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Chapter 7 The Nervous System Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. May not be posted to a publicly accessible website. Label an anatomical diagram of.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7 The Nervous System Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. May not be posted to a publicly accessible website. Label an anatomical diagram of."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Chapter 7 The Nervous System

3 Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. May not be posted to a publicly accessible website. Label an anatomical diagram of the nervous system. Dissect and define common medical terminology related to the nervous system. Build terms used to describe nervous system diseases and disorders, diagnostic procedures, and therapeutic treatments. Objectives

4 Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. May not be posted to a publicly accessible website. Pronounce and spell common medical terminology related to the nervous system. Understand that the processes of building and dissecting a medical term based on its prefix, word root, and suffix enable you to analyze an extremely large number of medical terms beyond those presented in this chapter. Objectives

5 Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. May not be posted to a publicly accessible website. Interpret the meaning of abbreviations associated with the nervous system. Interpret medical records containing terminology and abbreviations related to the nervous system. Objectives

6 Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. May not be posted to a publicly accessible website. Nervous System The body system that transmits nerve impulses between parts of the body and regulates the body’s responses to internal and external stimuli.

7 Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. May not be posted to a publicly accessible website. Major Structures of the Nervous System central nervous system (CNS)—consists of the brain and spinal cord peripheral nervous system (PNS)—made up of all nerve tissue outside the brain and spinal cord Unless otherwise noted, illustrations and diagrams ©Body Scientific International, LLC.

8 Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. May not be posted to a publicly accessible website. Major Functions and Structures of the Nervous System neuron—basic functional cell of the nervous system; sends and receives neural impulses between parts of the body and the brain

9 Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. May not be posted to a publicly accessible website. Major Functions and Structures of the Nervous System neurotransmitters—carry electrical impulses across the synaptic cleft between neurons

10 Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. May not be posted to a publicly accessible website. Major Parts of the Brain

11 Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. May not be posted to a publicly accessible website. Major Parts of the Brain cerebrum—largest part of brain; controls voluntary movement; is “seat” of higher-level mental processes cerebellum—coordinates voluntary muscles, fine- motor movement, and equilibrium brain stem—connects brain to spinal cord; controls cardiovascular and respiratory activities; relays sensory and motor information to/from cerebellum diencephalon—directs nerve impulses to/from the cerebrum

12 Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. May not be posted to a publicly accessible website. Anatomy and Physiology Vocabulary Key TermDefinition brain stemstructure that connects the brain to the spinal cord; relays sensory and motor information to and from the cerebellum; also controls life- sustaining, involuntary functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing central nervous system (CNS) the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord cerebellumthe part of the brain that coordinates voluntary muscle activity and equilibrium (balance) cerebrumthe largest part of the brain; controls higher-level mental processes and voluntary movement diencephalon“relay station” of the brain, which directs nerve impulses to and from the cerebrum and also controls involuntary homeostatic activity

13 Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. May not be posted to a publicly accessible website. Anatomy and Physiology Vocabulary Key TermDefinition nervous systemthe system of the body that transmits nerve impulses between parts of the body and regulates the body’s responses to internal and external stimuli neurologistphysician who specializes in the study and treatment of nervous system diseases and disorders neurologythe study of the nervous system neuronthe basic functional cell of the nervous system; responsible for sending and receiving nerve impulses between parts of the body and the brain peripheral nervous system (PNS) the part of the nervous system made up of all nerve tissue outside the brain and spinal cord

14 Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. May not be posted to a publicly accessible website. Word Elements: Prefixes PrefixMeaning a-, an-not; without dys-painful; difficult hemi-half hyper-above; above normal poly-many; much quadri-four

15 Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. May not be posted to a publicly accessible website. Word Elements: Combining Forms Combining FormMeaning angi/oblood vessel cephal/ohead cerebr/ocerebrum cerebell/ocerebellum cran/o, crani/oskull; cranium encephal/obrain hydr/owater mening/o, meningi/omeninges (membranes covering the brain and spinal cord)

16 Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. May not be posted to a publicly accessible website. Word Elements: Combining Forms Combining FormMeaning myel/ospinal cord neur/onerve path/odisease pleg/oparalysis psych/omind radicul/onerve root spin/ospine; backbone vascul/oblood vessel

17 Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. May not be posted to a publicly accessible website. Word Elements: Suffixes SuffixMeaning -alpertaining to -algiapain -arpertaining to -arypertaining to -astheniaweakness -celehernia; swelling; protrusion -ealpertaining to -esthesiasensation; feeling -gramrecord; image -graphyprocess of recording an image

18 Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. May not be posted to a publicly accessible website. Word Elements: Suffixes SuffixMeaning -iacondition -icpertaining to -icalpertaining to -itisinflammation -logistspecialist in the study and treatment of -logystudy of -malaciasoftening -metrymeasurement -omatumor; mass

19 Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. May not be posted to a publicly accessible website. Word Elements: Suffixes SuffixMeaning -osisabnormal condition -pathydisease -phasiaspeech -plastysurgical repair -rrhaphysuture -sclerosishardening -tomyincision; cut into -usstructure; thing

20 Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. May not be posted to a publicly accessible website. Pronounce It anesthesia ĂN-ĕs-THĒ-zē-ă aphasia ă-FĀ-zē-ă cephalalgia SĔF-ă-LĂL-jē-ă cephalic sĕ-FĂL-ĭk cerebral SĔR-ĕ-brăl OR sĕ-RĒ-brăl cerebrospinal SĔR-ĕ-brō-SPĪ-năl cerebrovascular SĔR-ĕ-brō-VĂS-kū-lăr cranial KRĀ-nē-ăl

21 Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. May not be posted to a publicly accessible website. Pronounce It craniotomy KRĀ-nē-ŎT-ō-mē dysphasia dĭs-FĀ-zē-ă encephalitis ĕn-SĔF-ă-LĪ-tĭs encephalomyelopathy ĕn-SĔF-ă-lō-MĪ-ĕ-LŎP-ă-thē hemiplegia HĔM-ē-PLĒ-jē-ă hydrocephalus HĪ-drō-SĔF-ă-lŭs meningeal mĕ-NĬN-jē-ăl meningitis MĔN-ĭn-JĪ-tĭs myelogram MĪ-ĕ-lō-grăm

22 Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. May not be posted to a publicly accessible website. Pronounce It neural NŪ-răl neuralgia nū-RĂL-jē-ă neurologist nū-RŎL-ō-jĭst neurology nū-RŎL-ō-jē neuropathy nū-RŎP-ă-thē psychology sī-KŎL-ō-jē quadriplegia KWAH-drĭ-PLĒ-jē-ă radiculitis ră-DĬK-ū-LĪ-tĭs

23 Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. May not be posted to a publicly accessible website. Diseases and Disorders cerebral aneurysm—a bulge or ballooning of an artery in the brain due to thinning and weakening of the arterial wall

24 Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. May not be posted to a publicly accessible website. Diseases and Disorders cerebral embolism— sudden blockage of an artery in the brain due to a thrombus or other foreign matter

25 Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. May not be posted to a publicly accessible website. Diseases and Disorders cerebral vascular attack—sudden blockage of an artery in the brain due to a thrombus or other foreign matter

26 Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. May not be posted to a publicly accessible website. Diseases and Disorders cerebral palsy—group of neurological disorders caused by damage to the brain and nervous system during embryonic development or soon after birth

27 Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. May not be posted to a publicly accessible website. Diseases and Disorders concussion—a traumatic brain injury (TBI) caused by a severe blow or jolt to the head

28 Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. May not be posted to a publicly accessible website. Diseases and Disorders dementia—group of cognitive disorders caused by slow death of cerebral neurons and deteriorating mental function encephalitis—inflammation of brain caused by bacterial or viral infection epilepsy—nerve cells in brain transmit abnormal signals, producing seizures meningitis—inflammation of meninges, the three- layer membrane that surrounds and protects the brain and spinal cord

29 Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. May not be posted to a publicly accessible website. Diseases and Disorders migraine headache—recurring episode of moderate or severe throbbing pain, typically on one side of the head

30 Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. May not be posted to a publicly accessible website. Diseases and Disorders Parkinson’s disease— chronic, degenerative neurological disorder marked by muscle tremors and rigidity

31 Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. May not be posted to a publicly accessible website. Diseases and Disorders transient ischemic attack (TIA)—blood flow to section of brain is briefly interrupted; causes no permanent damage; warning sign that a stroke might occur

32 Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. May not be posted to a publicly accessible website. Procedures and Treatments Babinski reflex—normal reflex in infants; great toe moves toward top surface of foot and other toes fan out when heel is stroked by small object. Presence of reflex in adults indicates damage to nerve pathways connecting brain and spinal cord.

33 Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. May not be posted to a publicly accessible website. Procedures and Treatments cerebral angiography—diagnostic procedure that uses contrast agent and X-rays to evaluate condition of vessels that supply blood to brain

34 Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. May not be posted to a publicly accessible website. Procedures and Treatments computerized tomography (CT)—uses X-rays and a computer to scan and display cross- sectional images of internal body structures in multiple planes

35 Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. May not be posted to a publicly accessible website. Procedures and Treatments electroencephalogram (EEG)—measures electrical activity of the brain; confirms epilepsy diagnosis; diagnoses sleep disorders, dementia, and other brain disorders AJ Photo /Science Source

36 Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. May not be posted to a publicly accessible website. Procedures and Treatments finger-to-nose test— neurological test used to evaluate physical coordination Kernig’s sign—inability to extend legs; aids in diagnosing meningitis

37 Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. May not be posted to a publicly accessible website. Procedures and Treatments lumbar puncture— diagnostic or therapeutic procedure that involves inserting a needle into the lumbar region to extract cerebrospinal fluid

38 Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. May not be posted to a publicly accessible website. Procedures and Treatments magnetic resonance angiogram—test that provides vital information about the condition and function of blood vessels, which cannot be obtained from X-rays, ultrasound tests, or computerized tomography scans Romberg’s sign—test that measures sensory ataxia, defective muscle coordination resulting from loss of input from the senses of sight and equilibrium

39 Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. May not be posted to a publicly accessible website. Analyzing the Intern Experience Let’s read aloud and discuss this chart note (page 307 of text).


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