Presentation on theme: "Necessary efficiencies the economics of transition to open access Networked scholarship in a networked world: participation in open access Berlin 10 Open."— Presentation transcript:
Necessary efficiencies the economics of transition to open access Networked scholarship in a networked world: participation in open access Berlin 10 Open Access Conference, Stellenbosch, South Africa, Nov. 7 – 8, 2012 http://www.berlin10.org/ Heather Morrison email@example.com Coordinator, BC Electronic Library Network http://eln.bc.ca Adjunct Faculty, UBC School of Library, Archival & Information Studies Doctoral Candidate, Simon Fraser University School of Communication http://pages.cmns.sfu.ca/heather- morrison/http://www.berlin10.org/http://pages.cmns.sfu.ca/heather- morrison/ This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
Necessary efficiencies: Heather Morrison The scholarly publishing industry takes in about $8 billion U.S. per year just for journals. About 90% of this revenue comes from library budgets (Mabe, personal correspondence, 2011). 68-73% of this sum comes from academic library budgets (Ware & Mabe, 2009; Research Information Network, 2008). The 30-40% profit ranges of some of the largest commercial science, technology & medicine (STM) journal publishers (Morrison, 2012, chapter 2) suggests that academic library budgets are more than sufficient to support a fully open access scholarly publishing, assuming a more efficient system. Source: Research Information Network (RIN) (2008) This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
Necessary efficiencies: Heather Morrison This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Current global library spend per article is about $4,326, calculated on the basis of the $5.8 billion estimated annual academic library spend per article, divided by the estimated 1,350,000 peer-reviewed articles per year calculated by Björk, Roosr and Laurie (2008) for the 23,700 journals listed in Ulrich’s as of 2008. The costs on a per-article basis for many fully open access journals are considerably less than the current library spend. The article processing fees for PLoS ONE or Nature’s Scientific Reports are a third of current average spend per article. OJS journals report receiving $188 per article, about 5% of current average spend. On the other hand, Elsevier’s (2012) Cell Press, a hybrid “open access” choice (technically a “sponsored article” choice, not really full open access), is an outlier with a cost that is higher than the current average library spend. Compare open access costs with current academic library spend
Necessary efficiencies: Heather Morrison To calculate global cost, multiply average cost per article by world article production This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Cost per article is a key metric in transitioning to an affordable open access scholarly publishing system. Libraries could support a largely scholar-led journal publishing system at a very small fraction of current spend. For example, if every journal article in the world was produced at the OJS journal average of $188 per article (Edgar & Willlinsky, 2010), libraries could fully fund the whole journal article system worldwide – and save 96% of current spend. Significant cost savings could be achieved at rates currently charged by for-profit Hindawi, or the not-for-profit Public Library of Science. However, average costs in the $5,000 range as currently charged by Elsevier’s Cell Press would increase the cost of the system as a whole. Global open access could cost a lot less than the current system – or more – it depends on the average cost per article.
Necessary efficiencies: the economics of transition to open access Networked scholarship in a networked world: participation in open access. Berlin 10 Open Access Conference, Stellenbosch, South Africa, Nov. 7 – 8, 2012 http://www.berlin10.org/ Electronic Poster Presentation Heather Morrison,Coordinator, BC Electronic Library Network, Adjunct Faculty, UBC School of Library, Archival & Information Studies& Doctoral Candidate, Simon Fraser University School of Communication http://pages.cmns.sfu.ca/heather-morrison/ firstname.lastname@example.org Based on a poster first presented at UBC SLAIS Research Day Spring 2012http://www.berlin10.org/http://pages.cmns.sfu.ca/heather-morrison/ This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Conclusion Transitioning to a fully open access scholarly publishing journals system is possible using just the current primary economic system, academic library budgets, at a small fraction of existing spend. What is necessary to make this happen is seeking efficiencies along the way, in particular supporting high quality moderate to low-cost scholarly journals. Thank you! Heather Morrison email@example.com References Björk, B., Roosr, A., & Lauri, M. (2008). Global annual volume of scholarly peer reviewed journal articles and the share available via different open access options. Paper presented at the ELPUB2008. Open Scholarship: Authority, Community, and Sustainability in the Age of Web 2.0 - Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Electronic Publishing Held in Toronto, Canada 25-27 June 2008. Edited by: Leslie Chan and Susanna Mornati. Retrieved December 3, 2011 from http://elpub.scix.net/cgi-bin/works/Show?178_elpub2008.http://elpub.scix.net/cgi-bin/works/Show?178_elpub2008 Edgar, B. D., & Willinsky, J. (2010) (In press). A survey of the scholarly journals using open journal systems. Scholarly and Research Communication, Retrieved August 27, 2011 from http://pkp.sfu.ca/node/2773http://pkp.sfu.ca/node/2773 Morrison, H. (2012). Chapter two, Scholarly communication in crisis, and chapter four, economics of scholarly communication, Freedom for scholarship in the internet age. PhD dissertation (draft, in progress). Retrieved January 13, 2012 from http://pages.cmns.sfu.ca/heather-morrison/http://pages.cmns.sfu.ca/heather-morrison/ Research Information Network (RIN) (2008). Activities, costs and funding flows in the scholarly communications system in the UK. As cited in Ware and Mabe (2009). Retrieved November 29, 2011 from http://is.gd/3Q7cmhttp://is.gd/3Q7cm Ware, M. & Mabe, M. (2009). The stm report: An overview of scientific and scholarly journal publishing. Oxford: STM: International Association of Scientific, Technical and Medical Publishers. Retrieved 2010 from http://www.stm-assoc.org/document-library/ http://www.stm-assoc.org/document-library/ Wellcome Trust. (2004). Costs and business models in scientific research publishing. N.p.: The Wellcome Trust. Retrieved November 22, 2011 from http://www.wellcome.ac.uk/About-us/Publications/Reports/Biomedical- science/WTD003185.htm Necessary efficiencies: Heather Morrison