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Heather Davediuk Gingrich, Ph.D.

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1 Heather Davediuk Gingrich, Ph.D.
Restoring the Shattered Self: The Treatment of Complex Trauma AACC National Conference, 2014 April 4, 2013 Heather Davediuk Gingrich, Ph.D. Denver Seminary Restoring the Shattered Self

2 My Background in this Specialization
Sexual abuse survivors Dissociative disorders Other trauma survivors (see Gingrich, 2002) Research on dissociation and trauma in the Philippines Recognition of overlap in treatment techniques


4 Trauma Psychology, Division 56, APA
Trauma Field Complex Traumatic Stress Disorder (Disorders of Extreme Stress) - multiple exposures - incest survivors - child abuse and rape - multi-faceted treatment approaches - International Society for the Study of Trauma and Dissociation (ISSTD) Posttraumatic Stress Disorder - even single exposure - natural disasters - rape incident - witnessing violence - combat veterans - primarily cognitive-behavioral treatments - International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (ISTSS) Trauma Psychology, Division 56, APA

5 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: DSM-V Criteria
Exposure to traumatic event Intrusive Symptoms (at least 1) Avoidance Symptoms (at least 1) Negative Alterations in Cognitions and Mood (2 or more) Alterations in arousal and reactivity (2 or more) Symptom duration of more than 1 month Clinically significant distress/impairment in functioning Specifiers With dissociative symptoms (depersonalization or derealization With delayed expression American Psychiatric Association, 2013

6 DSM-5 – Change in Criteria A
Sexual assault listed as a possible traumatic event Response of fear, helplessness, or horror no longer included

7 DSM-5 – Additional Symptom Cluster
Negative thoughts and mood or feelings a persistent and distorted sense of blame of self or others estrangement from others or markedly diminished interest in activities an inability to remember key aspects of the event.

8 DSM-5 PTSD Dissociative Subtype
chosen when PTSD is seen with prominent dissociative symptoms depersonalization experiences of feeling detached from one’s own mind or body derealization experiences in which the world seems unreal, dreamlike or distorted.

9 Heather Davediuk Gingrich, Ph.D.
April 4, 2013 DSM-5-Definition of Dissociation Disruption of and/or discontinuity in the normal integration of consciousness, memory, identity, emotion, perception, body representation, motor control, and behavior. Simply put: Dissociation is compartmentalization, or disconnection among aspects of self and experience The DSM-IV definition of dissociation is (read slide) -CLICK focuses almost exclusively on dissociation as the compartmentalization of mental events, such as thoughts, feelings, memories and attitudes -I refer to this in my manuscript as psychological dissociation - there are some authors that also refer to somatoform dissociation - in DSM-IV this has been subsumed under somatoform disorders (e.g., conversion symptoms) CLICK – It is also important to distinguish between normal and pathological dissociation Normal – automatisms (factory workers – space out), absorption (so involved in a project you lose track of time) and imaginative involvement (can almost imagine yourself as one of the characters in the book or movie) Pathological – dissociative symptoms and disorders will be described later -especially a consideration in cross-cultural research - i.e., what is considered pathological in one culture is not necessarily pathological in another - this consideration was one of the reasons for including Objective 2 in this study Normal versus Pathological Dissociation Restoring the Shattered Self

10 Why Talk About Dissociation?
Used by victims of all kinds of trauma There is a link between both peritraumatic dissociation and PTSD, in addition to a well-documented association between trauma and posttraumatic dissociation (see Gingrich, 2005) Dissociative subtype of PTSD in DSM-5 Explanation for why treatment techniques for dissociative disorders can also be helpful for other trauma survivorsDSM-5 now lists a dissociative subtype

NORMAL DISSOCIA-TIVE EPISODE ACUTE STRESS DISORDER (up to 4 wks.) POST TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER (4 weeks +) DISSOCIA-TIVE DISORDER DISSOCIA-TIVE DISORDER NOT OTHERWISE SPECIFIED DISSOCIA-TIVE IDENTITY hypnosis ego states automatisms childhood imaginary play fear/terror repression highway hypnosis sleepwalking !mystical/ religious experiences (e.g., meditation, ecstatic experiences) flashbacks numbness, detachment, absence of emotional response reduced awareness of surroundings (dazed) derealization depersonalization amnesia for aspects of the trauma Dissociative amnesia Dissociative fugue Depersonali-zation disorder DDNOS with features of DID Polyfrag-mented DDNOS Dissociative trance disorder Possession trance disorder DID Polyfrag-mented DID Adapted from Braun, B. G. (1988)

12 Developing the Capacity to Dissociate
We are born unintegrated (i.e., dissociated) Healthy attachment leads to integration of behavioral states Impact of child abuse Dissociation as a defense Mental disorder - dissociative disorder/other disorder with dissociative symptoms Putnam, 1997

13 Attachment Style and Dissociation
Attuned, “good enough” parenting Secure attachment style Integration of self-states Inattentive/neglectful/abusive parenting Insecure (Ambivalent/Disorganized) attachment style Dissociated self-states (Gingrich, 2013)

14 Dissociative Symptoms
Amnesia: A specific and significant block of time that has passed but that cannot be accounted for by memory Depersonalization: Sense of detachment from one’s self, e.g., a sense of looking at one’s self as if one is an outsider Derealization: A feeling that one’s surroundings are strange or unreal. Identity confusion: Subjective feelings of uncertainty, puzzlement, or conflict about one’s identity Identity alteration: Objective behavior indicating the assumption of different identities or ego states, much more distinct than different roles Steinberg (1994).

15 DSM-V Diagnoses Related to Dissociation
Dissociative disorders Dissociative amnesia Depersonalization/derealization disorder Dissociative identity disorder (DID) Dissociative disorder not otherwise specified Selected other disorders with significant dissociative symptoms Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Somatic symptom and related disorders Schizophrenia Borderline personality disorder (BPD) Others (e.g., eating and feeding, anxiety)

Behavior Affect (emotions) Sensation (physical) Knowledge Full, integrated memory includes all four re-associated components. Braun, 1988

17 BASK - KNOWLEDGE Trauma survivor has full or partial cognitive knowledge of traumatic event Cognitive knowledge of the trauma is dissociated from behavior, affect and sensation Generally what people mean when they say “I remember”

18 BASK - BEHAVIOR Behavior is dissociated from other aspects of memory
Individual acts in a certain manner without knowing why Examples: -avoiding intimate relationships -vomiting after sexual intercourse -dislike of particular foods

19 BASK - AFFECT Affect is dissociated from other aspects of memory
Example: feeling of fear for no apparent reason

20 BASK – AFFECT (continued)
There are no feelings attached to the cognitive knowledge of the memory -flat affect -matter-of-fact tone of voice e.g., can talk about being raped as though discussing the heat of the coming summer

21 BASK - SENSATION Physical sensation is dissociated from other aspects of memory Individual may have cognitive knowledge of the traumatic event, be aware of related affect, and understand some behavior, but not remember the pain or pleasure associated with the trauma Examples: -body memories – physical symptoms such as bleeding or severe pain occur in the present but are unexplained -sexual excitement

22 BASK Model Behavior Affect Sensation Knowledge Behavior Affect
Gingrich, H. D., 2013, p. 107

23 Three-Phase Treatment Process

24 Rationale for Phase-Oriented Model
Premature trauma processing can lead to destabilization Hospitalization Inability to function in job Difficulty parenting Basic coping capacities can be overwhelmed

25 Three Phases Phase I – Safety and Stabilization
Phase II – Processing of Traumatic Memories Phase III – Consolidation and Restoration

26 Phase I – Safety and Stabilization
Safety within the Therapeutic Relationship Developing rapport Facilitative conditions Becoming a safe person Remember that every client is unique Know your limitations Give advance warning Remaining a safe person Keep appropriate therapeutic boundaries Consult Protect confidentiality

27 Phase I – Safety and Stabilization …2
Safety from Others Identifying healthy vs. unhealthy relationships Helping clients find physical safety

28 Safety from Self and Symptoms
Making sense of symptoms Symptoms as attempts at coping Warning signals Therapeutic use of dissociation Potentially assess use of dissociation Somataform Dissociation Questionnaire (SDQ-5 or SDQ-20) (Nijenhuis, 1999) Dissociative Experiences Scale-II (DES-II) (Putnam, 1997) Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders-Revised (SCID-D-R) (Steinberg, 1993) Use of parts of self language Contracting symptom management day to day activities suicide Ideomotor signaling

29 Phase II - Processing of Traumatic Memories
Readiness for Phase II Work Memory Work Nature of memory Accessing dissociated memories Deciding where to start When specific memories do not surface Is memory recovery the goal? Facilitating the integration of experience The importance of details Titrating the process Extent to which reexperiencing is necessary Grounding techniques Checking in Memory containment Structuring the session and counseling relationship

30 BASK Model Behavior Affect Sensation Knowledge Behavior Affect
Gingrich, H. D., 2013, p. 107

31 Phase II - Processing of Traumatic Memories (cont’d)
Facilitating Integration of Self and Identity Working through Intense Emotions General principles Understanding and dealing with specific emotions Mourning: Denial, anger, and depression Guilt, shame, and self-hatred Fear of abandonment Anxiety, terror, and fear Roadblocks for counselors Keeping Perspective

32 Levels of Integration of Self
No Integration Partial Integration Full Integration Gingrich, H. D., 2013, p. 121

33 Integration of Self and Experience
Gingrich, H. D., 2013, p. 122

34 Is the Goal Full Integration?
Immediate goal is better functioning Some highly dissociative clients never fully integrate May be afraid to (i.e., fear of death of parts of self) Too much work and time The process of integration can begin to happen from the beginning of therapy

35 Dealing with Spiritual Issues (1)
Heather Davediuk Gingrich, Ph.D. April 4, 2013 Dealing with Spiritual Issues (1) All phases, but particularly Phases II and III Gradual, often difficult process Allow client to set pace Often are questions re: why God did not protect from the trauma In time clients can often see that God was there, and is currently involved in their healing process In highly dissociative clients, some parts of self may have a relationship with Christ, while others may not E.g., internal Bible study Restoring the Shattered Self

36 Dealing with Spiritual Issues (2)
Distinguish between parts of self and demonic Ultimately gift of discernment necessary Potentially VERY destructive to attempt deliverance ministry If any kind of deliverance/exorcism ritual is decided upon make sure that the following factors are incorporated (Bull, Ellason, & Ross, 1998): Permission of the individual Noncoercion Active participation by the individual Understanding of DID dynamics by those in charge Implementation of the procedure within the context of psychotherapy See my article “Not all voices are demonic” (Gingrich, 2005b)

37 Phase III – Consolidation and Resolution
Consolidating changes Development of new coping strategies Learning to live as an integrated whole Navigating changing relationships Marriage and parenting Friendships Relationship to God and church congregations Community Family of origin Employment Confronting the perpetrator Forgiveness

38 How the Church Can Help Educating about CTSD
Providing emotional and spiritual support Formal care Groups Lay counseling Mentoring, spiritual direction and life coaching Assigned helpers Informal care Churches and Christian mental health professionals in partnership

39 References American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (text revision). Washington, DC: Author. American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, (5th ed). Washington, DC: Author. Braun (1988). The BASK model of dissociation: Clinical applications. Dissociation, 1(2), Bull, D., Ellason, J., & Ross, C. (1998). Exorcism revisited: Some positive outcomes with dissociative identity disorder. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 26, Carlson, E. (1997). Trauma assessments: A clinician’s guide. New York, NY: Guilford Press. Gingrich, H. D. (2002). Stalked by Death: Cross-cultural Trauma Work with a Tribal Missionary. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 21(3),

40 Gingrich, H. D. (2005a). Trauma and dissociation in the Philippines
Gingrich, H. D. (2005a). Trauma and dissociation in the Philippines. In G. F. Rhoades, Jr. and V. Sar (2005), Trauma and dissociation in a cross-cultural perspective: Not just a North American phenomenon. New York, NY: Haworth Press. Gingrich, H. (2005b). Not all voices are demonic. Phronesis, (Asian Theological Seminary/Alliance Graduate School, Philippines)12, Gingrich, H. D. (2013). Restoring the shattered self: A Christian counselor’s guide to complex trauma. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press McFarlane, A. & Girolamo, G. (1996). The nature of traumatic stressors and the epidemiology of posttraumatic reactions. In B. A. van der Kolk, A. C. McFarlane, & L. Weisaeth (Eds.), Traumatic stress: The effects of overwhelming experience on mind, body, and society. New York, NY: Guilford Press. Nijenhuis, E. R. S. (1999). Somatoform dissociation: Phenomena, measurement, and theoretical issues. Assen, The Netherlands: Van Gorcum.

41 Putnam, F. W. (1997). Dissociation in children and adolescents: A developmental perspective. New York, NY: Guilford Press. Steinberg, M. (1993). Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders (SCID-D). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press. van der Kolk, B. A., Weisaeth, L., & van der Hart, O. (1996). History of trauma in psychiatry. In B. A. vander Kolk, A. C. McFarlane, & L. Weisaeth (Eds.), Traumatic stress: The effects of overwhelming experience on mind, body, and society. New York: Guilford Press.

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