following examples to customers to help them estimate the total cost for an order of shirts. 50 shirts cost $349.50 500 shirts cost $2370 Part A: Using the examples provided, what is the cost for each shirt, not including the one-time design fee? Explain how you found your answer. Part B: What is the cost of the one-time design fee? Explain how you found your answer. The total cost for an order of shirts from a company consists of the cost for each shirt plus a one-time design fee. The cost for each shirt is the same no matter how many shirts are ordered. The company provides the following examples to customers to help them estimate the total cost for an order of shirts. 50 shirts cost $349.50 500 shirts cost $2370 Part A: Using the examples provided, what is the cost for each shirt, not including the one-time design fee? Explain how you found your answer. Part B: What is the cost of the one-time design fee? Explain how you found your answer.

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Level 4 Example Grade 8 During the task, the student assumes the role of an architect who is responsible for designing the best plan for a park with area and financial restraints. The student completes tasks in which he/she compares the costs of different bids, determines what facilities should be given priority in the park, and then develops a scale drawing of the best design for the park and an explanation of the choices made. This investigation is done in class using a calculator, an applet to construct the scale drawing, and a spreadsheet.

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Assessment Claims for Mathematics “Students can demonstrate progress toward college and career readiness in mathematics.” “Students can demonstrate college and career readiness in mathematics.” “Students can explain and apply mathematical concepts and interpret and carry out mathematical procedures with precision and fluency.” “Students can solve a range of complex well-posed problems in pure and applied mathematics, making productive use of knowledge and problem solving strategies.” “Students can clearly and precisely construct viable arguments to support their own reasoning and to critique the reasoning of others.” “Students can analyze complex, real-world scenarios and can construct and use mathematical models to interpret and solve problems.” Overall Claim (Gr. 3-8) Overall Claim (High School) Concepts and Procedures Problem Solving Communicating Reasoning Modeling and Data Analysis

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Claim 1 Concepts and Procedures Students can explain and apply mathematical concepts and interpret and carry out mathematical procedures with precision and fluency. Grade Level Number of Assessment Targets 311 412 511 610 79 8 1116 Assessment Targets = Clusters

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F-IF.8 Write a function defined by an expression in different buy equivalent forms to reveal and explain different properties of the function.

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Assessment Targets Claim 2 – Problem Solving A.Apply mathematics to solve well-posed problems arising in everyday life, society, and the workplace B.Select and use tools strategically C.Interpret results in the context of the situation D.Identify important quantities in a practical situation and map their relationships. Claim 2: Students can solve a range of complex well-posed problems in pure and applied mathematics, making productive use of knowledge and problem solving strategies.

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7.G.4 4.MD.3 Know the formulas for the area and circumference of a circle and use them to solve problems; give an informal derivation of the relationship between the circumference and area of a circle.

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Assessment Targets Claim 3 – Communicating Reason A.Test propositions or conjectures with specific examples. B.Construct, autonomously, chains of reasoning that justify or refute propositions or conjectures. C.State logical assumptions being used. D.Use the technique of breaking an argument into cases. E.Distinguish correct logic or reasoning from that which is flawed, and—if there is a flaw in the argument—explain what it is. F.Base arguments on concrete referents such as objects, drawings, diagrams, and actions. G.Determine conditions under which an argument does and does not apply. Claim 3: Students can clearly and precisely construct viable arguments to support their own reasoning and to critique the reasoning of others.

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4.NBT.5 Multiply a whole number of up to four digits by a one-digit whole number, and multiply two two-digit numbers, using strategies based on place value and the properties of operations.

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Assessment Targets Claim 4 – Modeling and Data Analysis A.Apply mathematics to solve problems arising in everyday life, society, and the workplace. B.Construct, autonomously, chains of reasoning to justify mathematical models used, interpretations made, and solutions proposed for a complex problem. C.State logical assumptions being used. D.Interpret results in the context of a situation. E.Analyze the adequacy of and make improvement to an existing model or develop a mathematical model of a real phenomenon. F.Identify important quantities in a practical situation and map their relationships. G.Identify, analyze, and synthesize relevant external resources to pose or solve problems. Claim 4: Students can analyze complex, real-world scenarios and can construct and use mathematical models to interpret and solve problems.

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Simpson Park Art Project Soda Cans Performance Tasks

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Resources for writing CCSS-M like Assessment Items www.smarterbalanced.org www.smarterbalanced.org Item writing training www.smarterbalanced.org/smarter-balanced- assessments/item-writing-and-review/ www.smarterbalanced.org/smarter-balanced- assessments/item-writing-and-review/ Sample items http://www.smarterbalanced.org/sample-items-and- performance-tasks/ http://www.smarterbalanced.org/sample-items-and- performance-tasks/ PARCC sample items http://parcconline.org/samples/item-task- prototypes#7 http://parcconline.org/samples/item-task- prototypes#7 Illustrative Mathematics Project http://illustrativemathematics.org http://illustrativemathematics.org Materials on the Internet

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