PersonCivilizationLifetime or Date of Contribution Contribution MenesEgyptianAbout 3400 B.C Wrote the first anatomy manual HomerAncient Greece About 800 B.C Describes the anatomy of wounds in the iliad HippocratesAncient Greece About 460- 377 B.C Father of medicine; inspired the Hippcrates Oath AristotleAncient Greece 384-322 B.CFounder of comparative anatomy HerophilusAlexandriaAbout 325 B.C. Conducted remarkable research on aspects of the nervous system ErasistratusAlexandriaAbout 300 B.C. Sometimes called father of physiology; attempted to apply physical laws to the study of human function CelsusRoman30 B.C.–A.D. 30 First medical author to be printed (1478) in movable type after Gutenburg’s invention
PersonCivilizationLifetime or Date of Contribution Contribution GalenGreek (lived under domination) 130–201Probably the most influential medical writer of all time; established principles that went unchallenged for 1,500 years de’ LuzziRenaissance1487Prepared dissection guide Leonardo da Vinci Renaissance1452–1519Produced anatomical drawings of unprecedented quality based on human cadaver dissections VesaliusRenaissance1514–64Refuted past misconceptions about body structure and function by direct observation and experiment; often called father of anatomy HarveyPremodern (European) 1578–1657Demonstrated the function of the circulatory system; applied the experimental method to anatomy
PersonCivilizationLifetime or Date of Contribution Contribution LeeuwenhoekPremodern (European) 1632–1723Refined the microscope; describe various cells and tissue MalpighiPremodern (European) 1628–94Regarded as father of histology; first to confirm the existence of the capillaries SugitaPremodern (Japanese) 1774Compiled a five-volume treatise on anatomy Schleiden and Schwann Modern (European) 1838–39Formulated the cell theory RoentgenModern (European) 1895Discovered X rays Crick and WatsonModern (English and American) 1953Determined the structure of DNA Collins and VenterModern (American) 2000Instrumental in human genome research
Specialties of microscopic anatomy: cytology /cellular biology developmental anatomy / embriology histology Radiographic anatomyprovides a way of observing structures within the living body. Radiology substances of different densities absorb different amounts of X rays resulting in a differential exposure on film.
The cell the basic structural and functional component of life. Cells atoms molecules Certain molecules are grouped in specific ways to form small functional structures called organelles. Examples: bone cells, muscle cells, fat cells, blood cells, liver cells, and nerve cells.
Layers or groups of similar cells that perform a common function. Four principal kinds of tissues: epithelial, connective, muscular, and nervous tissue.
An organ is an aggregate of two or more tissue types that performs a specific function. Examples: the heart, spleen, pancreas, ovary, skin, and even any of the bones within the body. Each organ has one or more primary tissues and several secondary tissues. Examples: (In the stomach) The inside epithelial lining (the primary tissue) secretion and absorption occur within this layer. The connective, nervous, and muscle tissues (secondary tissue)
A body system consists of various organs that have similar or related functions. Examples: the circulatory system, nervous system, digestive system, and endocrine system. Certain organs may serve two systems. The pancreas functions with both the endocrine and digestive systems The pharynx serves both the respiratory and digestive systems. All the systems of the body are interrelated and function together, making up the organism.
Anatomical Position The body is erect. The feet are parallel to each other. The feet flat on the floor. The eyes are directed forward. The arms are at the sides of the body. The palms of the hands turned forward. The fingers pointed straight down.
Standing erect Face forward Arms at the sides Palms and toes directed forward
ANTERIOR ( VENTRAL ) A body part is located toward the front : The windpipe ( trachea ) is anterior to the oesophagus POSTERIOR ( DORSAL ) A body part is located toward the back : The heart is posterior to the sternum ( breastbone )
SUPERIOR (CRANIAL) A body part is located above another part, or toward the head : The face is superior to the neck INFERIOR (CAUDAL) A body part is below another part, or toward the feet : The navel is inferior to the chin
MEDIAL A body part is nearer than another part to an imaginary midline of the body : The bridge of the nose is medial to the eyes LATERAL A body part is farther away from the midline : The eyes are lateral to the nose
PROXIMAL A body part is closer to the point of attachment or closer to the trunk : The elbow is proximal to the hand DISTAL A body part is farther from the point of attachment or further from the trunk or torso : The hand is distal to the elbow
SUPERFISIAL ( EXTERNAL ) A body part is located near the surface : The skin is superfisial to the muscles DEEP ( INTERNAL ) The body part is located away from the surface : The intestines are deep to the spine
CENTRAL A body part is situated at the center to the body or an organ : The central nervous system is located along the main axis of the body PERIPHERAL A body part is situated away from the center of the body or an organ : The peripheral nervous system is located outside the central nervous system
IPSILATERAL A body part is on the same side of the body as another body part : The right hand is ipsilateral to the right foot CONTRALATERAL A body part is on the opposite side of the body from another body part : The right hand is contralateral to the left hand
AXIAL PORTION Head & Neck Trunk : Thorax, abdomen, pelvis APPENDICULAR PORTION The upper limbs The lower limbs