Presentation on theme: "7 The Nervous System. 7 The Nervous System Objectives Label an anatomical diagram of the nervous system. Dissect and define common medical terminology."— Presentation transcript:
3 Objectives Label an anatomical diagram of the nervous system. Dissect and define common medical terminology related to the nervous system.Build terms used to describe nervous system diseases and disorders, diagnostic procedures, and therapeutic treatments.
4 ObjectivesPronounce and spell common medical terminology related to the nervous system.Understand that the processes of building and dissecting a medical term based on its prefix, word root, and suffix enable you to analyze an extremely large number of medical terms beyond those presented in this chapter.
5 ObjectivesInterpret the meaning of abbreviations associated with the nervous system.Interpret medical records containing terminology and abbreviations related to the nervous system.
6 Nervous SystemThe body system that transmits nerve impulses between parts of the body and regulates the body’s responses to internal and external stimuli.
11 Major Parts of the Brain cerebrum—largest part of brain; controls voluntary movement; is “seat” of higher-level mental processescerebellum—coordinates voluntary muscles, fine-motor movement, and equilibriumbrain stem—connects brain to spinal cord; controls cardiovascular and respiratory activities; relays sensory and motor information to/from cerebellumdiencephalon—directs nerve impulses to/from the cerebrum
12 Anatomy and Physiology Vocabulary Key TermDefinitionbrain stemstructure that connects the brain to the spinal cord; relays sensory and motor information to and from the cerebellum; also controls life-sustaining, involuntary functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, and breathingcentral nervous system (CNS)the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cordcerebellumthe part of the brain that coordinates voluntary muscle activity and equilibrium (balance)cerebrumthe largest part of the brain; controls higher-level mental processes and voluntary movementdiencephalon“relay station” of the brain, which directs nerve impulses to and from the cerebrum and also controls involuntary homeostatic activity
13 Anatomy and Physiology Vocabulary Key TermDefinitionnervous systemthe system of the body that transmits nerve impulses between parts of the body and regulates the body’s responses to internal and external stimulineurologistphysician who specializes in the study and treatment of nervous system diseases and disordersneurologythe study of the nervous systemneuronthe basic functional cell of the nervous system; responsible for sending and receiving nerve impulses between parts of the body and the brainperipheral nervous system (PNS)the part of the nervous system made up of all nerve tissue outside the brain and spinal cord
15 Word Elements: Combining Forms Meaningangi/oblood vesselcephal/oheadcerebr/ocerebrumcerebell/ocerebellumcran/o, crani/oskull; craniumencephal/obrainhydr/owatermening/o, meningi/omeninges (membranes covering the brain and spinal cord)
16 Word Elements: Combining Forms Meaningmyel/ospinal cordneur/onervepath/odiseasepleg/oparalysispsych/omindradicul/onerve rootspin/ospine; backbonevascul/oblood vessel
17 Word Elements: Suffixes Meaning-alpertaining to-algiapain-ar-ary-astheniaweakness-celehernia; swelling; protrusion-eal-esthesiasensation; feeling-gramrecord; image-graphyprocess of recording an image
18 Word Elements: Suffixes Meaning-iacondition-icpertaining to-ical-itisinflammation-logistspecialist in the study and treatment of-logystudy of-malaciasoftening-metrymeasurement-omatumor; mass
19 Word Elements: Suffixes Meaning-osisabnormal condition-pathydisease-phasiaspeech-plastysurgical repair-rrhaphysuture-sclerosishardening-tomyincision; cut into-usstructure; thing
20 Pronounce It anesthesia ĂN-ĕs-THĒ-zē-ă aphasia ă-FĀ-zē-ă cephalalgia SĔF-ă-LĂL-jē-ăcephalicsĕ-FĂL-ĭkcerebralSĔR-ĕ-brălORsĕ-RĒ-brălcerebrospinalSĔR-ĕ-brō-SPĪ-nălcerebrovascularSĔR-ĕ-brō-VĂS-kū-lărcranialKRĀ-nē-ăl
21 Pronounce It craniotomy KRĀ-nē-ŎT-ō-mē dysphasia dĭs-FĀ-zē-ă encephalitisĕn-SĔF-ă-LĪ-tĭsencephalomyelopathyĕn-SĔF-ă-lō-MĪ-ĕ-LŎP-ă-thēhemiplegiaHĔM-ē-PLĒ-jē-ăhydrocephalusHĪ-drō-SĔF-ă-lŭsmeningealmĕ-NĬN-jē-ălmeningitisMĔN-ĭn-JĪ-tĭsmyelogramMĪ-ĕ-lō-grăm
22 Pronounce It neural NŪ-răl neuralgia nū-RĂL-jē-ă neurologist nū-RŎL-ō-jĭstneurologynū-RŎL-ō-jēneuropathynū-RŎP-ă-thēpsychologysī-KŎL-ō-jēquadriplegiaKWAH-drĭ-PLĒ-jē-ăradiculitisră-DĬK-ū-LĪ-tĭs
23 Diseases and Disorders cerebral aneurysm—a bulge or ballooning of an artery in the brain due to thinning and weakening of the arterial wall
24 Diseases and Disorders cerebral embolism—sudden blockage of an artery in the brain due to a thrombus or other foreign matter
25 Diseases and Disorders cerebral vascular attack—sudden blockage of an artery in the brain due to a thrombus or other foreign matter
26 Diseases and Disorders cerebral palsy—group of neurological disorders caused by damage to the brain and nervous system during embryonic development or soon after birth
27 Diseases and Disorders concussion—a traumatic brain injury (TBI) caused by a severe blow or jolt to the head
28 Diseases and Disorders dementia—group of cognitive disorders caused by slow death of cerebral neurons and deteriorating mental functionencephalitis—inflammation of brain caused by bacterial or viral infectionepilepsy—nerve cells in brain transmit abnormal signals, producing seizuresmeningitis—inflammation of meninges, the three-layer membrane that surrounds and protects the brain and spinal cord
29 Diseases and Disorders migraine headache—recurring episode of moderate or severe throbbing pain, typically on one side of the head
30 Diseases and Disorders Parkinson’s disease—chronic, degenerative neurological disorder marked by muscle tremors and rigidity
31 Diseases and Disorders transient ischemic attack (TIA)—blood flow to section of brain is briefly interrupted; causes no permanent damage; warning sign that a stroke might occur
32 Procedures and Treatments Babinski reflex—normal reflex in infants; great toe moves toward top surface of foot and other toes fan out when heel is stroked by small object. Presence of reflex in adults indicates damage to nerve pathways connecting brain and spinal cord.
33 Procedures and Treatments cerebral angiography—diagnostic procedure that uses contrast agent and X-rays to evaluate condition of vessels that supply blood to brain
34 Procedures and Treatments computerized tomography (CT)—uses X-rays and a computer to scan and display cross-sectional images of internal body structures in multiple planes
35 Procedures and Treatments electroencephalogram (EEG)—measures electrical activity of the brain; confirms epilepsy diagnosis; diagnoses sleep disorders, dementia, and other brain disordersAJ Photo /Science Source
36 Procedures and Treatments finger-to-nose test—neurological test used to evaluate physical coordinationKernig’s sign—inability to extend legs; aids in diagnosing meningitis
37 Procedures and Treatments lumbar puncture—diagnostic or therapeutic procedure that involves inserting a needle into the lumbar region to extract cerebrospinal fluid
38 Procedures and Treatments magnetic resonance angiogram—test that provides vital information about the condition and function of blood vessels, which cannot be obtained from X-rays, ultrasound tests, or computerized tomography scansRomberg’s sign—test that measures sensory ataxia, defective muscle coordination resulting from loss of input from the senses of sight and equilibrium
39 Analyzing the Intern Experience Let’s read aloud and discuss this chart note (page 307 of text).