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ITIS 6400/8400 Principles of Human Computer Interaction

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Presentation on theme: "ITIS 6400/8400 Principles of Human Computer Interaction"— Presentation transcript:

1 ITIS 6400/8400 Principles of Human Computer Interaction
Dr. Heather Richter Lipford

2 Agenda Course Info & Syllabus Course Overview Introductions
HCI Overview IDEO Video Some history

3 Course Information Books Web
Human Computer Interaction, 3rd edition, by Dix, Finlay, Abowd, Beale. (DFAB) The Design of Everyday Things, by Donald Norman, (DOET) Web Overview Grading and Policies Syllabus and Lectures Assignments Wiki:

4 Course Information Grading for 6400 10 points Participation
10 points Assignments 50 points Project More details to come… 15 points Midterm 15 points Final

5 Course Information Grading for 8400 10 points Participation
20 points Assignments 50 points Project More details to come… 15 points Midterm 15 points Final

6 Assignments Design critique and advice Evaluation analysis
8400: additional topic research and presentation

7 8400 Assignment Additional reading on a more focused theory or research topic Teach or present the topic – 30 minutes in class At least 20 minutes of presentation 2 page (or so) summary and study guide posted to the Swiki See web pages for suggestions

8 Group project 3-4 people per group, graded as a group
3 parts: requirements, design, evaluation Original interface design and evaluation Each part due by class time on the due date Project notebook on Swiki with each write up Theme: The environment and sustainability

9 Course Aims Consciousness raising Design critic Learn Design Process
Make you aware of HCI issues Design critic Question bad HCI design - of existing or proposed Learn Design Process Software interfaces and beyond Improve your HCI design & evaluation skills Go forth and do good work! Introduction to theory and research topics in HCI

10 Course Overview Requirements Gathering Design Evaluation
How do you know what to build? Human abilities Design How do you build the best UI you can? Evaluation How do you make sure people can use it? Also cognitive and contextual models, interface paradigms, design guidelines, web and visual design, and advanced topics

11 How to do well Time and effort Attention to detail Communication
Do the reading and prepare for class Attend class and participate Spend time on project Attention to detail Communication Tell me what you learned and why you made decisions

12 Introductions – Dr. Heather Richter Lipford
Ph.D. in C.S. from Georgia Tech in May 2005 HCI, Ubiquitous Computing, and Software Engineering focus Contact info: preferred, put 6400 or 8400 in title Office: 305E Woodward Office Hours: Wednesday 5:30-6:30pm, Thursday 11am-12pm By appointment

13 TA- Sahiba Dugal Current Masters student in Computer Science
Computer Engineering undergraduate degree Office hours – by appointment Office: 330A Woodward

14 Introductions – Your Turn
Name, student status, specialization Previous HCI/interface experience? A product/device/application you Love to use and why Hate to use and why

15 Now let’s get started What is Human-Computer Interaction?

16 HCI The interaction and interface between a human and a computer performing a task Tasks might be work, play, learning, communicating, etc. etc. Write a document, calculate monthly budget, learn about places to live in Charlotte, drive home… …not just desktop computers!

17 Why do we care? Computers (in one way or another) now affect every person in our society Tonight - count how many in your home/apt/room We are surrounded by unusable and ineffective systems! Its not the user’s fault!! Product success may depend on ease of use, not necessarily power You will likely create an interface for someone at some point Even if its just your personal web page

18 Goals of HCI Allow users to carry out tasks Safely Effectively
Efficiently Enjoyably

19 Usability Combination of Ease of learning
High speed of user task performance Low user error rate Subjective user satisfaction User retention over time

20 Design Evaluation Both subjective and objective metrics
Some things we can measure Time to perform a task Improvement of performance over time Rate of errors by user Retention over time Subjective satisfaction

21 UI Design / Develop Process
User-Centered Design Analyze user’s goals & tasks Create design alternatives Evaluate options Implement prototype Test Refine IMPLEMENT

22 Know Thy Users! Physical & cognitive abilities (& special needs)
Personality & culture Knowledge & skills Motivation Two Fatal Mistakes: Assume all users are alike Assume all users are like the designer

23 Design is HARD! “It is easy to make things hard. It is hard to make things easy.” – Al Chapanis, 1982 Its more difficult than you think Real world constraints make this even harder

24 Some inspiration: IDEO

25 A brief history Vannevar Bush, As We May Think, 1945
Described in an essay his vision of the future, where he describes a device he names the memex for storing every document, record, and communication a person ever sees. Where it can be quickly retrieved, and annotated. He also envisioned a small camera that could quickly and easily take photos of whatever a person sees. Vannevar Bush, As We May Think, 1945

26 Innovator: Vannevar Bush
Faculty at MIT Director of Office of Scientific Research & Development Coordinate WWII effort with 6,000 scientists “As We May Think” Atlantic Monthly Postulated Memex device Stores all records/articles/communications Items retrieved by indexing, keywords, cross references (now called hyperlinks) (Envisioned as microfilm, not computer)

27 Paradigms Predominant theoretical frameworks or scientific world views
e.g., Aristotelian, Newtonian, Einsteinian (relativistic) paradigms in physics HCI paradigm shifts Which are true shifts? What are the future paradigms?

28 The basic timeline… ? User Productivity ? Time WIMP (Windows)
Command Line Batch ? 1940s – 1950s 1960s – 1970s 1980s - Present Time

29 In the Beginning – Computing in 1945
Picture from Batch processing: sequential, computer had one task at a time No real interaction once was started on a run Used punch cards or serial tape to provide instructions Harvard Mark I Picture from 55 feet long, 8 feet high, 5 tons Jason Hong / James Landay, UC Berkeley, Picture from

30 Batch processing Computer had one task, performed sequentially
No “interaction” between operator and computer after starting the run Punch cards, tapes for input Serial operations

31 Paradigm: Networks & time-sharing (1960’s)
 Command line  teletype increased accessibility interactive systems, not jobs text processing, editing , shared file system Need for HCI in the design of programming languages

32 The Ubiquitous Glass Teletype
24 x 80 characters Up to 19,200 bps (Wow - was big stuff!) Construction: Monitor + detachable keyboard Display: x80 or 14x132 character cells, optional 24x132 Character matrix: x9 with descenders Screen size: " diagonal (8" x 4.5" active display) Character set: Complete US ASCII (128 codes) Keys: keys in ANSI X typewriter layout Auxiliary keypad: keys (digits, arrows, function keys) Visual indicators: LEDs Interface: RS-232/V.24, optional 20mA Current Loop Flow control: Xon/Xoff Communication Speeds: 75,110,150,300,600,1200,2400,4800,9600,19200 bps Dimensions: "x18"14.25" (monitor), 3.5"x18"x8" (keyboard) Minimum table depth: " Weight: pounds Source:

33 Innovator: Ivan Sutherland
Technological advance: Video display units SketchPad PhD thesis at MIT Hierarchy - pictures & subpictures Constraints Icons Copying Light pen input device Recursive operations More suitable medium than paper - picture worth a thousand words Sutherland’s SketchPad as landmark system Start of Direct Manipulation Computers used for visualizing and manipulating data

34 Innovator: Douglas Englebart
Landmark system/demo: hierarchical hypertext, multimedia, mouse, high-res display, windows, shared files, electronic messaging, groupware, teleconferencing, ... Invented the mouse

35 Paradigm: Personal Computer
Small, powerful machine dedicated to an individual Importance of networks and time-sharing Also: Laser printer (1971, Gary Starkweather) Ethernet (1973, Bob Metcalfe)

36 Paradigm: WIMP / GUI Windows, Icons, Menus, Pointers
Graphical User Interface Multitasking – can do several things simultaneously Has become the familiar GUI interface Computer as a “dialogue partner” Xerox Alto, Star; early Apples

37 PCs with GUIs Xerox PARC - mid 1970’s Alto
local processor, bitmap display, mouse Precursor to modern GUI, windows, menus, scrollbars LAN - Ethernet

38 Xerox Star First commercial PC designed for “business professionals” desktop metaphor, pointing, WYSIWYG, high degree of consistency and simplicity First system based on usability engineering Paper prototyping and analysis Usability testing and iterative refinement

39 Xerox Star - 1981 Commercial flop $15k cost closed architecture
lacking key functionality (spreadsheet)

40 Apple Macintosh - 1984 “The computer for the rest of us”
Aggressive pricing - $2500 Not trailblazer, smart copier Good interface guidelines 3rd party applications High quality graphics and laser printer

41 Paradigm: Hypertext Think of information not as linear flow but as interconnected nodes Non-linear browsing structure Around since the 1960’s

42 Paradigm: WWW Two Key Components
URL Browser Tim Brenners-Lee did both 1991 first text-based browser Marc Andreesen created Mosaic (first graphic browser, 1993)

43 (Some of the) key technological advances / paradigm shifts
Time-sharing & networks Video display units Programming toolkits Personal computing Windows Metaphors Direct manipulation Language vs. action (agents) Hypertext / WWW Multi-modality Ubiquitous computing Sensor-based & context-aware computing

44 (Some of the) key people & events
Vannevar Bush Douglas Engelbart Ivan Sutherland J.C.R. Licklider Alan Kay Ted Nelson Mark Weiser Events Founding of Xerox PARC Lisa / Macintosh

45 What Next? What are the next paradigm shifts?
What are the next technical innovations? Who knows? Maybe you do

46 Paradigm?: Mobile Computing
Devices used in a variety of contexts Laptop, cell phones, PDAs How do devices communicate? How to get information to each device when needed? How to take advantage of context?

47 Paradigm?: VR & 3D Interaction
Create immersion by Realistic appearance, interaction, behavior Draw on spatial memory, two-handed interaction

48 Paradigm?: Ubiquitous Computing
Person is an occupant of a computationally-rich environment Computers with ourselves, on our walls, in our appliances, etc. How to do the “right” thing for the people in the environment? Can no longer neglect macro-social aspects

49 Course ReCap To make you notice interfaces, good and bad
You’ll never look at doors the same way again To help you realize no one gets an interface right on the first try Yes, even the experts Design is HARD To teach you tools and techniques to help you iteratively improve your designs Because you can eventually get it right

50 Next time Skim Chapter 4 in DFAB for paradigm info
Design process and project information Read DFAB and chapter 6 Come prepared to do project brainstorming

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