Presentation on theme: "European Baroque Art CHAPTER 11.3 & 11.4 Baroque refers to the 17th century period and style of European art. Artwork was typically exuberant, large, ornate,"— Presentation transcript:
European Baroque Art CHAPTER 11.3 & 11.4 Baroque refers to the 17th century period and style of European art. Artwork was typically exuberant, large, ornate, and filled with swirling lines and intense color and light. Artists were highly skilled at drawing and painting the human figure from every possible angle, delighting in theatrical and extravagant artworks. VOCABULARY: Tenebrism: The use of strong, exaggerated contrasts of light and dark in a picture Baldachin: A canopy of wood, stone or fabric over an altar, throne or doorway
Baroque in Flanders, Holland and Spain During the 17th century, Flanders, comprising the southern part of the Low Country provinces, was Catholic and under Hapsburg and Spanish domination. Holland, the northern part of the Low Country, had gained independence from Spain and had become Protestant and democratic. These changes meant that art in Holland was no longer financed by the church, court or nobility. Dutch artists were mainly supported by middle class customers who wanted paintings for their homes. Subject matter changed as well, with artists now painting landscapes, cityscapes, still lifes and portraits.
Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640) The Lion Hunt Oil on panel, 1616 97 x 146” Rubens uses the lances and swords to stabilize the composition and lead the viewer’s eyes back to the central area. The low eye level increases the dramatic upward thrust of the action. Notice the severe foreshortening, vivid color and intense lighting.
Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640) Allegory of the Outbreak of War Rubens was the greatest Flemish painter of the Baroque era. He studied in Italy for eight years, absorbed the work of Titian and Michelangelo, and brought the Baroque style to France, Flanders and Holland. His pictures are filled with turbulent activity and twisting, turning bodies of humans and animals.
Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640) The Rape of the Daughters of Leucippus Oil on canvas 1617 7’ x 7’ Rubens created a spiral composition, revolving in a great stream of energy. The solid forms are built up in color and defined by light.
Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640) Henri IV Receiving the Portrait of Marie d’ Medici 1621
Anthony van Dyck (1599- 1641) Portrait of Charles I in Hunting Dress Oil on canvas, 1635 9’ x 7’ This Flemish artist assisted Rubens in his Antwerp workshop, and went on to be the court painter for Charles I of England. Notice the dramatic foreshortening where the elbow bends in this portrait intended to flatter the subject.
Frans Hals (1580-1666) “Malle Babbe” Oil on canvas 30 x 25” 1650 Hals was a famous Dutch portraitist. He developed a painting technique utilizing very active, energetic, slashing brushstrokes which appear to be loose and spontaneous, but which capture a great amount of detail, visual texture and character.
Frans Hals (1580-1666) Yonker Ramp and His Sweetheart Oil on canvas 41 x 31” Hals shows his friend in a happy scene at a local Dutch tavern. Notice the strong diagonal thrust from top left corner to lower right corner, which helps define this composition. The color palette is limited, but the paint medium is handled in a very exuberant manner— and the sense of light, as well as contrast is very strong.
Frans Hals (1580-1666) Hals was able to convey a great variety of delicate detail using a very expressive brush stroke and a painterly application of oil paint. Notice in this composition how the negative space balances the active area where the figure is located. The artist manipulates light, contrast and focus to help the man seem to emerge from the picture plane towards the viewer.
Frans Hals (1580-1666) Boy with a Skull, 1625 With a few simple brush strokes, Hals has managed to convey the fluffiness of feathers in the boy’s hat. Notice the careful presentation of the boy’s foreshortened hand, and the specific way the light falls on his individually defined fingers. Most of the brightly lit areas appear in contrast to neighboring dark passages.
Frans Hals (1580-1666) Officers of the Haarlem Militia Company of Saint Adrian 1627 The repetition of white collars, broad- brimmed black hats, and colorful sashes adorning the men creates a strong visual rhythm. The composition is stabilized by the strong central geometrical presence of the window.
Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-1669) Self Portrait, Oil on Canvas Rembrandt lived in Amsterdam, a thriving Dutch city where he painted portrait commissions, as well as landscapes and Biblical subjects. He refined light and shade into fine nuances, expressing emotion, character and mood. Portraits probed the human soul. His work shows the influence of Caravaggio, with the frequent use of chiaroscuro and tenebrism.
Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-1669) The Syndics of the Cloth Guild, Oil on Canvas, 1662, 75 x 110” During the height of his artistic popularity, Rembrandt received many important portrait commissions. Each face was treated with individuality and depth of character.
Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-1669) Self Portrait Oil on Canvas As Rembrandt’s career progressed his work became more painterly, with expressive brushstokes describing physical surfaces.
Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-1669) Self Portrait with a Palette Oil on Canvas 1660 45 x 37” As Rembrandt’s career progressed his work became more painterly, with expressive brushstokes and a very distinctive golden light.
Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-1669) The Sacrifice of Isaac Oil on Canvas 1635 76 x 52” Although Protestant Holland did not have the same official church support for religious painting as Catholic countries, Rembrandt continued the tradition of creating Bible scenes to fulfill his own personal interests and beliefs.
Caravaggio (1571-1610) Italian The Sacrifice of Isaac, Oil on Canvas 1601 Rembrandt van Rijn(1606-1669) Dutch The Sacrifice of Isaac, Oil on Canvas 1635 76 x 52” Contrast and compare these two different treatments of the same subject. Notice how the shape of the canvas changes the visual drama.
Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-1669) The Night Watch, Oil on Canvas 1641 141 x 173”
Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-1669) Self Portrait at Age 52 Oil on Canvas 1658 53 x 41” This painting is in the Frick Museum on 70th St. and Fifth Ave., NYC
Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-1669) Etching on paper Rembrandt’s mastery as a printmaker was probably more responsible for establishing his outstanding artistic reputation than his paintings: Prints are made in editions and can be easily distributed.
Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-1669) Etching on paper Etching is a technique in which a metal plate is either directly drawn into with a sharp tool, or prepared with a wax surface which the artist draws into with a tool. Once the drawing into the wax is complete, the plate is immersed in acid, which eats into the metal wherever the wax has been removed by the drawing tool. The part of the metal plate still covered in wax is not affected by the acid bath. This process creates an image in the metal plate; after cleaning, it is inked and pressed into paper on a printing press., which creates a reverse image. Numerous duplicate images can be created. A set of duplicate print images is called an edition.
Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-1669) Crucifixion Etching on paper
Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-1669) Christ healing the sick Etching on paper
Jacob van Ruisdael (1629-1682) The Mill 32 x 40” In Holland, this artist was a master at portraying the Dutch landscape and the drama of the sky, with its ever-changing and powerful clouds.
Judith Leyster (1609-1660) Self portrait Oil on Canvas 29 x 26” 1630 Judith Leyster was the best- known Dutch woman painter of the seventeenth century. Her brushwork is very lively, describing delicate textural details as well as conveying a consistent source of illumination.
Judith Leyster (1609-1660) Self portrait Boy with Flute 29 x 25” 1635 This is a carefully balanced composition, with the instruments on the wall serving as a counterbalance to the boy sitting on the chair. The controlled light coming from an unseen source on the left is an important part of the picture.
Jan Steen (1625-1679) The Feast of St. Nicholas Oil on canvas 1660-1665 32 x 28” This Dutch artist painted humorous, cluttered, chaotic scenes of everyday life.