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Interactive Nitrogen Cycle Nitrogen Text Printable Nitrogen Cycle www.knovin.ir.

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Presentation on theme: "Interactive Nitrogen Cycle Nitrogen Text Printable Nitrogen Cycle www.knovin.ir."— Presentation transcript:

1 Interactive Nitrogen Cycle Nitrogen Text Printable Nitrogen Cycle

2 ORGANIC MATTER MESQUITE RHIZOBIUM ALFALFA SOYBEAN BLUE-GREEN ALGAE AZOTOBACTER CLOSTRIDIUM PLANT AND ANIMAL RESIDUES R-NH 2 + ENERGY + CO 2 R-NH 2 + H 2 O R-OH + ENERGY + 2NH 3 MATERIALS WITH N CONTENT < 1.5% (WHEAT STRAW) MATERIALS WITH N CONTENT > 1.5% (COW MANURE) MICROBIAL DECOMPOSITION HETEROTROPHIC AMINIZATION BACTERIA (pH>6.0) FUNGI (pH<6.0) AMMONIFICATION GLOBAL WARMING pH>7.0 2NH OH - FIXED ON EXCHANGE SITES +O 2 Nitrosomonas 2NO H 2 O + 4H + IMMOBILIZATION NH 3 AMMONIA-3 NH 4 + AMMONIUM-3 N 2 DIATOMIC N0 N 2 O NITROUS OXIDE1 NO NITRIC OXIDE2 NO 2 - NITRITE3 NO 3 - NITRATE5 OXIDATION STATES ATMOSPHERE N 2 O NO N 2 N2O2-N2O2- NH 3 SYMBIOTICNON-SYMBIOTIC + O 2 Nitrobacter FERTILIZATION LIGHTNING, RAINFALL N2 FIXATION DENITRIFICATION PLANT LOSS AMINO ACIDS NO 3 - POOL LEACHING AMMONIA VOLATILIZATION NITRIFICATION NH 2 OH Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Thiobacillus Denitrificans, and T. thioparus MINERALIZATION + NITRIFICATION IMMOBILIZATION NO 2 - MICROBIAL/PLANT SINK TEMP 50°F pH 7.0 LEACHING DENITRIFICATION LEACHING VOLATILIZATION NITRIFICATION ADDITIONS LOSSES OXIDATION REACTIONS REDUCTION REACTIONS HABER BOSCH 3H 2 + N 2 2NH 3 (1200°C, 500 atm) Joanne LaRuffaRobert Mullen Wade ThomasonSusan Mullins Shannon Taylor Heather Lees Department of Plant and Soil Sciences Oklahoma State University INDUSTRIAL FIXATION Back to Intro Page

3 N 2 Fixation Plant and Animal Residues Industrial Processes Fertilizer Lightning, Rainfall Atmosphere Organic Matter Volatilization Leaching N 2, N 2 O, NO Interactive Nitrogen Cycle R-NH 2 + Energy + CO 2 R-NH 2 + H 2 O R-OH + Energy + 2NH 3 Soil exchange sites 2NH OH - 2NO H 2 O + 4H + 2NH OH - NO 3 - Pool Plant/Microbial Sink Plant Loss Joanne LaRuffaRobert Mullen Wade ThomasonSusan Mullins Shannon Taylor Heather Lees Department of Plant and Soil Sciences Oklahoma State University Back to Intro Page

4 Symbiotic Rhizobium Alfalfa Mesquite Soybean Non-Symbiotic Azotobacter Cyanobacteria Clostridium Via Decay Industrial Processes N 2 Fixation Fertilizer Lightning, Rainfall Plant and Animal Residues Organic Matter NO 3 - Pool Plant/Microbial Sink Back to Main Cycle N 2, N 2 O, NO Plant Loss Leaching Volatilization Atmosphere Joanne LaRuffaRobert Mullen Wade ThomasonSusan Mullins Shannon Taylor Heather Lees Department of Plant and Soil Sciences Oklahoma State University Interactive Nitrogen Cycle Back to Intro Page

5 Haber-Bosch (1200  C, 500 ATM) 3CH 4 + 3O 2 + 2N 2  4NH 3 + 3CO 2 Industrial Processes N 2 Fixation Fertilizer Lightning, Rainfall Plant and Animal Residues Organic Matter NO 3 - Pool Plant/Microbial Sink N 2, N 2 O, NO Plant Loss Leaching Volatilization Atmosphere Back to Main Cycle Joanne LaRuffaRobert Mullen Wade ThomasonSusan Mullins Shannon Taylor Heather Lees Department of Plant and Soil Sciences Oklahoma State University Interactive Nitrogen Cycle Back to Intro Page

6 Industrial Processes N 2 Fixation Lightning, Rainfall Plant and Animal Residues Organic Matter NO 3 - Pool Fertilizer Small Percentage Soil Exchange Sites Plant/Microbial Sink N 2, N 2 O, NO Plant Loss Leaching Volatilization Atmosphere Back to Main Cycle Joanne LaRuffaRobert Mullen Wade ThomasonSusan Mullins Shannon Taylor Heather Lees Department of Plant and Soil Sciences Oklahoma State University Interactive Nitrogen Cycle Back to Intro Page

7 Oxidation of N N 2 + 3O 2  2NO 3 - Industrial Processes N 2 Fixation Fertilizer Lightning, Rainfall Plant and Animal Residues Organic Matter NO 3 - Pool Plant/Microbial Sink N 2, N 2 O, NO Plant Loss Leaching Volatilization Atmosphere Back to Main Cycle Joanne LaRuffaRobert Mullen Wade ThomasonSusan Mullins Shannon Taylor Heather Lees Department of Plant and Soil Sciences Oklahoma State University Interactive Nitrogen Cycle Back to Intro Page

8 %N > 1.5 (Animal Manure) %N < 1.5 (Wheat Straw) Immobilization Microbial Decomposition Industrial Processes N 2 Fixation Fertilizer Lightning, Rainfall Plant and Animal Residues Organic Matter NO 3 - Pool Plant/Microbial Sink N 2, N 2 O, NO Plant Loss Leaching Volatilization Atmosphere Back to Main Cycle Joanne LaRuffaRobert Mullen Wade ThomasonSusan Mullins Shannon Taylor Heather Lees Department of Plant and Soil Sciences Oklahoma State University Interactive Nitrogen Cycle Back to Intro Page

9 N 2 Fixation Plant and Animal Residues Industrial Processes Fertilizer Lightning, Rainfall abovebelow abovebelow Temperature above or below 50°F?abovebelow Organic Matter NO 3 - Pool Plant/Microbial Sink N 2, N 2 O, NO Plant Loss Leaching Volatilization Atmosphere Back to Main Cycle Joanne LaRuffaRobert Mullen Wade ThomasonSusan Mullins Shannon Taylor Heather Lees Department of Plant and Soil Sciences Oklahoma State University Interactive Nitrogen Cycle Back to Intro Page

10 N 2 Fixation Plant and Animal Residues Industrial Processes Lightning, Rainfall Back to Temperature Choice Fertilizer R-OH + Energy + 2NH 3 + H 2 O Organic Matter R-NH 2 + Energy + CO 2 Fungi pH 6.0 Heterotrophic Aminization R-NH 2 + H 2 O Ammonification pH > 7.0 Soil exchange sites 2NH OH - 2NO H 2 O + 4H + + O 2 Nitrosomonas 2NH OH - + O 2 Nitrobacter NO 3 - Pool Plant/Microbial Sink Immobilization N 2, N 2 O, NO Plant Loss Leaching Volatilization Atmosphere Back to Main Cycle Joanne LaRuffaRobert Mullen Wade ThomasonSusan Mullins Shannon Taylor Heather Lees Department of Plant and Soil Sciences Oklahoma State University Interactive Nitrogen Cycle Back to Intro Page

11 N 2 Fixation Plant and Animal Residues Industrial Processes Fertilizer Lightning, Rainfall Organic Matter NO 3 - Pool Thiobacillus, T. Thioparus, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, and Dentrificans Denitrification Amino Acids Immobilization Plant/Microbial Sink N 2, N 2 O, NO Plant Loss Leaching Volatilization Atmosphere Mineralization & Nitrification NH 2 OH NO 2 - N2O2-N2O2- NH 3 Back to Main Cycle Joanne LaRuffaRobert Mullen Wade ThomasonSusan Mullins Shannon Taylor Heather Lees Department of Plant and Soil Sciences Oklahoma State University Interactive Nitrogen Cycle Back to Intro Page

12 N 2 Fixation Plant and Animal Residues Industrial Processes Fertilizer Lightning, Rainfall Organic Matter Plant/Microbial Sink N 2, N 2 O, NO Plant Loss Leaching Volatilization Atmosphere NO 3 - Pool Back to Main Cycle Back to Temperature Choice Joanne LaRuffaRobert Mullen Wade ThomasonSusan Mullins Shannon Taylor Heather Lees Department of Plant and Soil Sciences Oklahoma State University Interactive Nitrogen Cycle Back to Intro Page

13 N 2 Fixation Plant and Animal Residues Industrial Processes Fertilizer Lightning, Rainfall Organic Matter Plant/Microbial Sink Immobilization 2NH OH - N 2, N 2 O, NO Plant Loss Leaching Volatilization Atmosphere NO 3 - Pool Back to Main Cycle Joanne LaRuffaRobert Mullen Wade ThomasonSusan Mullins Shannon Taylor Heather Lees Department of Plant and Soil Sciences Oklahoma State University Interactive Nitrogen Cycle Back to Intro Page

14 N 2 Fixation Plant and Animal Residues Industrial Processes Fertilizer Lightning, Rainfall Organic Matter N 2, N 2 O, NO Thiobacillus, T. Thioparus, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, and Dentrificans Denitrification Plant/Microbial Sink Plant Loss Leaching Volatilization Atmosphere NO 3 - Pool Back to Main Cycle Joanne LaRuffaRobert Mullen Wade ThomasonSusan Mullins Shannon Taylor Heather Lees Department of Plant and Soil Sciences Oklahoma State University Interactive Nitrogen Cycle Back to Intro Page

15 N 2 Fixation Plant and Animal Residues Industrial Processes Fertilizer Lightning, Rainfall Organic Matter Plant Loss Plant/Microbial Sink N 2, N 2 O, NO Leaching Volatilization Atmosphere NO 3 - Pool NH 2 OH NO 2 - N2O2-N2O2- NH 3 Back to Main Cycle Joanne LaRuffaRobert Mullen Wade ThomasonSusan Mullins Shannon Taylor Heather Lees Department of Plant and Soil Sciences Oklahoma State University Interactive Nitrogen Cycle Back to Intro Page

16 N 2 Fixation Plant and Animal Residues Industrial Processes Fertilizer Lightning, Rainfall Organic Matter Leaching Plant/Microbial Sink N 2, N 2 O, NO Plant Loss Volatilization Atmosphere NO 3 - Pool Back to Main Cycle Joanne LaRuffaRobert Mullen Wade ThomasonSusan Mullins Shannon Taylor Heather Lees Department of Plant and Soil Sciences Oklahoma State University Interactive Nitrogen Cycle Back to Intro Page

17 N 2 Fixation Plant and Animal Residues Industrial Processes Fertilizer Lightning, Rainfall Organic Matter Volatilization Plant/Microbial Sink N 2, N 2 O, NO Plant Loss Leaching pH > 7.0 Atmosphere NO 3 - Pool R-NH 2 + Energy + CO 2 Heterotrophic Aminization R-NH 2 + H 2 O Ammonification R-OH + Energy + 2NH 3 Back to Main Cycle Joanne LaRuffaRobert Mullen Wade ThomasonSusan Mullins Shannon Taylor Heather Lees Department of Plant and Soil Sciences Oklahoma State University Interactive Nitrogen Cycle Back to Intro Page

18 N 2 Fixation Plant and Animal Residues Industrial Processes Fertilizer Lightning, Rainfall Atmosphere Organic Matter Plant/Microbial Sink N 2, N 2 O, NO Plant Loss Volatilization Haber-Bosch (1200  C, 500 ATM) 3CH 4 + 3O 2 + 2N 2  4NH 3 + 3CO 2 R-NH 2 + Energy + CO 2 Heterotrophic Aminization NO 3 - Pool Leaching Back to Main Cycle Joanne LaRuffaRobert Mullen Wade ThomasonSusan Mullins Shannon Taylor Heather Lees Department of Plant and Soil Sciences Oklahoma State University Interactive Nitrogen Cycle Back to Intro Page

19 Nitrogen Information Form taken up plant Mobility Deficiency symptoms Soil pH deficiency Role of N in plant growth Enzymes that require N Role of N in microbial growth Concentration in plants Effect of pH on availability Nutrient interactions Fertilizer sources References

20 NH 4 + NO 3 - Back to N Text Main Page Back to Intro Page

21 Soil –NH4+; NO –NO3- ; Yes Water Soluble Not influenced by soil colloids Plant –Yes Back to Intro Page Back to N Text Main Page

22 Chlorosis in older leaves Under severe deficiency lower leaves are brown, beginning at the leaf tip and proceeding along the midrib Back to Intro Page Back to N Text Main Page

23 None due to nitrate’s mobility Back to Intro Page Back to N Text Main Page

24 N assimilation into amino acids for protein and amino acid synthesis Component of chlorophyll Vegetative growth Back to Intro Page Back to N Text Main Page

25 Necessary for the synthesis for amino acids Back to Intro Page Back to N Text Main Page

26 Nitrate reductase Nitrite reductase Nitrogenase Back to Intro Page Back to N Text Main Page

27 Wheat 1.7 to 3.0% –Grain 2.0% –Forage 3.0% –Straw Corn 2.7 to 3.5% Soybeans 4.2 to 5.5% Grain sorghum 3.3 to 4.0 % Peanuts 3.5 to 4.5 % Alfalfa 4.5 to 5.0% Bermudagrass 2.5 to 3.0% Back to Intro Page Back to N Text Main Page

28 Low pH –None High pH –None at pH > 8 –At pH > 7 NO 2 - accumulates Back to Intro Page Back to N Text Main Page

29 Si: enhances leaf erectness neutralizing the negative effects of high N supply on light interception P: symbiotic legume fixation needs adequate P, or a N deficiency can result Mo: component of nitrogenase, therefore could have Mo induced N deficiency in N 2 fixing legumes Fe: Necessary for nitrogenase and ferredoxin, legume hemoglobin, deficiency reduces nodule mass, and nitrogenase Back to Intro Page Back to N Text Main Page

30 ammonium sulfateanhydrous ammonia ammonium chlorideammonium nitrate ammonium nitrate-ammonium nitrate sulfate with lime ammoniated ordinary- ammonium phosphate- superphosphate sulfate monoammonium phosphatediammonium phosphate ammonium polyphosphateammonium thiophosphate calcium nitratepotassium nitrate sodium nitrateurea urea-sulfateurea-ammonium nitrate urea-ammonium phosphateurea phosphate Back to Intro Page Back to N Text Main Page

31 Burford, J.R., and J.M. Bremner Relationships between the denitrification capacities of soils and total, water-soluble and readily decomposable soil organic matter. Soil Biochem. 7: Marschner, H Mineral Nutrition in Higher Plants. Academic Press, London. Tisdale, S.L., W.L. Nelson, J.D. Beaton, and J.L. Havlin Soil Fertility and Fertilizers. MacMillan Publishing Co., New York, N.Y. Back to Intro Page Back to N Text Main Page


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