Presentation on theme: "Are women in Eastern Europe and Western Europe experiencing dramatically different effects of globalization? Evidence from a 13-country comparison Prof."— Presentation transcript:
Are women in Eastern Europe and Western Europe experiencing dramatically different effects of globalization? Evidence from a 13-country comparison Prof. Dr. Heather Hofmeister, RWTH Aachen University Prof. Dr. Hans-Peter Blossfeld, University of Bamberg 2007 Spring Meeting of RC28:24-27 May 2007, Brno, CZ Social Inequality and Mobility in the Process of Social Transformation
4/18/2015 Heather Hofmeister 2 Presentation Format What do we mean by globalization? How is globalization affecting individuals across the life course in Europe? Youth, women, men, and older workers How do nation-specific contexts influence the effects? In particular, patterns in Eastern versus Western Europe How does globalization influence social inequalities for each group?
Leader: Prof. Dr. Hans-Peter Blossfeld Deputy Director, 2003-‘05: Heather Hofmeister Scientists: 64, from 16 OECD countries plus Estonia Funding: Volkswagen Stiftung, €1,4 Million Data: collected from individuals over time Methods: longitudinal event history Foci: Life course transitions within employment (and family) for youth, women, men, and older workers The effects of recent globalization on individuals 4/18/2015 Heather Hofmeister 3
What do we mean by globalization?
4/18/2015 Heather Hofmeister 5 One recent measure of globalization KOF Index of globalization (ETH Zurich, Dreher), measuring the degree of globalization in 123 countries Measures: 34% is economic: flows and restrictions of goods, capital, foreign investment 37% is social: personal contact (phone, travel), information flows (radio, TV, internet), cultural mainstreaming (McDonalds) 28% is political: embassies, U.N. involvement, international memberships
4/18/2015Heather Hofmeister 6 Graph of individual countries
Heather Hofmeister 7 Figure of globalization IC Technologies expand networks and exchange of knowledge Higher levels of cross-border exchange: goods, services, people Increasing uncertainty for employers Increasing rates of innovation and economic and social change Faster market transactions Increasingly volatile and unpredictable markets Employers compete by increasing their “flexibility” Deregulation and privatization of industries creates more competition Any one market‘s fluctuations affect other markets GLOBALIZATION
Dr. Heather Hofmeister 8 Institutionally filtered How are job security, flexibility, and work benefits organized How are job security, flexibility, and work benefits organized How is the transition from education to work organized; what retraining chances exist What domain – state, market, family – should protect people from risk (insurance, care, retirement) Figure of globalization 2 Increasing uncertainty for employers Increasing uncertainty for exposed individuals Employers compete by increasing their “flexibility” Employment systems Employment systems Education systems Education systems Welfare regimes Welfare regimes How are families organized, who has caregiving and earnings responsibilities Family systems Family systems
Dr. Heather Hofmeister 9 Welfare Regimes: bundles of policies Liberal Security from the market Family-oriented Security from families Conservative Security from a mix Post- socialist Shared historical context Social-democratic Security from the state USA MEX I DK NL D-W GB S EST H CZ E PL
26 May 2007 Heather Hofmeister 10 Female labor force participation as a percent of all women of working age (15-64), Source: Hofäcker (2006) using OECD Historical Data 2001
26 May 2007 Dr. Heather Hofmeister 11 Women’s labor market disadvantage Women are often caregivers for their families and children Employers often witness or assume (statistical discrimination) less commitment or experience from women workers or job candidates Women often are hired last, fired first, paid and promoted less, and shifted to lower- prestige jobs
26 May 2007Dr. Heather Hofmeister 12 Women‘s vulnerability for flexible work What women want from flexible work Whom employers want to hire for flexible work “Personnel Flexibility” (Personalflexibilität) Available, willing, capable worker who can be hired and released as needed at the lowest possible wages. “Personal Flexibility” (persönliche Flexibilität) Secure work organized in a time-flexible way Flexible Work
26 May 2007Dr. Heather Hofmeister 13 How are women‘s careers unfolding compared to earlier generations or cohorts of women? women in other countries? men at the same time in the same country? (Grunow 2006, Blossfeld et al 2006)
26 May 2007Dr. Heather Hofmeister 14 Research questions 1.Where and why are women increasing or decreasing their overall attachment to the labor market? 2.Where and why do women experience better- or worse-quality job chances? 3.Which characteristics make women especially protected or vulnerable? (Such as education, experience, family status?)
Dr. Heather Hofmeister 15 Event-history models of employment transitions using longitudinal data. Cohort comparisons across models of transitions. Analysis: Case studies of 13 countries USA MEX I DK NL D-W GB S EST H CZ E PL
26 May 2007Dr. Heather Hofmeister Measuring labor market attachment Job Caregiving, not employed New job Reentry job Unemployment Staying in a job Looking for a job Returning to a job
Dr. Heather Hofmeister Results for labor market attachment Rising attachment: 7 countries Declining attachment: 4 countries No change over time: 2 countries Declining male wages (US, GB) State support to stay in (S, NL) High un- employ- ment (PL, H) State support to exit (DK) Flexible work in Maquiladoras (MEX) Educational and service sector expansion (E, D, I)
26 May 2007Dr. Heather Hofmeister Measuring employment quality change Job Caregiving, not employed New job type higher prestige same level lower prestige Reentry job type higher prestige same level lower prestige Unemployment Change in job prestige Change between employment and unemployment
Dr. Heather Hofmeister Quality of employment is declining Declining quality, rising uncertainty: 10 countries Stability in job careers: 3 countries Rising quality, declining uncertainty: 0 countries State support to keep jobs secure (S, NL, DK)
26 May 2007Heather Hofmeister 20 Summary 1.Women in Europe (and North America) are overall increasingly likely to work for pay, with some exceptions based on institutional settings. 2.Women‘s job quality/stability is declining or staying stable, meaning more movement to lower-quality jobs, to unemployment, and longer job search time. 3.Women‘s own characteristics influence their risks. Especially protected Especially vulnerable highly educated low-educated more experienced workers frequent exiters full-time workers part-time workers
4/18/2015 Heather Hofmeister 21 Commonalities among women under globalization The quality of women‘s employment is declining or staying stable. Uncertainty is rising. Disadvantages for mid-life women are similar to youth: More precarious and lower quality jobs More part-time work More jobs with lower occupational standing/income More and longer unemployment More downward mobility Coping strategies Fewer and shorter exits at birth of child
4/18/2015 Heather Hofmeister 22 What is different between Eastern and Western Europe Poland and Hungary are exceptional in their declines in women‘s labor market attachment through the 1990s. Discouraging job market situation + alternative role possible Denmark is also exceptional in its declines in women‘s labor market attachment. Alternative policy for exiting instead of unemployment Some Western European countries offer more state- organized job protection that protects women‘s career stability -- Sweden, Denmark, and the Netherlands. Something we call the transition shock.
4/18/2015Heather Hofmeister 23 Percent of women who agree with the statement: „A man‘s role is to earn money, a woman‘s role is to look after the house and children“ (in % of birth cohort agreeing, 3 time points) Sources: ISSP, Lück 2006
Dr. Heather Hofmeister 24 Institutionally filtered Figure of globalization 2 Increasing uncertainty for employers... low-educated men and higher-educated women Employers compete by increasing their “flexibility” Increasing uncertainty for minorities... youth... low-educated women... higher-educated men
4/18/2015 Heather Hofmeister 25 Conclusions 1. Globalization increases uncertainty in most life course phases related to the labor market in most European countries. 2. Individual resources become increasingly important (e.g., education, experience, ascribed characteristics). 3. No strong line separates the effects of globalization on Eastern versus Western Europe. 4. Changes in domestic institutions (such as, but not limited to, economic transformations) can create newly vulnerable populations, particularly outsiders: often, but not limited to, youth and mid-life women.