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7 The Nervous System. 7 The Nervous System Objectives Label an anatomical diagram of the nervous system. Dissect and define common medical terminology.

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Presentation on theme: "7 The Nervous System. 7 The Nervous System Objectives Label an anatomical diagram of the nervous system. Dissect and define common medical terminology."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 7 The Nervous System

3 Objectives Label an anatomical diagram of the nervous system.
Dissect and define common medical terminology related to the nervous system. Build terms used to describe nervous system diseases and disorders, diagnostic procedures, and therapeutic treatments.

4 Objectives Pronounce and spell common medical terminology related to the nervous system. Understand that the processes of building and dissecting a medical term based on its prefix, word root, and suffix enable you to analyze an extremely large number of medical terms beyond those presented in this chapter.

5 Objectives Interpret the meaning of abbreviations associated with the nervous system. Interpret medical records containing terminology and abbreviations related to the nervous system.

6 Nervous System The body system that transmits nerve impulses between parts of the body and regulates the body’s responses to internal and external stimuli.

7 Major Structures of the Nervous System
central nervous system (CNS)—consists of the brain and spinal cord peripheral nervous system (PNS)—made up of all nerve tissue outside the brain and spinal cord Unless otherwise noted, illustrations and diagrams ©Body Scientific International, LLC.

8 Major Functions and Structures of the Nervous System
neuron—basic functional cell of the nervous system; sends and receives neural impulses between parts of the body and the brain

9 Major Functions and Structures of the Nervous System
neurotransmitters—carry electrical impulses across the synaptic cleft between neurons

10 Major Parts of the Brain

11 Major Parts of the Brain
cerebrum—largest part of brain; controls voluntary movement; is “seat” of higher-level mental processes cerebellum—coordinates voluntary muscles, fine-motor movement, and equilibrium brain stem—connects brain to spinal cord; controls cardiovascular and respiratory activities; relays sensory and motor information to/from cerebellum diencephalon—directs nerve impulses to/from the cerebrum

12 Anatomy and Physiology Vocabulary
Key Term Definition brain stem structure that connects the brain to the spinal cord; relays sensory and motor information to and from the cerebellum; also controls life-sustaining, involuntary functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing central nervous system (CNS) the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord cerebellum the part of the brain that coordinates voluntary muscle activity and equilibrium (balance) cerebrum the largest part of the brain; controls higher-level mental processes and voluntary movement diencephalon “relay station” of the brain, which directs nerve impulses to and from the cerebrum and also controls involuntary homeostatic activity

13 Anatomy and Physiology Vocabulary
Key Term Definition nervous system the system of the body that transmits nerve impulses between parts of the body and regulates the body’s responses to internal and external stimuli neurologist physician who specializes in the study and treatment of nervous system diseases and disorders neurology the study of the nervous system neuron the basic functional cell of the nervous system; responsible for sending and receiving nerve impulses between parts of the body and the brain peripheral nervous system (PNS) the part of the nervous system made up of all nerve tissue outside the brain and spinal cord

14 Word Elements: Prefixes
Meaning a-, an- not; without dys- painful; difficult hemi- half hyper- above; above normal poly- many; much quadri- four

15 Word Elements: Combining Forms
Meaning angi/o blood vessel cephal/o head cerebr/o cerebrum cerebell/o cerebellum cran/o, crani/o skull; cranium encephal/o brain hydr/o water mening/o, meningi/o meninges (membranes covering the brain and spinal cord)

16 Word Elements: Combining Forms
Meaning myel/o spinal cord neur/o nerve path/o disease pleg/o paralysis psych/o mind radicul/o nerve root spin/o spine; backbone vascul/o blood vessel

17 Word Elements: Suffixes
Meaning -al pertaining to -algia pain -ar -ary -asthenia weakness -cele hernia; swelling; protrusion -eal -esthesia sensation; feeling -gram record; image -graphy process of recording an image

18 Word Elements: Suffixes
Meaning -ia condition -ic pertaining to -ical -itis inflammation -logist specialist in the study and treatment of -logy study of -malacia softening -metry measurement -oma tumor; mass

19 Word Elements: Suffixes
Meaning -osis abnormal condition -pathy disease -phasia speech -plasty surgical repair -rrhaphy suture -sclerosis hardening -tomy incision; cut into -us structure; thing

20 Pronounce It anesthesia ĂN-ĕs-THĒ-zē-ă aphasia ă-FĀ-zē-ă cephalalgia
SĔF-ă-LĂL-jē-ă cephalic sĕ-FĂL-ĭk cerebral SĔR-ĕ-brăl OR sĕ-RĒ-brăl cerebrospinal SĔR-ĕ-brō-SPĪ-năl cerebrovascular SĔR-ĕ-brō-VĂS-kū-lăr cranial KRĀ-nē-ăl

21 Pronounce It craniotomy KRĀ-nē-ŎT-ō-mē dysphasia dĭs-FĀ-zē-ă
encephalitis ĕn-SĔF-ă-LĪ-tĭs encephalomyelopathy ĕn-SĔF-ă-lō-MĪ-ĕ-LŎP-ă-thē hemiplegia HĔM-ē-PLĒ-jē-ă hydrocephalus HĪ-drō-SĔF-ă-lŭs meningeal mĕ-NĬN-jē-ăl meningitis MĔN-ĭn-JĪ-tĭs myelogram MĪ-ĕ-lō-grăm

22 Pronounce It neural NŪ-răl neuralgia nū-RĂL-jē-ă neurologist
nū-RŎL-ō-jĭst neurology nū-RŎL-ō-jē neuropathy nū-RŎP-ă-thē psychology sī-KŎL-ō-jē quadriplegia KWAH-drĭ-PLĒ-jē-ă radiculitis ră-DĬK-ū-LĪ-tĭs

23 Diseases and Disorders
cerebral aneurysm—a bulge or ballooning of an artery in the brain due to thinning and weakening of the arterial wall

24 Diseases and Disorders
cerebral embolism—sudden blockage of an artery in the brain due to a thrombus or other foreign matter

25 Diseases and Disorders
cerebral vascular attack—sudden blockage of an artery in the brain due to a thrombus or other foreign matter

26 Diseases and Disorders
cerebral palsy—group of neurological disorders caused by damage to the brain and nervous system during embryonic development or soon after birth

27 Diseases and Disorders
concussion—a traumatic brain injury (TBI) caused by a severe blow or jolt to the head

28 Diseases and Disorders
dementia—group of cognitive disorders caused by slow death of cerebral neurons and deteriorating mental function encephalitis—inflammation of brain caused by bacterial or viral infection epilepsy—nerve cells in brain transmit abnormal signals, producing seizures meningitis—inflammation of meninges, the three-layer membrane that surrounds and protects the brain and spinal cord

29 Diseases and Disorders
migraine headache—recurring episode of moderate or severe throbbing pain, typically on one side of the head

30 Diseases and Disorders
Parkinson’s disease—chronic, degenerative neurological disorder marked by muscle tremors and rigidity

31 Diseases and Disorders
transient ischemic attack (TIA)—blood flow to section of brain is briefly interrupted; causes no permanent damage; warning sign that a stroke might occur

32 Procedures and Treatments
Babinski reflex—normal reflex in infants; great toe moves toward top surface of foot and other toes fan out when heel is stroked by small object. Presence of reflex in adults indicates damage to nerve pathways connecting brain and spinal cord.

33 Procedures and Treatments
cerebral angiography—diagnostic procedure that uses contrast agent and X-rays to evaluate condition of vessels that supply blood to brain

34 Procedures and Treatments
computerized tomography (CT)—uses X-rays and a computer to scan and display cross-sectional images of internal body structures in multiple planes

35 Procedures and Treatments
electroencephalogram (EEG)—measures electrical activity of the brain; confirms epilepsy diagnosis; diagnoses sleep disorders, dementia, and other brain disorders AJ Photo /Science Source

36 Procedures and Treatments
finger-to-nose test—neurological test used to evaluate physical coordination Kernig’s sign—inability to extend legs; aids in diagnosing meningitis

37 Procedures and Treatments
lumbar puncture—diagnostic or therapeutic procedure that involves inserting a needle into the lumbar region to extract cerebrospinal fluid

38 Procedures and Treatments
magnetic resonance angiogram—test that provides vital information about the condition and function of blood vessels, which cannot be obtained from X-rays, ultrasound tests, or computerized tomography scans Romberg’s sign—test that measures sensory ataxia, defective muscle coordination resulting from loss of input from the senses of sight and equilibrium

39 Analyzing the Intern Experience
Let’s read aloud and discuss this chart note (page 307 of text).


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